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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077722/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#1
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart-rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the SD of normal-to-normal intervals) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077184/abnormalities-in-the-effective-connectivity-of-visuothalamic-circuitry-in-schizophrenia
#2
S J Iwabuchi, L Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: Sensory-processing deficits appear crucial to the clinical expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. The visual cortex displays both dysconnectivity and aberrant spontaneous activity in patients with persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits. In this paper, we examine visual cortex in the context of the remerging notion of thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We examined specific regional and longer-range abnormalities in sensory and thalamic circuits in schizophrenia, and whether these patterns are strong enough to discriminate symptomatic patients from controls...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074478/ultrastructural-analysis-of-parvalbumin-synapses-in-human-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Jill R Glausier, Rosalinda C Roberts, David A Lewis
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070873/animal-models-of-ptsd-a-critical-review
#4
Elizabeth I Flandreau, Mate Toth
The goals of animal research in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include better understanding the neurophysiological etiology of PTSD, identifying potential targets for novel pharmacotherapies, and screening drugs for their potential use as PTSD treatment in humans. Diagnosis of PTSD relies on a patient interview and, as evidenced by changes to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5, an adequate description of this disorder in humans is a moving target. Therefore, it may seem insurmountable to model the construct of PTSD in animals such as rodents...
January 10, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065825/electroencephalogram-coherence-patterns-in-autism-an%C3%A2-updated-review
#5
REVIEW
Sophie Schwartz, Riley Kessler, Thomas Gaughan, Ashura W Buckley
Electrophysiologic studies suggest that autism spectrum disorder is characterized by aberrant anatomic and functional neural circuitry. During normal brain development, pruning and synaptogenesis facilitate ongoing changes in both short- and long-range neural wiring. In developmental disorders such as autism, this process may be perturbed and lead to abnormal neural connectivity. Careful analysis of electrophysiologic connectivity patterns using EEG coherence may provide a way to probe the resulting differences in neurological function between people with and without autism...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063823/but-is-helping-you-worth-the-risk-defining-prosocial-risk-taking-in-adolescence
#6
REVIEW
Kathy T Do, João F Guassi Moreira, Eva H Telzer
Recent work has shown that the same neural circuitry that typically underlies risky behaviors also contributes to prosocial behaviors. Despite the striking overlap between two seemingly distinct behavioral patterns, little is known about how risk taking and prosociality interact and inform adolescent decision making. We review literature on adolescent brain development as it pertains to risk taking and prosociality and propose a new area of study, Prosocial Risk Taking, which suggests that adolescents can make risky decisions with the intention of helping other individuals...
December 6, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062252/using-neuroimaging-to-individualize-tms-treatment-for-depression-toward-a-new-paradigm-for-imaging-guided-intervention
#7
Bruce M Luber, Simon Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Andrada Neacsiu, Lori Kwapil, Sarah H Lisanby, Timothy J Strauman
The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than state-of-the-science methods which incorporate fMRI-guided neuronavigation based on a specific model of neurocircuit dysfunction. In this review, we examine such a specific model drawn from regulatory focus theory, which postulates two brain/behavior systems, the promotion and prevention systems, underlying goal pursuit...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057770/neuroendocrine-integration-of-nutritional-signals-on-reproduction
#8
Maggie Corr Evans, Greg Anderson
Reproductive function in mammals is energetically costly and therefore tightly regulated by nutritional status. To enable this integration of metabolic and reproductive function, information regarding peripheral nutritional status must be relayed centrally to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that drive reproductive function. The metabolically relevant hormones leptin, insulin and ghrelin have been identified as key mediators of this 'metabolic control of fertility'. However, the neural circuitry through which they act to exert their control over GnRH drive remains incompletely understood...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055036/preparation-and-implementation-of-optofluidic-neural-probes-for-in-vivo-wireless-pharmacology-and-optogenetics
#9
Jordan G McCall, Raza Qazi, Gunchul Shin, Shuo Li, Muhammad Hamza Ikram, Kyung-In Jang, Yuhao Liu, Ream Al-Hasani, Michael R Bruchas, Jae-Woong Jeong, John A Rogers
This Protocol Extension describes the fabrication and technical procedures for implementing ultrathin, flexible optofluidic neural probe systems that provide targeted, wireless delivery of fluids and light into the brains of awake, freely behaving animals. As a Protocol Extension article, this article describes an adaptation of an existing Protocol that offers additional applications. This protocol serves as an extension of an existing Nature Protocol describing optoelectronic devices for studying intact neural systems...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045460/neural-substrates-of-cue-reactivity-and-craving-in-gambling-disorder
#10
E H Limbrick-Oldfield, I Mick, R E Cocks, J McGonigle, S P Sharman, A P Goldstone, P R A Stokes, A Waldman, D Erritzoe, H Bowden-Jones, D Nutt, A Lingford-Hughes, L Clark
Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in gambling disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with gambling disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan performed ~2-3 h after a usual meal...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045134/methamphetamine-and-ovarian-steroid-responsive-cells-in-the-posteriodorsal-medial-amygdala-are-required-for-methamphetamine-enhanced-proceptive-behaviors
#11
Katrina M Williams, Jessica A Mong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant strongly associated with increases in sexual drive and impulse in both men and women. These changes in sexual motivation have a greater impact on women due to their likelihood of facing the greater burden of unplanned pregnancies, as well as increased risk for psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. We have previously established a rodent model of Meth-induced increases in sexual motivation. Using this model, we have identified the posteriodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) via excitotoxic lesion studies as a necessary nucleus in Meth-facilitated female sexual motivation...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045036/speed-hysteresis-and-noise-shaping-of-traveling-fronts-in-neural-fields-role-of-local-circuitry-and-nonlocal-connectivity
#12
Cristiano Capone, Maurizio Mattia
Neural field models are powerful tools to investigate the richness of spatiotemporal activity patterns like waves and bumps, emerging from the cerebral cortex. Understanding how spontaneous and evoked activity is related to the structure of underlying networks is of central interest to unfold how information is processed by these systems. Here we focus on the interplay between local properties like input-output gain function and recurrent synaptic self-excitation of cortical modules, and nonlocal intermodular synaptic couplings yielding to define a multiscale neural field...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038685/grafted-c-kit-ssea1-eye-wall-progenitor-cells-delay-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-by-regulating-neural-plasticity-and-forming-new-graft-to-host-synapses
#13
Xi Chen, Zehua Chen, Zhengya Li, Chen Zhao, Yuxiao Zeng, Ting Zou, Caiyun Fu, Xiaoli Liu, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
BACKGROUND: Despite diverse pathogenesis, the common pathological change observed in age-related macular degeneration and in most hereditary retinal degeneration (RD) diseases is photoreceptor loss. Photoreceptor replacement by cell transplantation may be a feasible treatment for RD. The major obstacles to clinical translation of stem cell-based cell therapy in RD remain the difficulty of obtaining sufficient quantities of appropriate and safe donor cells and the poor integration of grafted stem cell-derived photoreceptors into the remaining retinal circuitry...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032303/neural-circuitry-of-emotion-regulation-effects-of-appraisal-attention-and-cortisol-administration
#14
Sean T Ma, James L Abelson, Go Okada, Stephan F Taylor, Israel Liberzon
Psychosocial well-being requires effective regulation of emotional responding in context of threat or stress. Neuroimaging studies have focused on instructed, volitional regulation (e.g., reappraisal or distancing), largely ignoring implicit regulation that does not involve purposeful effort to alter emotional experience. These implicit processes may or may not involve the same neural pathways as explicit regulatory strategies. We examined the neurobiology of implicit emotional regulation processes and the impact of the stress hormone cortisol on these processes...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031992/striatal-morphology-correlates-with-frontostriatal-electrophysiological-motor-processing-in-huntington-s-disease-an-image-hd-study
#15
Lauren M Turner, David Jakabek, Fiona A Wilkes, Rodney J Croft, Andrew Churchyard, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C L Looi, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Deborah Apthorp
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) causes progressive atrophy to the striatum, a critical node in frontostriatal circuitry. Maintenance of motor function is dependent on functional connectivity of these premotor, motor, and dorsolateral frontostriatal circuits, and structural integrity of the striatum itself. We aimed to investigate whether size and shape of the striatum as a measure of frontostriatal circuit structural integrity was correlated with functional frontostriatal electrophysiological neural premotor processing (contingent negative variation, CNV), to better understand motoric structure-function relationships in early HD...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025777/brain-development-and-akt-signaling-the-crossroads-of-signaling-pathway-and-neurodevelopmental-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Long Wang, Kai Zhou, Zhi Fu, Di Yu, Hesuyuan Huang, Xiaodong Zang, Xuming Mo
Neurodevelopmental biology, coupled with the application of advanced histological, imaging, molecular, cellular, biochemical, and genetic approaches, has provided new insights into these intricate genetic, cellular, and molecular events. During telencephalic development, specific neural progenitor cells (NPCs) proliferate, differentiate into numerous cell types, migrate to their apposite positions, and form an integrated circuitry. Critical disturbance to this dynamic process via genetic and environmental risk can cause neurological disorders and disability...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025089/histone-deacetylase-5-modulates-the-effects-of-social-adversity-in-early-life-on-cocaine-induced-behavior
#17
Alessandro Valzania, Clarissa Catale, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Valeria Carola
Psychostimulants induce stable changes in neural plasticity and behavior in a transcription-dependent manner. Further, stable cellular changes require transcription that is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation. This mechanism is typically catalyzed by enzymes with histone acetyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Class IIa HDACs are notable for their high expression in important regions of the brain reward circuitry and their neural activity-dependent shuttling in and out of the cell nucleus...
December 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018255/an-affective-neuroscience-framework-for-the-molecular-study-of-internet-addiction
#18
Christian Montag, Cornelia Sindermann, Benjamin Becker, Jaak Panksepp
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#19
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012706/anything-goes-regulation-of-the-neural-processes-underlying-response-inhibition-in-tbi-patients
#20
Laura Moreno-López, Anne E Manktelow, Barbara J Sahakian, David K Menon, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Despite evidence for beneficial use of methylphenidate in response inhibition, no studies so far have investigated the effects of this drug in the neurobiology of inhibitory control in traumatic brain injury (TBI), even though impulsive behaviours are frequently reported in this patient group. We investigated the neural basis of response inhibition in a group of TBI patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a stop-signal paradigm. In a randomised double-blinded crossover study, the patients received either a single 30mg dose of methylphenidate or placebo and performed the stop-signal task...
December 21, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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