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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550793/acute-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-treatment-enhances-extinction-memory-in-male-rats
#1
L Y Maeng, M B Taha, K K Cover, S S Glynn, M Murillo, K Lebron-Milad, M R Milad
Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548606/anatomical-recruitment-of-spinal-v2a-interneurons-into-phrenic-motor-circuitry-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Jordyn Karliner, Kimberly J Dougherty, Michael Lane
More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547854/nucleus-accumbens-functional-connectivity-at-age-20-is-associated-with-trajectory-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-predicts-psychosocial-functioning-in-young-adulthood
#3
Sarah D Lichenstein, Samuel Musselman, Daniel S Shaw, Stephanie Sitnick, Erika E Forbes
AIMS: To identify trajectories of cannabis use across adolescence, 2) to measure the influence of cannabis use characteristics on functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and 3) to assess whether patterns of functional connectivity related to cannabis use are associated with psychosocial functioning 2 years later. DESIGN: The Pitt Mother & Child Project (PMCP) is a prospective, longitudinal study of male youth at high risk for psychopathology based on family income and gender...
May 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis have also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies point to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#5
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#6
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#7
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532362/mechanisms-of-orientation-selectivity-in-the-primary-visual-cortex
#8
Nicholas J Priebe
The mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the visual cortex have been, and continue to be, the subjects of intense scrutiny. Orientation selectivity reflects a dramatic change in the representation of the visual world: Whereas afferent thalamic neurons are generally orientation insensitive, neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are extremely sensitive to stimulus orientation. This profound change in the receptive field structure along the visual pathway has positioned V1 as a model system for studying the circuitry that underlies neural computations across the neocortex...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530663/a-cerebellum-like-circuit-in-the-auditory-system-cancels-responses-to-self-generated-sounds
#9
Shobhit Singla, Conor Dempsey, Richard Warren, Armen G Enikolopov, Nathaniel B Sawtell
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory nerve input with a diverse array of sensory and motor signals processed in circuitry similar to that of the cerebellum. Yet how the DCN contributes to early auditory processing has been a longstanding puzzle. Using electrophysiological recordings in mice during licking behavior, we show that DCN neurons are largely unaffected by self-generated sounds while remaining sensitive to external acoustic stimuli. Recordings in deafened mice, together with neural activity manipulations, indicate that self-generated sounds are cancelled by non-auditory signals conveyed by mossy fibers...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530410/correction-to-kujawa-proudfit-and-klein-2014
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neural reactivity to rewards and losses in offspring of mothers and fathers with histories of depressive and anxiety disorders" by Autumn Kujawa, Greg Hajcak Proudfit and Daniel N. Klein (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2014[May], Vol 123[2], 287-297). In the original article, there was an error in the Measures section. The article stated that the EEG data were band-pass filtered with cutoffs of 0.1 and 30 Hz and baseline corrected using the 200 ms interval prior to feedback. Instead, the data were actually filtered with cutoffs of 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529872/functional-network-changes-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia
#11
Kimberly L Ray, Tyler A Lesh, Amber M Howell, Taylor P Salo, J Daniel Ragland, Angus W MacDonald, James M Gold, Steven M Silverstein, Deana M Barch, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive control is a cognitive and neural mechanism that contributes to managing the complex demands of day-to-day life. Studies have suggested that functional impairments in cognitive control associated brain circuitry contribute to a broad range of higher cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. To examine this issue, we assessed functional connectivity networks in healthy adults and individuals with schizophrenia performing tasks from two distinct cognitive domains that varied in demands for cognitive control, the RiSE episodic memory task and DPX goal maintenance task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529870/symptom-specific-amygdala-hyperactivity-modulates-motor-control-network-in-conversion-disorder
#12
Thomas Hassa, Alexandra Sebastian, Joachim Liepert, Cornelius Weiller, Roger Schmidt, Oliver Tüscher
Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#13
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#14
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524819/chronic-pain-induces-generalized-enhancement-of-aversion
#15
Qiaosheng Zhang, Toby Manders, Ai Phuong Tong, Runtao Yang, Arpan Garg, Erik Martinez, Haocheng Zhou, Jahrane Dale, Abhinav Goyal, Louise Urien, Guang Yang, Zhe Chen, Jing Wang
A hallmark feature of chronic pain is its ability to impact other sensory and affective experiences. It is notably associated with hypersensitivity at the site of tissue injury. It is less clear, however, if chronic pain can also induce a generalized site-nonspecific enhancement in the aversive response to nociceptive inputs. Here, we showed that chronic pain in one limb in rats increased the aversive response to acute pain stimuli in the opposite limb, as assessed by conditioned place aversion. Interestingly, neural activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) correlated with noxious intensities, and optogenetic modulation of ACC neurons showed bidirectional control of the aversive response to acute pain...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511980/reward-loss-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-a-function-in-reward-comparisons
#16
Katsuyoshi Kawasaki, Iván Annicchiarico, Amanda C Glueck, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The neural circuitry underlying behavior in reward loss situations is poorly understood. We considered two such situations: reward devaluation (from large to small rewards) and reward omission (from large rewards to no rewards). There is evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a role in the negative emotion accompanying reward loss. However, little is known about the function of the basolateral nucleus (BLA) in reward loss. Two hypotheses of BLA function in reward loss, negative emotion and reward comparisons, were tested in an experiment involving pretraining excitotoxic BLA lesions followed by training in four tasks: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), autoshaping (AS) acquisition and extinction, anticipatory negative contrast (ANC), and open field testing (OF)...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506079/the-neural-correlates-of-emotional-lability-in-children-with-asd
#17
Randi Bennett, Krishna Somandapalli, Adriana Di Martino, Amy Roy
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is exceptionally heterogeneous in both clinical and physiopathological presentations. Clinical variability applies to ASD-specific symptoms as well as frequent comorbid psychopathology such as emotional lability (EL). To date, the physiopathological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of EL and ASD are unknown. As a first step, we examined within-ASD inter-individual variability of EL and its neuronal correlates using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#18
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496413/cholera-toxin-induces-sustained-hyperexcitability-in-myenteric-but-not-submucosal-ah-neurons-in-guinea-pig-jejunum
#19
Katerina Koussoulas, Rachel M Gwynne, Jaime P P Foong, Joel C Bornstein
Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT)-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS). AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs), are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons. Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml) or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their lumen...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#20
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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