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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#1
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339312/studying-emotion-theories-through-connectivity-analysis-evidence-from-generalized-psychophysiological-interactions-and-graph-theory
#2
Yun-An Huang, Jan Jastorff, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Van de Vliet, Patrick Dupont, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
Psychological construction models of emotion state that emotions are variable concepts constructed by fundamental psychological processes, whereas according to basic emotion theory, emotions cannot be divided into more fundamental units and each basic emotion is represented by a unique and innate neural circuitry. In a previous study, we found evidence for the psychological construction account by showing that several brain regions were commonly activated when perceiving different emotions (i.e. a general emotion network)...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338873/opioid-and-psychostimulant-plasticity-targeting-overlap-in-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Matthew Hearing, Nicholas Graziane, Yan Dong, Mark J Thomas
Commonalities in addictive behavior, such as craving, stimuli-driven drug seeking, and a high propensity for relapse following abstinence, have pushed for a unified theory of addiction that encompasses most abused substances. This unitary theory has recently been challenged - citing distinctions in structural neural plasticity, biochemical signaling, and neural circuitry to argue that addiction to opioids and psychostimulants is behaviorally and neurobiologically distinct. Recent more selective examination of drug-induced plasticity has highlighted that these two drug classes promote an overall reward circuitry signaling overlap through modifying excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens - a key constituent of the reward system...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338070/the-use-of-chemogenetics-in-behavioural-neuroscience-receptor-variants-targeting-approaches-and-caveats
#4
REVIEW
Erin J Campbell, Nathan J Marchant
The last decade has seen major advances in neuroscience tools allowing us to selectively modulate cellular pathways in freely moving animals. Chemogenetic approaches such as Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) permit the remote control of neuronal function by systemic drug administration. These approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neural control of behaviour. Here we review the different techniques and genetic approaches available for the restriction of chemogenetic receptors to defined neuronal populations...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324675/a-time-domain-analog-spatial-compressed-sensing-encoder-for-multi-channel-neural-recording
#5
Takayuki Okazawa, Ippei Akita
A time-domain analog spatial compressed sensing encoder for neural recording applications is proposed. Owing to the advantage of MEMS technologies, the number of channels on a silicon neural probe array has doubled in 7.4 years, and therefore, a greater number of recording channels and higher density of front-end circuitry is required. Since neural signals such as action potential (AP) have wider signal bandwidth than that of an image sensor, a data compression technique is essentially required for arrayed neural recording systems...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323553/revealing-the-structural-neural-circuitry-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-diffusion-mri-implications-for-future-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Vitria Adisetiyo
OBJECTIVE: Rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and psychostimulant prescriptions continue to rise, yet there are no clear diagnostic tests or biomarkers for the disorder. The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of diffusion MRI in bolstering a neurobiologic conceptualization of ADHD and how this holds promise for optimizing future diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Diffusion MRI is a powerful neuroimaging tool for noninvasive assessment of the structural neural circuitry underlying brain function and behavior...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321592/amyloid-%C3%AE-causes-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-through-dopamine-receptor-1-dependent-disruption-of-fast-spiking-gabaergic-input-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#7
Si-Qiang Ren, Wen Yao, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chunhui Jin, Jia-Jun Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Shui Yu, Zaohuo Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. At the early stages of AD development, the soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) induces synaptic dysfunction, perturbs the excitation/inhibition balance of neural circuitries, and in turn alters the normal neural network activity leading to cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here by using whole-cell recordings in acute mouse brain slices, we found that 50 nM Aβ induces hyperexcitability of excitatory pyramidal cells in the cingulate cortex, one of the most vulnerable areas in AD, via depressing inhibitory synaptic transmission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319406/completed-suicide-in-an-autopsy-confirmed-case-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Jennifer Wiener Hartzell, Richard Geary, Kymberly Gyure, Venkata Ravi Chivukula, Marc W Haut
We report a case of a 57-year-old male with clinically diagnosed and autopsy-confirmed early onset Alzheimer's disease who completed suicide by gunshot wound to the chest. This case has several unique aspects that have not been discussed in previous case reports of completed suicide in Alzheimer's disease. In particular, our patient's death was highly planned with successful compensation for his cognitive deficits. After all firearms had been removed from the home as a safety precaution, he obtained a new weapon, hid it and left himself cues to find and use it...
January 10, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315268/mirna-influences-in-neuroblast-modulation-an-introspective-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Zammit, Byron Baron, Duncan Ayers
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common occurring solid paediatric cancer in children under the age of five years. Whether of familial or sporadic origin, chromosome abnormalities contribute to the development of NB and cause dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding, single stranded RNAs that target messenger RNAs at the post-transcriptional levels by repressing translation within all facets of human physiology. Such gene 'silencing' activities by miRNAs allows the development of regulatory feedback loops affecting multiple functions within the cell, including the possible differentiation of neural stem cell (NSC) lineage selection...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311559/injured-adult-motor-and-sensory-axons-regenerate-into-appropriate-organotypic-domains-of-neural-progenitor-grafts
#10
Jennifer N Dulin, Andrew F Adler, Hiromi Kumamaru, Gunnar H D Poplawski, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Hans Strobl, Daniel Gibbs, Ken Kadoya, James W Fawcett, Paul Lu, Mark H Tuszynski
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has high therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. Functional restoration may depend on the formation of reciprocal connections between host and graft. While it has been reported that axons extending out of neural grafts in the brain form contacts onto phenotypically appropriate host target regions, it is not known whether adult, injured host axons regenerating into NPC grafts also form appropriate connections. We report that spinal cord NPCs grafted into the injured adult rat spinal cord self-assemble organotypic, dorsal horn-like domains...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309953/facial-emotion-processing-in-patients-with-seizure-disorders
#11
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Jane B Allendorfer, Rodolphe Nenert, W Curt LaFrance, Helen I Barkan, Jennifer DeWolfe, Sandipan Pati, Ashley E Thomas, Lawrence Ver Hoef
Studies of emotion processing are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). We examined the differences in facial emotion processing between 12 patients with PNES, 12 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) using fMRI with emotional faces task (EFT) (happy/sad/fearful/neutral) and resting state connectivity. Compared with TLE, patients with PNES exhibited increased fMRI response to happy, neutral, and fearful faces in visual, temporal, and/or parietal regions and decreased fMRI response to sad faces in the putamen bilaterally...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309405/cardinal-features-of-involuntary-force-variability-can-arise-from-the-closed-loop-control-of-viscoelastic-afferented-muscles
#12
Akira Nagamori, Christopher M Laine, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305531/nonselective-wiring-accounts-for-red-green-opponency-in-midget-ganglion-cells-of-the-primate-retina
#13
Lauren E Wool, Joanna D Crook, John B Troy, Orin S Packer, Qasim Zaidi, Dennis M Dacey
In primate retina, "red-green" color-coding is initiated when signals originating in long (L) and middle (M) wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors interact antagonistically. The center-surround receptive field of "midget" ganglion cells provides the neural substrate for L versus M cone-opponent interaction, but the underlying circuitry remains unsettled, centering around the longstanding question of whether specialized cone wiring is present. To address this question, we measured the strength, sign, and spatial tuning of L and M cone input to midget receptive fields in the peripheral retina of macaque primates of either sex...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301099/from-maps-to-multi-dimensional-network-mechanisms-of-mental-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Urs Braun, Axel Schaefer, Richard F Betzel, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Danielle S Bassett
The development of advanced neuroimaging techniques and their deployment in large cohorts has enabled an assessment of functional and structural brain network architecture at an unprecedented level of detail. Across many temporal and spatial scales, network neuroscience has emerged as a central focus of intellectual efforts, seeking meaningful descriptions of brain networks and explanatory sets of network features that underlie circuit function in health and dysfunction in disease. However, the tools of network science commonly deployed provide insight into brain function at a fundamentally descriptive level, often failing to identify (patho-)physiological mechanisms that link system-level phenomena to the multiple hierarchies of brain function...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298905/gliotransmission-beyond-black-and-white
#15
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes are highly complex cells with many emerging putative roles in brain function. Of these, gliotransmission (active information transfer from glia to neurons) has probably the widest implications on our understanding of how the brain works: do astrocytes really contribute to information processing within the neural circuitry? "Positive evidence" for this stems from work of multiple laboratories reporting many examples of modulatory chemical signaling from astrocytes to neurons in the timeframe of hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298164/neural-activity-during-mental-rotation-in-deaf-signers-the-influence-of-long-term-sign-language-experience
#16
Hong-Bo Le, Hui-Hong Zhang, Qiu-Lin Wu, Jiong Zhang, Jing-Jing Yin, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVES: Mental rotation is the brain's visuospatial understanding of what objects are and where they belong. Previous research indicated that deaf signers showed behavioral enhancement for nonlinguistic visual tasks, including mental rotation. In this study, we investigated the neural difference of mental rotation processing between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). DESIGN: The participants performed a block-designed experiment, consisting of alternating blocks of comparison and rotation periods, separated by a baseline or fixation period...
January 2, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295654/integration-of-transplanted-neural-precursors-with-the-injured-spinal-cord
#17
Victoria Marie Spruance, Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Kristiina M Hormigo, Margo L Randelman, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in devastating functional consequences, including respiratory dysfunction. This is largely due to the disruption of phrenic pathways, which control the diaphragm. Recent work has identified spinal interneurons as possible contributors to respiratory neuroplasticity. The present work investigated whether transplantation of developing spinal cord tissue, inherently rich in interneuronal progenitors, could provide a population of new neurons and growth permissive substrate to facilitate plasticity and formation of novel relay circuits to restore input to the partially denervated phrenic motor circuit...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291241/pseudoneglect-in-visual-search-behavioral-evidence-and-connectional-constraints-in-simulated-neural-circuitry
#18
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289347/releasing-addiction-memories-trapped-in-perineuronal-nets
#19
REVIEW
Amy W Lasek, Hu Chen, Wei-Yang Chen
Drug addiction can be conceptualized at a basic level as maladaptive learning and memory. Addictive substances elicit changes in brain circuitry involved in reward, cognition, and emotional state, leading to the formation and persistence of strong drug-associated memories that lead to craving and relapse. Recently, perineuronal nets (PNNs), extracellular matrix (ECM) structures surrounding neurons, have emerged as regulators of learning, memory, and addiction behaviors. PNNs do not merely provide structural support to neurons but are dynamically remodeled in an experience-dependent manner by metalloproteinases...
December 27, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285515/area-pec-neurons-use-a-multiphasic-pattern-of-activity-to-signal-the-spatial-properties-of-optic-flow
#20
Milena Raffi, Alessandro Piras, Roberta Calzavara, Salvatore Squatrito
The cortical representation of visual perception requires the integration of several-signal processing distributed across many cortical areas, but the neural substrates of such perception are largely unknown. The type of firing pattern exhibited by single neurons is an important indicator of dynamic circuitry within or across cortical areas. Neurons in area PEc are involved in the spatial mapping of the visual field; thus, we sought to analyze the firing pattern of activity of PEc optic flow neurons to shed some light on the cortical processing of visual signals...
2017: BioMed Research International
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