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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790009/a-new-model-of-the-spinal-locomotor-networks-of-a-salamander-and-its-properties
#1
Qiang Liu, Huizhen Yang, Jinxue Zhang, Jingzhuo Wang
A salamander is an ideal animal for studying the spinal locomotor network mechanism of vertebrates from an evolutionary perspective since it represents the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial animal. However, little is known about the spinal locomotor network of a salamander. A spinal locomotor network model is a useful tool for exploring the working mechanism of the spinal networks of salamanders. A new spinal locomotor network model for a salamander is built for a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of the salamander using a novel locomotion-controlled neural network model...
May 22, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789381/wt1-expressing-interneurons-regulate-left-right-alternation-during-mammalian-locomotor-activity
#2
Farhia Haque, Vladimir Rancic, Wei Zhang, Robin Clugston, Klaus Ballanyi, Simon Gosgnach
The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alternation has been shown to involve several groups of molecularly-defined interneurons. Here we characterize a population of spinal neurons that express the Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene and investigate their role during locomotor activity in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that WT1-expressing cells are located in the ventromedial region of the spinal cord of mice and are also present in the human spinal cord...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788372/an-active-role-for-neurons-in-glioma-progression-making-sense-of-scherer-s-structures
#3
Shawn Gillespie, Michelle Monje
Perineuronal satellitosis, the microanatomical clustering of glioma cells around neurons in the tumor microenvironment, has been recognized as a histopathological hallmark of high-grade gliomas since the seminal observations of Scherer in the 1930s. In this review, we explore the emerging understanding that neuron - glioma cell interactions regulate malignancy, and that neuronal activity is a critical determinant of glioma growth and progression. Elucidation of the interplay between normal and malignant neural circuitry is critical to realizing the promise of effective therapies for these seemingly intractable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782956/attentional-engagement-increases-inferior-frontal-gyrus-activity-and-mutes-limbic-activity-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#4
Moon-Soo Lee, Purnima Anumagalla, Prasanth Talluri, Mani N Pavuluri
OBJECTIVES: Attentional deficit has been shown to exist in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder across the life span. Given that emotional dysregulation is central to bipolar disorder, this study hypothesizes that emotional circuitry regions are altered along with anomalies in the attentional systems during cognitive deployment in bipolar disorder. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of attentional activities using GingerALE software was completed for adult and pediatric bipolar disorder populations in all published studies till December 2017...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778276/dissociable-frontostriatal-connectivity-mechanism-and-predictor-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-capsulotomy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Dazhi Yin, ChenCheng Zhang, Qiming Lv, Xiaoyu Chen, Kristina Zeljic, Hengfen Gong, Shikun Zhan, Haiyan Jin, Zheng Wang, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural mechanism and response variability underlying neurosurgical interventions for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Of 81 OCD patients screened for capsulotomy identified in our institutional database, 36 patients with clinical assessment before and after capsulotomy and imaging data (9 of 36 patients without postoperative imaging data used as an independent test group), and 29 healthy control subjects were retrospectively recruited...
April 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#6
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773830/circadian-and-homeostatic-modulation-of-multi-unit-activity-in-midbrain-dopaminergic-structures
#7
Karim Fifel, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer
Although the link between sleep disturbances and dopamine (DA)-related neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, the impact of sleep alterations on neuronal activity of midbrain DA-ergic structures is currently unknown. Here, using wildtype C57Bl mice, we investigated the circadian- and sleep-related modulation of electrical neuronal activity in midbrain ventral-tegmental-area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN). We found no significant circadian modulation of activity in SN while VTA displayed a low amplitude but significant circadian modulation with increased firing rates during the active phase...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#8
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770352/context-driven-salt-seeking-test-rats
#9
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770110/a-pcr-based-method-for-rna-probes-and-applications-in-neuroscience
#10
Ruifang Hua, Shanshan Yu, Mugen Liu, Haohong Li
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique that is used to detect the localization of specific nucleic acid sequences for understanding the organization, regulation, and function of genes. However, in most cases, RNA probes are obtained by in vitro transcription from plasmids containing specific promoter elements and mRNA-specific cDNA. Probes originating from plasmid vectors are time-consuming and not suitable for the rapid gene mapping. Here, we introduce a simplified method to prepare digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled non-radioactive RNA probes based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and applications in free-floating mouse brain sections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765312/associations-between-daily-mood-states-and-brain-gray-matter-volume-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-task-based-activity-in-healthy-adults
#11
Elmira Ismaylova, Jessica Di Sante, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Florence B Pomares, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758439/subgenual-anterior-cingulate-insula-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-neural-correlate-to-trait-and-state-stress-resilience
#13
Robin Shao, Way K W Lau, Mei-Kei Leung, Tatia M C Lee
Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task...
May 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757012/developmental-trajectory-of-motor-deficits-in-preschool-children-with-adhd
#14
Kristie L Sweeney, Matthew Ryan, Heather Schneider, Lisa Ferenc, Martha Bridge Denckla, E Mark Mahone
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755511/examination-stress-results-in-attentional-bias-and-altered-neural-reactivity-in-test-anxious-individuals
#15
Xiaocong Zhang, Yunying Dong, Renlai Zhou
Examination stress occurs so frequently in the lives of students. The neural mechanisms of attentional bias induced by examination stress in test-anxious individuals remain unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the attentional bias toward test-related threatening words in selected high and low test-anxious participants under the stress of final examinations by using an event-related potential (ERP) technique. A classic dot-probe paradigm was adopted with a test-related/test-unrelated threatening word and a neutral word pair as cues...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755401/impulsivity-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-alterations-in-affective-and-sensorimotor-striatal-networks
#16
Marit F L Ruitenberg, Tina Wu, Bruno B Averbeck, Kelvin L Chou, Vincent Koppelmans, Rachael D Seidler
A subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experiences problems with impulse control, characterized by a loss of voluntary control over impulses, drives, or temptations regarding excessive hedonic behavior. The present study aimed to better understand the neural basis of such impulse control disorders (ICDs) in PD. We collected resting-state functional connectivity and structural MRI data from 21 PD patients with ICDs and 30 patients without such disorders. To assess impulsivity, all patients completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and performed an information-gathering task...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755370/effects-of-ethanol-on-sensory-inputs-to-the-medial-giant-interneurons-of-crayfish
#17
Matthew E Swierzbinski, Jens Herberholz
Crayfish are capable of two rapid, escape reflexes that are mediated by two pairs of giant interneurons, the lateral giants (LG) and the medial giants (MG), which respond to threats presented to the abdomen or head and thorax, respectively. The LG has been the focus of study for many decades and the role of GABAergic inhibition on the escape circuit is well-described. More recently, we demonstrated that the LG circuit is sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and this sensitivity is likely mediated by interactions between ethanol and the GABAergic system...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754132/recovery-of-brain-abscess-induced-stuttering-after-neurosurgical-intervention
#19
Daisuke Sudo, Youichi Doutake, Hidenori Yokota, Eiju Watanabe
Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6)...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752958/an-update-on-contextual-fear-memory-mechanisms-transition-between-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas Chaaya, Andrew R Battle, Luke R Johnson
Context is an ever-present combination of discrete environmental elements capable of influencing many psychological processes. When context is associated with an aversive stimulus, a permanent contextual fear memory is formed. Context is hypothesized to greatly influence the treatability of various fear-based pathologies, in particular, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to understand how contextual fear memories are encoded and impact underlying fear pathology, delineation of the underlying neural circuitry of contextual fear memory consolidation and maintenance is essential...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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