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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213521/signalling-adaptor-shcd-suppresses-erk-phosphorylation-distal-to-the-ret-and-trk-neurotrophic-receptors
#1
Melanie K B Wills, Ava Keyvani Chahi, Hayley R Lau, Manali Tilak, Brianna Guild, Laura A New, Peihua Lu, Keévin Jacquet, Susan O Meakin, Nicolas Bisson, Nina Jones
Proteins of the Shc family are typically involved in signal transduction events involving Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. In the nervous system, they function proximal to the neurotrophic factors that regulate cell survival, differentiation, and neuron-specific characteristics. The least-characterized homolog, ShcD, is robustly expressed in the developing and mature nervous system, but its contributions to neural cell circuitry are largely uncharted. We now report that ShcD binds to active Ret, TrkA, and TrkB neurotrophic factor receptors predominantly via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212096/system-level-design-of-a-64-channel-low-power-neural-spike-recording-sensor
#2
Manuel Delgado-Restituto, Alberto Rodriguez-Perez, Angela Darie, Cristina Soto-Sanchez, Eduardo Fernandez-Jover, Angel Rodriguez-Vazquez
This paper reports an integrated 64-channel neural spike recording sensor, together with all the circuitry to process and configure the channels, process the neural data, transmit via a wireless link the information and receive the required instructions. Neural signals are acquired, filtered, digitized and compressed in the channels. Additionally, each channel implements an auto-calibration algorithm which individually configures the transfer characteristics of the recording site. The system has two transmission modes; in one case the information captured by the channels is sent as uncompressed raw data; in the other, feature vectors extracted from the detected neural spikes are released...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209737/gaba-cells-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-promote-cataplexy
#3
Matthew B Snow, Jimmy J Fraigne, Gabrielle Thibault-Messier, Victoria L Chuen, Aren Thomasian, Richard L Horner, John Peever
Cataplexy is a hallmark of narcolepsy characterized by the sudden uncontrollable onset of muscle weakness or paralysis during wakefulness. It can occur spontaneously, but is typically triggered by positive emotions such as laughter. Although cataplexy was identified over 130 years ago, its neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that a newly identified GABA circuit within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) promotes cataplexy. We used behavioral, electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and chemogenetic strategies to selectively target and manipulate CeA activity in narcoleptic (orexin(-/-) ) mice to determine its functional role in controlling cataplexy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203219/toward-a-dynamic-probabilistic-model-for-vestibular-cognition
#4
Andrew W Ellis, Fred W Mast
We suggest that research in vestibular cognition will benefit from the theoretical framework of probabilistic models. This will aid in developing an understanding of how interactions between high-level cognition and low-level sensory processing might occur. Many such interactions have been shown experimentally; however, to date, no attempt has been made to systematically explore vestibular cognition by using computational modeling. It is widely assumed that mental imagery and perception share at least in part neural circuitry, and it has been proposed that mental simulation is closely connected to the brain's ability to make predictions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202254/robust-interactions-between-the-effects-of-auditory-and-cutaneous-electrical-stimulations-on-cell-activities-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#5
Akihisa Kimura
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our every day life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014)...
February 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198161/dorsal-stream-function-in-the-young-child-an-fmri-investigation-of-visually-guided-action
#6
Karin H James, Alyssa J Kersey
Visually guided action is a ubiquitous component of human behavior, but the neural substrates that support the development of this behavior are unknown. Here we take an initial step in documenting visual-motor system development in the young (4- to 7-year-old) child. Through functional MRI and by using a new technique to measure the mechanisms underlying real-time visually guided action in the MRI environment, we demonstrate that children rely primarily on the IPS and cerebellum for this complex behavior. This pattern is consistent across three different visually guided actions, suggesting generalizability of these neural substrates across such tasks...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#7
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the amygdala's influence on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the olfactory system's primary sensory neurons, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186666/impaired-intracortical-transmission-in-g2019s-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-parkinson-patients
#8
Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Livia Brusa, Tommaso Schirinzi, Stefania Battistini, Claudia Ricci, Manolo Sambucci, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVES: A mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is the most common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms and the circuitry potentially involved are poorly understood. METHODS: We used different transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols to explore in the primary motor cortex the activity of intracortical circuits and cortical plasticity (long-term potentiation) in patients with the G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation when compared with idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181216/the-development-of-repetitive-motor-behaviors-in-deer-mice-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-repeated-testing-and-differential-mediation-by-indirect-basal-ganglia-pathway-activation
#9
Allison R Bechard, Nikolay Bliznyuk, Mark H Lewis
Little is known about the mechanisms mediating the development of repetitive behaviors in human or animals. Deer mice reared with environmental enrichment (EE) exhibit fewer repetitive behaviors and greater indirect basal ganglia pathway activation as adults than those reared in standard cages. The developmental progression of these behavioral and neural circuitry changes has not been characterized. We assessed the development of repetitive behavior in deer mice using both a longitudinal and cohort design. Repeated testing negated the expected effect of EE, but cohort analyses showed that progression of repetitive behavior was arrested after 1 week of EE and differed significantly from controls after 3 weeks...
February 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177526/segregated-fronto-cortical-and-midbrain-connections-in-the-mouse-and-their-relation-to-approach-and-avoidance-orienting-behaviors
#10
Michael Anthony Savage, Richard McQuade, Alexander Thiele
The orchestration of orienting behaviors requires the interaction of many cortical and subcortical areas, for example the Superior Colliculus (SC), as well as prefrontal areas responsible for top-down control. Orienting involves different behaviors, such as approach and avoidance. In the rat, these behaviors are at least partially mapped onto different SC subdomains, the lateral (SCl) and medial (SCm), respectively. To delineate the circuitry involved in the two types of orienting behavior in mice, we injected retrograde tracer into the intermediate and deep layers of the medial and lateral SC (SCm and SCl), and thereby determined the main input structures to these subdomains...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177157/variations-on-the-theme-of-musical-expertise-cognitive-and-sensory-processing-in-percussionists-vocalists-and-non-musicians
#11
Jessica Slater, Andrea Azem, Trent Nicol, Britta Swedenborg, Nina Kraus
Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians have revealed enhanced cognitive and sensory processing in musicians, with longitudinal studies suggesting these enhancements may be due in part to experience-based plasticity. Here, we investigate the impact of primary instrument on the musician signature of expertise by assessing three groups of young adults: percussionists, vocalists, and non-musician controls. We hypothesize that primary instrument engenders selective enhancements reflecting the most salient acoustic features to that instrument, whereas cognitive functions are enhanced regardless of instrument...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174137/reward-loss-and-addiction-opportunities-for-cross-pollination
#12
REVIEW
Leonardo A Ortega, José L Solano, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R Papini
Paradigms used to study the response to and consequences of exposure to reward loss have been underutilized in approaches to the psychobiology of substance use disorders. We propose here that bringing these two areas into contact will help expanding our understanding of both reward loss and addictive behavior, hence opening up opportunities for cross-pollination. This review focuses on two lines of research that point to parallels. First, several neurochemical systems involved in addiction are also involved in the modulation of the behavioral effects of reward loss, including opioid, GABA, and dopamine receptors...
February 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169323/social-pain-and-social-gain-in-the-adolescent-brain-a-common-neural-circuitry-underlying-both-positive-and-negative-social-evaluation
#13
Tim Dalgleish, Nicholas D Walsh, Dean Mobbs, Susanne Schweizer, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Barnaby Dunn, Valerie Dunn, Ian Goodyer, Jason Stretton
Social interaction inherently involves the subjective evaluation of cues salient to social inclusion and exclusion. Testifying to the importance of such social cues, parts of the neural system dedicated to the detection of physical pain, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI), have been shown to be equally sensitive to the detection of social pain experienced after social exclusion. However, recent work suggests that this dACC-AI matrix may index any socially pertinent information...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169088/mapping-structural-covariance-networks-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-early-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#14
Lisa Buchy, Mariapaola Barbato, Carolina Makowski, Signe Bray, Frank P MacMaster, Stephanie Deighton, Jean Addington
People with psychosis show deficits recognizing facial emotions and disrupted activation in the underlying neural circuitry. We evaluated associations between facial emotion recognition and cortical thickness using a correlation-based approach to map structural covariance networks across the brain. Fifteen people with an early psychosis provided magnetic resonance scans and completed the Penn Emotion Recognition and Differentiation tasks. Fifteen historical controls provided magnetic resonance scans. Cortical thickness was computed using CIVET and analyzed with linear models...
February 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167379/within-session-effect-of-repeated-stress-exposure-on-extinction-circuitry-function-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Fredrik Åhs, Malin Gingnell, Tomas Furmark, Mats Fredrikson
Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography...
January 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164168/doubling-down-increased-risk-taking-behavior-following-a-loss-by-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder-is-associated-with-striatal-and-anterior-cingulate-dysfunction
#16
Joshua L Gowin, April C May, Marc Wittmann, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. METHODS: Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162572/-336-investigating-the-neural-circuitry-supporting-clinical-pain-perception-in-chronic-low-back-pain-the-importance-of-cardiorespiratory-artifact-correction-with-arterial-spin-labeling-fmri
#17
I Mawla, M Loggia, V Schmithorst, A Ortiz, J Gerber, E Protsenko, J Lee, J Kim, H Kim, C Berna, T Kaptchuk, J Kong, R Gollub, B Rosen, R Edwards, A Wasan, V Napadow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159382/the-putative-role-of-neuronal-network-synchronization-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-eeg-studies
#18
REVIEW
E Maggioni, A M Bianchi, A C Altamura, Jair C Soares, P Brambilla
Impaired intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric communication play a major role in the pathophysiology and cognitive disturbances of bipolar disorder (BD). Brain connectivity in BD has been largely investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, which have found alterations in prefronto-limbic coupling. In contrast, evidence for functional neural circuitry abnormalities in BD is less consistent. Indeed, just a few studies employing the electroencephalographic (EEG) technique, enabling the exploration of oscillatory brain dynamics, addressed this issue...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158189/insect-bio-inspired-neural-network-provides-new-evidence-on-how-simple-feature-detectors-can-enable-complex-visual-generalization-and-stimulus-location-invariance-in-the-miniature-brain-of-honeybees
#19
Mark Roper, Chrisantha Fernando, Lars Chittka
The ability to generalize over naturally occurring variation in cues indicating food or predation risk is highly useful for efficient decision-making in many animals. Honeybees have remarkable visual cognitive abilities, allowing them to classify visual patterns by common features despite having a relatively miniature brain. Here we ask the question whether generalization requires complex visual recognition or whether it can also be achieved with relatively simple neuronal mechanisms. We produced several simple models inspired by the known anatomical structures and neuronal responses within the bee brain and subsequently compared their ability to generalize achromatic patterns to the observed behavioural performance of honeybees on these cues...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153640/neural-bases-of-congenital-amusia-in-tonal-language-speakers
#20
Caicai Zhang, Gang Peng, Jing Shao, William S-Y Wang
Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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