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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424576/defensive-vocalizations-and-motor-asymmetry-triggered-by-disinhibition-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-non-human-primates
#1
Patrick A Forcelli, Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Malkova
Rapid and reflexive responses to threats are present across phylogeny. The neural circuitry mediating reflexive defense reactions has been well-characterized in a variety of species, for example, in rodents and cats, the detection of and species-typical response to threats is mediated by a network of structures including the midbrain tectum (deep and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus [DLSC]), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and forebrain structures such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. However, relatively little is known about the functional architecture of defense circuitry in primates...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424574/present-molecular-limitations-of-on-bipolar-cell-targeted-gene-therapy
#2
Michiel van Wyk, Elmar C Hulliger, Lara Girod, Andreas Ebneter, Sonja Kleinlogel
Recent studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of ocular gene therapy based on adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs). Accordingly, a surge in promising new gene therapies is entering clinical trials, including the first optogenetic therapy for vision restoration. To date, optogenetic therapies for vision restoration target either the retinal ganglion cells (GCs) or presynaptic ON-bipolar cells (OBCs). Initiating light responses at the level of the OBCs has significant advantages over optogenetic activation of GCs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418404/a-pathway-linking-reward-circuitry-impulsive-sensation-seeking-and-risky-decision-making-in-young-adults-identifying-neural-markers-for-new-interventions
#3
H W Chase, J C Fournier, M A Bertocci, T Greenberg, H Aslam, R Stiffler, J Lockovich, S Graur, G Bebko, E E Forbes, M L Phillips
High trait impulsive sensation seeking (ISS) is common in 18-25-year olds, and is associated with risky decision-making and deleterious outcomes. We examined relationships among: activity in reward regions previously associated with ISS during an ISS-relevant context, uncertain reward expectancy (RE), using fMRI; ISS impulsivity and sensation-seeking subcomponents; and risky decision-making in 100, transdiagnostically recruited 18-25-year olds. ISS, anhedonia, anxiety, depression and mania were measured using self-report scales; clinician-administered scales also assessed the latter four...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416205/the-link-between-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorder-a-unifying-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Jibran Y Khokhar, Lucas L Dwiel, Angela M Henricks, Wilder T Doucette, Alan I Green
Substance use disorders occur commonly in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsen their overall clinical course. While the exact mechanisms contributing to substance use in schizophrenia are not known, a number of theories have been put forward to explain the basis of the co-occurrence of these disorders. We propose here a unifying hypothesis that combines recent evidence from epidemiological and genetic association studies with brain imaging and pre-clinical studies to provide an updated formulation regarding the basis of substance use in patients with schizophrenia...
April 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408411/active-avoidance-neural-mechanisms-and-attenuation-of-pavlovian-conditioned-responding
#5
Emily A Boeke, Justin Moscarello, Joseph E LeDoux, Elizabeth A Phelps, Catherine A Hartley
Patients with anxiety disorders often experience a relapse in symptoms after exposure therapy. Similarly, threat responses acquired during Pavlovian threat conditioning often return after extinction learning. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative methods to persistently reduce threat responding. Studies in rodents have suggested that exercising behavioral control over an aversive stimulus can persistently diminish threat responses, and that these effects are mediated by the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and striatum...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#6
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#7
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#8
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401296/associations-of-specific-psychiatric-disorders-with-isolated-focal-dystonia-and-monogenic-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Susanne Steinlechner, Johann Hagenah, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Christian Meyer, Ulrich John, Tobias Bäumer, Norbert Brüggemann, Meike Kasten, Alexander Münchau, Christine Klein, Rebekka Lencer
Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with movement disorders is common. Often, psychiatric symptoms manifest before the onset of the movement disorder, thus not representing a mere reaction to its burden. How the disease mechanisms of psychiatric and movement disorders are related is still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence rates of specific psychiatric disorders between different movement disorders including isolated focal dystonia (IFD, N = 91), monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 41), idiopathic PD (N = 45), and a sample from a Northern Germany general population (TACOS Study; N = 4075)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400844/effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-methamphetamine-induced-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#10
Tsung-Jung Ho, Chiang-Wen Lee, Zi-Yun Lu, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Ming-Horng Tsai, Ing-Kang Ho, Chieh-Liang Huang, Yao-Chang Chiang
Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug of abuse worldwide, and no efficient therapeutic strategies for treating METH addiction are currently available. Continuous METH use can cause behavioral upregulation or psychosis. The dopaminergic pathways, particularly the neural circuitry from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have a critical role in this behavioral stage. Acupuncture has been used for treating diseases in China for more than 2000 years. According to a World Health Organization report, acupuncture can be used to treat several functional disorders, including substance abuse...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400326/developmental-visual-perception-deficits-with-no-indications-of-prosopagnosia-in-a-child-with-abnormal-eye-movements
#11
Sharon Gilaie-Dotan, Ravid Doron
Visual categories are associated with eccentricity biases in high-order visual cortex: Faces and reading with foveally-biased regions, while common objects and space with mid- and peripherally-biased regions. As face perception and reading are among the most challenging human visual skills, and are often regarded as the peak achievements of a distributed neural network supporting common objects perception, it is unclear why objects, which also rely on foveal vision to be processed, are associated with mid-peripheral rather than with a foveal bias...
April 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400302/decreased-comfort-food-intake-and-allostatic-load-in-adolescents-carrying-the-a3669g-variant-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene
#12
Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Roberta Dalle Molle, Tania Diniz Machado, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Andressa Bortoluzzi, Rudineia Toazza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Marilyn Agranonik, Luciano Minuzzi, Robert D Levitan, Augusto Buchweitz, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
BACKGROUND: The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes...
April 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398641/time-lapse-imaging-and-cell-tracking-of-migrating-cells-in-slices-and-flattened-telencephalic-vesicles
#13
Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Giovanna Expósito, Eloísa Herrera
Neuronal migration is a vital process needed for subsequent assembly and function of neural circuitry during embryonic development. The vast majority of neural progenitors are generated far from their final destination and need to migrate considerable distances to reach their specific cortical layer. Innovations in cell culture techniques and fluorescence microscopy now facilitate the direct visualization of cell movements during cortical development. Here, a detailed protocol to record and analyze a particular type of early migrating neurons, the Cajal Retzius Cells, during the development of the telencephalic vesicles in mammals is described...
April 10, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398011/striatal-activation-and-frontostriatal-connectivity-during-non-drug-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence
#14
Alena Becker, Martina Kirsch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence...
May 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397842/structural-alterations-within-cerebellar-circuitry-are-associated-with-general-liability-for-common-mental-disorders
#15
A L Romer, A R Knodt, R Houts, B D Brigidi, T E Moffitt, A Caspi, A R Hariri
Accumulating mental-health research encourages a shift in focus toward transdiagnostic dimensional features that are shared across categorical disorders. In support of this shift, recent studies have identified a general liability factor for psychopathology-sometimes called the 'p factor'- that underlies shared risk for a wide range of mental disorders. Identifying neural correlates of this general liability would substantiate its importance in characterizing the shared origins of mental disorders and help us begin to understand the mechanisms through which the 'p factor' contributes to risk...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396255/the-recent-progress-in-animal-models-of-depression
#16
REVIEW
Qingzhong Wang, Matthew A Timberlake, Kevin Prall, Yogesh Dwivedi
Major depression disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental illness with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the growing number of studies that have emerged, the precise underlying mechanisms of MDD remain unknown. When studying MDD, tissue samples like peripheral blood or post-mortem brain samples are used to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Unfortunately, there are many uncontrollable factors with such samples such as medication history, age, time after death before post-mortem tissue was collected, age, sex, race, and living conditions...
April 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395730/emergence-of-transformation-tolerant-representations-of-visual-objects-in-rat-lateral-extrastriate-cortex
#17
Sina Tafazoli, Houman Safaai, Gioia De Franceschi, Federica Bianca Rosselli, Walter Vanzella, Margherita Riggi, Federica Buffolo, Stefano Panzeri, Davide Zoccolan
Rodents are emerging as increasingly popular models of visual functions. Yet, evidence that rodent visual cortex is capable of advanced visual processing, such as object recognition, is limited. Here we investigate how neurons located along the progression of extrastriate areas that, in the rat brain, run laterally to primary visual cortex, encode object information. We found a progressive functional specialization of neural responses along these areas, with: (1) a sharp reduction of the amount of low-level, energy-related visual information encoded by neuronal firing; and (2) a substantial increase in the ability of both single neurons and neuronal populations to support discrimination of visual objects under identity-preserving transformations (e...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391012/mapping-of-pain-circuitry-in-early-post-natal-development-using-manganese-enhanced-mri-in-rats
#18
M M Sperry, B M Kandel, S Wehrli, K N Bass, S R Das, P S Dhillon, J C Gee, G A Barr
Premature or ill full-term infants are subject to a number of noxious procedures as part of their necessary medical care. Although we know that human infants show neural changes in response to such procedures, we know little of the sensory or affective brain circuitry activated by pain. In rodent models, the focus has been on spinal cord and, more recently, midbrain and medulla. The present study assesses activation of brain circuits using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Uptake of manganese, a paramagnetic contrast agent that is transported across active synapses and along axons, was measured in response to a hindpaw injection of dilute formalin in 12-day-old rat pups, the age at which rats begin to show aversion learning and which is roughly the equivalent of full-term human infants...
April 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390777/on-the-role-of-ephrina2-in-auditory-function
#19
Neil J Ingham, Karen P Steel, Uwe Drescher
Recent findings suggest that the manipulation of the EphA/ephrinA system can improve hearing threshold sensitivity in the auditory system (Yates et al., 2014). These results appear to open-up the possibility that pharmacological manipulation of this system could lead to the development of treatments to cure some types of hearing loss. As a first step towards this goal, we have performed a further series of auditory brainstem evoked potential recordings on ephrinA2 homozygous knockout mice and their wildtype littermates in order to replicate the previously reported findings...
April 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390647/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mesolimbic-reward-circuitry-mediates-nociception-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#20
Hongxing Zhang, Yi-Ling Qian, Chen Li, Di Liu, Lei Wang, Xiao-Yi Wang, Mei-Jun Liu, He Liu, Song Zhang, Xiao-Yun Guo, Jun-Xia Yang, Hai-Lei Ding, Ja Wook Koo, Ezekiell Mouzon, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Venetia Zachariou, Ming-Hu Han, Jun-Li Cao
BACKGROUND: The mesolimbic reward system plays a critical role in modulating nociception; however, its underlying molecular, cellular, and neural circuitry mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: Chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was used to model neuropathic pain. Projection-specific in vitro recordings in mouse brain slices and in vivo recordings from anesthetized animals were used to measure firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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