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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#1
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#2
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154128/discrete-circuits-support-generalized-versus-context-specific-vocal-learning-in-the-songbird
#3
Lucas Y Tian, Michael S Brainard
Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142321/design-of-cultured-neuron-networks-in-vitro-with-predefined-connectivity-using-asymmetric-microfluidic-channels
#4
Arseniy Gladkov, Yana Pigareva, Daria Kutyina, Vladimir Kolpakov, Anton Bukatin, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The architecture of neuron connectivity in brain networks is one of the basic mechanisms by which to organize and sustain a particular function of the brain circuitry. There are areas of the brain composed of well-organized layers of neurons connected by unidirectional synaptic connections (e.g., cortex, hippocampus). Re-engineering of the neural circuits with such a heterogeneous network structure in culture may uncover basic mechanisms of emergent information functions of these circuits. In this study, we present such a model designed with two subpopulations of primary hippocampal neurons (E18) with directed connectivity grown in a microfluidic device with asymmetric channels...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141212/a-central-amygdala-substantia-innominata-neural-circuitry-encodes-aversive-reinforcement-signals
#5
Yuting Cui, Guanghui Lv, Sen Jin, Jie Peng, Jing Yuan, Xiaobin He, Hui Gong, Fuqiang Xu, Tonghui Xu, Haohong Li
Aversive stimuli can impact motivation and support associative learning as reinforcers. However, the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers has not been elucidated. Here, we report that a subpopulation of central amygdala (CeA) GABAergic neurons expressing protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ+) displays robust responses to aversive stimuli during negative reinforcement learning. Importantly, projections from PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA to the substantia innominata (SI) could bi-directionally modulate negative reinforcement learning...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#6
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#7
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138314/imaging-and-quantifying-ganglion-cells-and-other-transparent-neurons-in-the-living-human-retina
#8
Zhuolin Liu, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Furu Zhang, John J Lee, Donald T Miller
Ganglion cells (GCs) are fundamental to retinal neural circuitry, processing photoreceptor signals for transmission to the brain via their axons. However, much remains unknown about their role in vision and their vulnerability to disease leading to blindness. A major bottleneck has been our inability to observe GCs and their degeneration in the living human eye. Despite two decades of development of optical technologies to image cells in the living human retina, GCs remain elusive due to their high optical translucency...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#9
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133872/the-core-promoter-factor-trf2-mediates-a-fruitless-action-to-masculinize-neurobehavioral-traits-in-drosophila
#10
Zahid Sadek Chowdhury, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
In fruit flies, the male-specific fruitless (fru) gene product FruBM plays a central role in establishing the neural circuitry for male courtship behavior by orchestrating the transcription of genes required for the male-type specification of individual neurons. We herein identify the core promoter recognition factor gene Trf2 as a dominant modifier of fru actions. Trf2 knockdown in the sexually dimorphic mAL neurons leads to the loss of a male-specific neurite and a reduction in male courtship vigor. TRF2 forms a repressor complex with FruBM, strongly enhancing the repressor activity of FruBM at the promoter region of the robo1 gene, whose function is required for inhibiting the male-specific neurite formation...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#11
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#12
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132133/endomorphins-promising-endogenous-opioid-peptides-for-the-development-of-novel-analgesics
#13
Zheng-Hui Gu, Bo Wang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Yang Bai, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Hui Li, Yun-Qing Li
Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information...
November 13, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#14
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126127/conservatism-and-the-neural-circuitry-of-threat-economic-conservatism-predicts-greater-amygdala-bnst-connectivity-during-periods-of-threat-vs-safety
#15
Walker S Pedersen, L Tugan Muftuler, Christine L Larson
Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the amygdala has been implicated in the human response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory (Davis et al., 2010) posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown...
November 6, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122711/developmental-refinement-of-synaptic-transmission-on-micropatterned-single-layer-graphene
#16
Sandeep Keshavan, Shovan Naskar, Alberto Diaspro, Laura Cancedda, Silvia Dante
Interfacing neurons with a single atomic layer of graphene, single atomic layer of sp2 hybridized C-atoms, is a key paradigm in understanding how to exploit the unique properties of such a two-dimensional system for neural prosthetics and biosensors development. In order to fabricate graphene-based circuitry, a reliable large area patterning method is a requirement. Following a previously developed protocol, we monitored the in vitro neuronal development of geometrically ordered neural network growing onto patterned Single Layer Graphene (SLG) coated with poly-D-lysine...
November 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121420/obesity-during-pregnancy-in-the-mouse-alters-the-netrin-1-responsiveness-of-fetal-arcuate-nucleus-npy-neurons
#17
Tessa R Sanders, Kelly A Glendining, Christine L Jasoni
When individuals undergo gestation in an obese dam, they are at increased risk for impairments in the brain's ability to regulate body weight. In rodents, gestation in an obese dam leads to a number of changes to the development of the hypothalamic neurons that regulate body weight, including reduced neuronal connectivity at birth. Here, we sought to gain a clearer picture of how this neural circuitry develops normally, and to explore the mechanism underpinning the deficiency in connectivity seen in fetuses developing in obese dams...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120948/parvalbumin-containing-gaba-cells-and-schizophrenia-experimental-model-based-on-targeted-gene-delivery-through-adeno-associated-viruses
#18
Marta U Woloszynowska-Fraser, Peer Wulff, Gernot Riedel
Understanding the contribution of transmitter systems in behavioural pharmacology has a long tradition. Multiple techniques such as transmitter-specific lesions, and also localized administration of pharmacological toxins including agonists and antagonists of selected receptors have been applied. More recently, modern genetic tools have permitted cell-type selective interferences, for example by expression of light-sensitive channels followed by optogenetic stimulation in behaviourally meaningful settings or by engineered channels termed DREADDS that respond to peripherally administered drugs...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120510/in-vitro-characterization-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-the-domestic-chick
#19
Pradeep Dheerendra, Nicholas M Lynch, Joseph Crutwell, Mark O Cunningham, Tom V Smulders
Avian and mammalian brains have evolved independently from each other for about 300 million years. During that time, the hippocampal formation (HF) has diverged in morphology and cyto-architecture, but seems to have conserved much of its function. It is therefore an open question how seemingly different neural organizations can generate the same function. A prominent feature of the mammalian hippocampus is that it generates different neural oscillations, including the gamma rhythm, which plays an important role in memory processing...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119634/the-cerebral-basis-of-parkinsonian-tremor-a-network-perspective
#20
Rick C Helmich
Tremor in Parkinson's disease is a poorly understood sign. Although it is one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease, its pathophysiology remains unclear. It is clear that tremor involves different neural mechanisms than bradykinesia and rigidity, the other core motor signs of Parkinson's disease. In particular, the role of dopamine in tremor has been heavily debated given clinical observations that tremor has a variable response to dopaminergic medication. From a neuroscience perspective, tremor is also a special sign; unlike other motor signs, it has a clear electrophysiological signature (frequency, phase, and power)...
November 9, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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