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Neural circuitry

C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shahaf Weiss, Dori Derdikman
Since their discovery, mammalian head-direction (HD) cells have been extensively researched in terms of sensory origins, external cue control and circuitry. However, the relationship of HD cells to behavior is not yet fully understood. In the current review, we examine the anatomical clues for information flow in the HD circuit, and an emerging body of evidence that links between neural activity of HD cells and spatial orientation. We hypothesize from results obtained in spatial orientation tasks involving HD cells, that when properly aligned with available external cues, the HD signal could be used for guiding rats to a goal location...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Chandrakanth Reddy Edamakanti, Jeehaeh Do, Alessandro Didonna, Marco Martina, Puneet Opal
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the protein ATXN1, which is involved in transcriptional regulation. Although symptoms appear relatively late in life, primarily from cerebellar dysfunction, pathogenesis begins early, with brain-wide transcriptional changes detectable as early as a week after birth in SCA1 knock-in mice. Given the importance of this postnatal period for cerebellar development, we asked whether this region might be developmentally altered by mutant ATXN1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Calyn B Maske, Gregory C Loney, Nicole Lilly, Sarah J Terrill, Diana L Williams
The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Avniel Singh Ghuman, Rebecca N van den Honert, Theodore J Huppert, Gregory L Wallace, Alex Martin
BACKGROUND: Prevailing theories suggest that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) results from impaired brain communication, causing aberrant synchrony among neuronal populations. However, it remains debated whether synchrony abnormalities are among local or long-range circuits, are circuit specific or are generalized, reflect hypersynchrony or reflect hyposynchrony, and are frequency band-specific or are distributed across the frequency spectrum. METHODS: To help clarify these unresolved questions, we recorded spontaneous magnetoencephalography data and used a data-driven, whole-brain analysis of frequency-specific interregional synchrony in higher-functioning adolescents and adults, with 17 ASD and 18 control subjects matched on age, IQ, and sex, and equal for motion...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Kelli A Fagan, Jintao Luo, Ross C Lagoy, Frank C Schroeder, Dirk R Albrecht, Douglas S Portman
Biological sex, a fundamental dimension of internal state, can modulate neural circuits to generate behavioral variation. Understanding how and why circuits are tuned by sex can provide important insights into neural and behavioral plasticity. Here we find that sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to C. elegans ascaroside sex pheromones are implemented by the functional modulation of shared chemosensory circuitry. In particular, the sexual state of a single sensory neuron pair, ADF, determines the nature of an animal's behavioral response regardless of the sex of the rest of the body...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Pia-Kelsey O'Neill, Felicity Gore, C Daniel Salzman
All organisms must solve the same fundamental problem: they must acquire rewards and avoid danger in order to survive. A key challenge for the nervous system is therefore to connect motivationally salient sensory stimuli to neural circuits that engage appropriate valence-specific behavioral responses. Anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological data have long suggested that the amygdala plays a central role in this process. Here we review experimental efforts leveraging recent technological advances to provide previously unattainable insights into the functional, anatomical, and genetic identity of neural populations within the amygdala that connect sensory stimuli to valence-specific behavioral responses...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hossein Aleyasin, Meghan E Flanigan, Scott J Russo
Aggression is an innate behavior that helps individuals succeed in environments with limited resources. Over the past few decades, neurobiologists have identified neural circuits that promote and modulate aggression; however, far less is known regarding the motivational processes that drive aggression. Recent research suggests that aggression can activate reward centers in the brain to promote positive valence. Here, we review major recent findings regarding neural circuits that regulate aggression, with an emphasis on those regions involved in the rewarding or reinforcing properties of aggressive behavior...
March 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
A Acevedo-Rodriguez, A S Kauffman, B D Cherrington, C S Borges, T A Roepke, M Laconi
Reproduction and fertility are regulated via hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Control of this reproductive axis occurs at all levels, including the brain and pituitary, and allows for promotion or inhibition of gonadal sex steroid secretion and function. In addition to guiding proper gonadal development and function, gonadal sex steroids also act in negative and positive feedback loops to regulate reproductive circuitry in the brain, including kisspeptin neurons, thereby modulating overall HPG axis status...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ting Gong, Daniel J Torres, Marla J Berry, Matthew W Pitts
The hypothalamus is the central neural site governing food intake and energy expenditure. During the past 25 years, understanding of the hypothalamic cell types, hormones, and circuitry involved in the regulation of energy metabolism has dramatically increased. It is now well established that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts upon two distinct groups of hypothalamic neurons that comprise opposing arms of the central melanocortin system. These two cell populations are anorexigenic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neurons that express agouti-related peptide (AGRP)...
March 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David Beltrán, Mercedes Muñetón-Ayala, Manuel de Vega
Embodiment theories claim that language meaning involves sensory-motor simulation processes in the brain. A challenge for these theories, however, is to explain how abstract words, such as negations, are processed. In this article, we test the hypothesis that understanding sentential negation (e.g., You will not cut the bread) reuses the neural circuitry of response inhibition. Participants read manual action sentences with either affirmative or negative polarity, embedded in a Stop-Signal paradigm, while their EEG was recorded...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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