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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883080/construction-of-a-miniaturized-chromatic-acclimation-sensor-from-cyanobacteria-with-reversed-response-to-a-light-signal
#1
Mitsuharu Nakajima, Stefano Ferri, Matthias Rögner, Koji Sode
Cyanobacteria harbor unique photoreceptors, designated as cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs). In this study, we attempted to engineer the chromatic acclimation sensor CcaS, a CBCR derived from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The wild-type CcaS induces gene expression under green light illumination and represses it under red light illumination. We focused on the domain structure of CcaS, which consists of an N-terminal transmembrane helix; a GAF domain, which serves as the sensor domain; a linker region (L1); two PAS domains; a second linker region (L2); and a C-terminal histidine kinase (HK) domain...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859382/value-of-calcium-and-phosphate-in-a-bicarbonate-containing-platelet-additive-solution-with-low-plasma-levels-in-maintaining-key-in-vitro-platelet-storage-parameters
#2
Andrey Skripchenko, Annette Turgeon, Dedeene Thompson-Montgomery, Helen Awatefe, Stephen J Wagner
BACKGROUND: Use of recently developed platelet (PLT) additive solutions (PAS) with 5% plasma levels may reduce the frequency and/or severity of transfusion reactions attributed to plasma. PLTs suspended in bicarbonate-containing PAS-5 with 5% plasma levels can maintain key PLT parameters during 7-day storage. This study evaluates the role of calcium and phosphate, as constituents of PAS-5, in maintaining PLT parameters. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An Amicus apheresis PLT unit (n = 13) was equally divided into four 60-mL aliquots in CF-250 polyolefin bags...
November 17, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859369/childhood-macrophagic-myofasciitis-a-series-from-the-indian-subcontinent
#3
Aanchal Kakkar, Madhu Rajeshwari, Aasma Nalwa, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Sheffali Gulati, Mehar C Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is a rare disorder, reported mainly in European adults, with occasional childhood cases. We report a series of 6 patients with pediatric MMF from the Indian subcontinent. METHODS: Clinical details, creatine kinase levels, and results of electromyography are described for patients diagnosed with MMF. Fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed muscle biopsies were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy...
November 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812987/ampk-in-yeast-the-snf1-sucrose-non-fermenting-1-protein-kinase-complex
#4
Pascual Sanz, Rosa Viana, Maria Adelaida Garcia-Gimeno
In yeast, SNF1 protein kinase is the orthologue of mammalian AMPK complex. It is a trimeric complex composed of Snf1 protein kinase (orthologue of AMPKα catalytic subunit), Snf4 (orthologue of AMPKγ regulatory subunit), and a member of the Gal83/Sip1/Sip2 family of proteins (orthologues of AMPKβ subunit) that act as scaffolds and also regulate the subcellular localization of the complex. In this chapter, we review the recent literature on the characteristics of SNF1 complex subunits, the structure and regulation of the activity of the SNF1 complex, its role at the level of transcriptional regulation of relevant target genes and also at the level of posttranslational modification of targeted substrates...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803157/bacterial-energy-sensor-aer-modulates-the-activity-of-the-chemotaxis-kinase-chea-based-on-the-redox-state-of-the-flavin-cofactor
#5
Dipanjan Samanta, Joanne Widom, Peter P Borbat, Jack H Freed, Brian R Crane
Flagellated bacteria modulate their swimming behavior in response to environmental cues through the CheA/CheY signaling pathway. In addition to responding to external chemicals, bacteria also monitor internal conditions that reflect the availability of oxygen, light, and reducing equivalents - in a process termed ″Energy Taxis″. In E. coli, the transmembrane receptor Aer is the primary energy sensor for motility. Genetic and physiological data suggest that Aer monitors the electron transport chain through the redox state of its FAD cofactor...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799551/degradation-of-cyclic-diguanosine-monophosphate-by-a-hybrid-two-component-protein-protects-azoarcus-sp-strain-cib-from-toluene-toxicity
#6
Zaira Martín-Moldes, Blas Blázquez, Claudine Baraquet, Caroline S Harwood, María T Zamarro, Eduardo Díaz
Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that controls diverse functions in bacteria, including transitions from planktonic to biofilm lifestyles, virulence, motility, and cell cycle. Here we describe TolR, a hybrid two-component system (HTCS), from the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp. strain CIB that degrades c-di-GMP in response to aromatic hydrocarbons, including toluene. This response protects cells from toluene toxicity during anaerobic growth. Whereas wild-type cells tolerated a sudden exposure to a toxic concentration of toluene, a tolR mutant strain or a strain overexpressing a diguanylate cyclase gene lost viability upon toluene shock...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792249/a-comprehensive-analysis-identifies-braf-hotspot-mutations-associated-with-gliomas-with-peculiar-epithelial-morphology
#7
Ryusuke Hatae, Nobuhiro Hata, Satoshi O Suzuki, Koji Yoshimoto, Daisuke Kuga, Hideki Murata, Yojiro Akagi, Yuhei Sangatsuda, Toru Iwaki, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Koji Iihara
Brain tumors harbor various BRAF alterations, the vast majority of which are the BRAF kinase-activating V600E mutation. BRAF mutations are most frequently detected in certain subtypes of low-grade glioma, such as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), ganglioglioma (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). However, it is unclear whether gliomas harboring BRAF mutations can be invariably regarded as these glioma subtypes or their derivatives. To address this question, we analyzed 274 gliomas in our institutional case series...
October 28, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791984/droplet-digital-pcr-is-a-powerful-technique-to-demonstrate-frequent-fgfr1-duplication-in-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumors
#8
Frédéric Fina, Doriane Barets, Carole Colin, Corinne Bouvier, Laëtitia Padovani, Isabelle Nanni-Metellus, L'Houcine Ouafik, Didier Scavarda, Andrey Korshunov, David T W Jones, Dominique Figarella-Branger
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) share V600E mutation in the BRAF gene with other low grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs). FGFR1 internal tandem duplication of the tyrosine-kinase domain (FGFR1-ITD), another genetic alteration that also leads to MAP kinase pathway alteration, has been previously reported in LGNTs by whole-genome sequencing. In the present study we searched for FGFR1-ITD by droplet digital PCR (DDPCR™) and for FGFR1 point mutations by HRM-sequencing in a series of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) LGNTs including 12 DNT, 2 oligodendrogliomas lacking IDH mutation and 1p/19q co- deletion (pediatric-type oligodendrogliomas; PTOs), 3 pediatric diffuse astrocytomas (PDAs), 14 gangliogliomas (GGs) and 5 pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs)...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764513/heterogeneity-of-histopathological-presentation-of-pilocytic-astrocytoma-diagnostic-pitfalls-a-review
#9
E Matyja, W Grajkowska, K Stępień, E Naganska
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most frequent primary astroglial tumours affecting children and adolescents. They occur sporadically or in association with a genetically determined syndrome - neurofibromatosis type 1. Classic PA usually manifests as a well-circumscribed, often cystic, slowly growing tumour, which corresponds to WHO grade I. The majority of pilocytic tumours arise along the neuraxis, predominantly in the cerebellum. They are associated with favourable long-term outcome or spontaneous regression, even after incomplete resection...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661449/pask-integrates-hormonal-signaling-with-histone-modification-via-wdr5-phosphorylation-to-drive-myogenesis
#10
Chintan K Kikani, Xiaoying Wu, Litty Paul, Hana Sabic, Zuolian Shen, Arvind Shakya, Alexandra Keefe, Claudio Villanueva, Gabrielle Kardon, Barbara Graves, Dean Tantin, Jared Rutter
PAS domain containing protein kinase (Pask) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase implicated in energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation across eukaryotic species. We now describe an unexpected role of Pask in promoting the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and adipogenic progenitor cells. This function of Pask is dependent upon its ability to phosphorylate Wdr5, a member of several protein complexes including those that catalyze histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) during transcriptional activation...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633981/gene-fusions-ahrr-ncoa2-ncoa2-etv4-etv4-ahrr-p4ha2-tbck-and-tbck-p4ha2-resulting-from-the-translocations-t-5-8-17-p15-q13-q21-and-t-4-5-q24-q31-in-a-soft-tissue-angiofibroma
#11
Ioannis Panagopoulos, Ludmila Gorunova, Trond Viset, Sverre Heim
We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21)[8]/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)[2]/46,XY[3]. RNA‑sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in‑frame TBCK‑P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out‑of‑frame P4HA2‑TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK‑P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese‑like domain, and the Tre‑2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4‑hydroxylase...
September 15, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630019/characterization-of-atg38-and-nrbf2-a-fifth-subunit-of-the-autophagic-vps34-pik3c3-complex
#12
Yohei Ohashi, Nicolas Soler, Miguel García Ortegón, Lufei Zhang, Marie L Kirsten, Olga Perisic, Glenn R Masson, John E Burke, Arjen J Jakobi, Apostolos A Apostolakis, Christopher M Johnson, Maki Ohashi, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Carsten Sachse, Roger L Williams
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 is part of several protein complexes. The structural organization of heterotetrameric complexes is starting to emerge, but little is known about organization of additional accessory subunits that interact with these assemblies. Combining hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy (EM), we have characterized Atg38 and its human ortholog NRBF2, accessory components of complex I consisting of Vps15-Vps34-Vps30/Atg6-Atg14 (yeast) and PIK3R4/VPS15-PIK3C3/VPS34-BECN1/Beclin 1-ATG14 (human)...
November 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498190/phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-regulates-response-of-cells-to-proteotoxic-stress
#13
Joanna Kaminska, Weronika Rzepnikowska, Anna Polak, Krzysztof Flis, Piotr Soczewka, Katarzyna Bala, Marzena Sienko, Marcin Grynberg, Pawel Kaliszewski, Agnieszka Urbanek, Kathryn Ayscough, Teresa Zoladek
Human Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase, or its variants, inhibit yeast cell growth by disturbing the actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, and lead to an increase in levels of ubiquitinated proteins. In a screen for multicopy suppressors which rescue growth of yeast cells producing Nedd4 ligase with an inactive WW4 domain (Nedd4w4), we identified a fragment of ATG2 gene encoding part of the Atg2 core autophagy protein. Expression of the Atg2-C1 fragment (aa 1074-1447) improved growth, actin cytoskeleton organization, but did not significantly change the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in these cells...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498163/c-di-gmp-synthesis-structural-aspects-of-evolution-catalysis-and-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Tilman Schirmer
Cellular levels of the second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) are determined by the antagonistic activities of diguanylate cyclases and specific phosphodiesterases. In a given bacterial organism, there are often multiple variants of the two enzymes, which are tightly regulated by a variety of external and internal cues due to the presence of specialized sensory or regulatory domains. Dependent on the second messenger level, specific c-di-GMP receptors then control fundamental cellular processes, such as bacterial life style, biofilm formation, and cell cycle control...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497785/identification-of-interacting-proteins-with-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-scallop-chlamys-farreri-by-yeast-two-hybrid-screening
#15
Yuefeng Cai, Luqing Pan, Jingjing Miao, Tong Liu
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) belongs to the basic-helix-loop helix (bHLH) Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family of transcription factors. AhR has been known primarily for its role in the regulation of several drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, as well as the mediation of the toxicity of certain xenobiotics, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Although the AhR is well-studied as a mediator of the toxicity of certain xenobiotics in marine bivalves, the normal physiological function remains unknown...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466363/the-crystal-structures-of-the-n-terminal-photosensory-core-module-of-agrobacterium-phytochrome-agp1-as-parallel-and-anti-parallel-dimers
#16
Soshichiro Nagano, Patrick Scheerer, Kristina Zubow, Norbert Michael, Katsuhiko Inomata, Tilman Lamparter, Norbert Krauß
Agp1 is a canonical biliverdin-binding bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum that acts as a light-regulated histidine kinase. Crystal structures of the photosensory core modules (PCMs) of homologous phytochromes have provided a consistent picture of the structural changes that these proteins undergo during photoconversion between the parent red light-absorbing state (Pr) and the far-red light-absorbing state (Pfr). These changes include secondary structure rearrangements in the so-called tongue of the phytochrome-specific (PHY) domain and structural rearrangements within the long α-helix that connects the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and FhlA (GAF) and the PHY domains...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389096/structural-studies-on-the-extracellular-domain-of-sensor-histidine-kinase-yycg-from-staphylococcus-aureus-and-its-functional-implications
#17
Truc Kim, Jongkeun Choi, Sangho Lee, Kwon Joo Yeo, Hae-Kap Cheong, Kyeong Kyu Kim
Bacterial two-component signal transduction systems are used to adapt to fluctuations in the environment. YycG, a key two-component histidine kinase in Staphylococcus aureus, plays an essential role in cell viability and regulates cell wall metabolism, biofilm formation, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. For these reasons, YycG is considered a compelling target for the development of novel antibiotics. However, to date, the signaling mechanism of YycG and its stimulus are poorly understood mainly because of a lack of structural information on YycG...
July 31, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387401/clivorine-an-otonecine-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-from-ligularia-species-impairs-neuronal-differentiation-via-ngf-induced-signaling-pathway-in-cultured-pc12-cells
#18
Aizhen Xiong, Artemis Lu Yan, Cathy W C Bi, Kelly Y C Lam, Gallant K L Chan, Kitty K M Lau, Tina T X Dong, Huangquan Lin, Li Yang, Zhengtao Wang, Karl W K Tsim
BACKGROUND: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are commonly found in many plants including those used in medical therapeutics. The hepatotoxicities of PAs have been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro; however, the neurotoxicities of PAs are rarely mentioned. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate in vitro neurotoxicities of clivorine, one of the PAs found in various Ligularia species, in cultured PC12 cells. STUDY DESIGN: PC12 cell line was employed to first elucidate the neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of clivorine, including cell viability and morphology change, neuronal differentiation marker and signaling pathway...
August 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363275/-down-regulation-of-p38-mapk-and-collagen-by-1-25-oh-2-vd3-in-rat-models-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Xianhui Xie, Zhengsheng Li, Mingjing Pi, Jing Wu, Wen Zeng, Li Zuo, Yan Zha
Objective To investigate the effect of 1, 25-(OH)2-VD3 on collagen type III (Col3), collagen type IV (Col4) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in rat models of type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and explore the relationships of p38MAPK with Col3 and Col4. Methods Rat models of type 2 diabetic nephropathy were induced by streptozocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) combined with high-glucose-and-fat diet. Sixty rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, 1, 25-(OH)2-VD3 treatment group [given 1, 25-(OH)2-VD3 6 ng/(100 g...
July 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338626/cell-type-specific-deletion-in-mice-reveals-roles-for-pas-kinase-in-insulin-and-glucagon-production
#20
Francesca Semplici, Angeles Mondragon, Benedict Macintyre, Katja Madeyski-Bengston, Anette Persson-Kry, Sara Barr, Anna Ramne, Anna Marley, James McGinty, Paul French, Helen Soedling, Ryohsuke Yokosuka, Julien Gaitan, Jochen Lang, Stephanie Migrenne-Li, Erwann Philippe, Pedro L Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Per-Arnt-Sim kinase (PASK) is a nutrient-regulated domain-containing protein kinase previously implicated in the control of insulin gene expression and glucagon secretion. Here, we explore the roles of PASK in the control of islet hormone release, by generating mice with selective deletion of the Pask gene in pancreatic beta or alpha cells. METHODS: Floxed alleles of Pask were produced by homologous recombination and animals bred with mice bearing beta (Ins1 (Cre); PaskBKO) or alpha (Ppg (Cre) [also known as Gcg]; PaskAKO) cell-selective Cre recombinase alleles...
September 2016: Diabetologia
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