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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#1
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744131/taking-patient-and-public-involvement-online-qualitative-evaluation-of-an-online-forum-for-palliative-care-and-rehabilitation-research
#2
Lisa Jane Brighton, Sophie Pask, Hamid Benalia, Sylvia Bailey, Marion Sumerfield, Jana Witt, Susanne de Wolf-Linder, Simon Noah Etkind, Fliss E M Murtagh, Jonathan Koffman, Catherine J Evans
Plain English summary: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognised as important in research. Most PPI takes place face-to-face, but this can be difficult for people who are unwell or have caring responsibilities. As these challenges are particularly common in palliative care and rehabilitation research, we developed an online forum for PPI: www.csipublicinvolvement.co.uk. In this study, we explored how well the online forum worked, if it is a suitable method for PPI, and how PPI members and researchers reacted to using it...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660292/two-level-chebyshev-filter-based-complementary-subspace-method-pushing-the-envelope-of-large-scale-electronic-structure-calculations
#3
Amartya S Banerjee, Lin Lin, Phanish Suryanarayana, Chao Yang, John E Pask
We describe a novel iterative strategy for Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations aimed at large systems (> 1000 electrons), applicable to metals and insulators alike. In lieu of explicit diagonalization of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian on every self-consistent field (SCF) iteration, we employ a two-level Chebyshev polynomial filter based complementary subspace strategy to: 1) compute a set of vectors that span the occupied subspace of the Hamiltonian; 2) reduce subspace diagonalization to just partially occupied states; and 3) obtain those states in an efficient, scalable manner via an inner Chebyshev-filter iteration...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649689/high-fat-diet-alters-pas-kinase-regulation-by-fasting-and-feeding-in-liver
#4
Ana Pérez-García, Pilar Dongil, Verónica Hurtado-Carneiro, Enrique Blázquez, Carmen Sanz, Elvira Álvarez
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population, along with their associated complications, is a major factor contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The liver is a vital organ for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, especially in the adjustment periods in fasting and feeding. Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK) controls glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism in response to nutritional status. PASK-deficient mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) resist the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis, with improved insulin sensitivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572866/topoms-comprehensive-topological-exploration-for-molecular-and-condensed-matter-systems
#5
Harsh Bhatia, Attila G Gyulassy, Vincenzo Lordi, John E Pask, Valerio Pascucci, Peer-Timo Bremer
We introduce TopoMS, a computational tool enabling detailed topological analysis of molecular and condensed-matter systems, including the computation of atomic volumes and charges through the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, as well as the complete molecular graph. With roots in techniques from computational topology, and using a shared-memory parallel approach, TopoMS provides scalable, numerically robust, and topologically consistent analysis. TopoMS can be used as a command-line tool or with a GUI (graphical user interface), where the latter also enables an interactive exploration of the molecular graph...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550781/development-and-validation-of-a-casemix-classification-to-predict-costs-of-specialist-palliative-care-provision-across-inpatient-hospice-hospital-and-community-settings-in-the-uk-a-study-protocol
#6
Ping Guo, Mendwas Dzingina, Alice M Firth, Joanna M Davies, Abdel Douiri, Suzanne M O'Brien, Cathryn Pinto, Sophie Pask, Irene J Higginson, Kathy Eagar, Fliss E M Murtagh
INTRODUCTION: Provision of palliative care is inequitable with wide variations across conditions and settings in the UK. Lack of a standard way to classify by case complexity is one of the principle obstacles to addressing this. We aim to develop and validate a casemix classification to support the prediction of costs of specialist palliative care provision. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase I: A cohort study to determine the variables and potential classes to be included in a casemix classification...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515893/letting-the-cat-out-of-the-bag-pouch-young-development-of-the-extinct-tasmanian-tiger-revealed-by-x-ray-computed-tomography
#7
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482589/heterologous-expression-and-antitumor-activity-analysis-of-syringolin-from-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae-b728a
#8
Fan Huang, Jianli Tang, Lian He, Xuezhi Ding, Shaoya Huang, Youming Zhang, Yunjun Sun, Liqiu Xia
BACKGROUND: Syringolin, synthesized by a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) B728a, is a novel eukaryotic proteasome inhibitor. Meanwhile, directly modifying large fragments in the PKS/NRPS gene cluster through traditional DNA engineering techniques is very difficult. In this study, we directly cloned the syl gene cluster from Pss B301D-R via Red/ET recombineering to effectively express syringolin in heterologous hosts...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457743/a-framework-for-complexity-in-palliative-care-a-qualitative-study-with-patients-family-carers-and-professionals
#9
Sophie Pask, Cathryn Pinto, Katherine Bristowe, Liesbeth van Vliet, Caroline Nicholson, Catherine J Evans, Rob George, Katharine Bailey, Joanna M Davies, Ping Guo, Barbara A Daveson, Irene J Higginson, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Palliative care patients are often described as complex but evidence on complexity is limited. We need to understand complexity, including at individual patient-level, to define specialist palliative care, characterise palliative care populations and meaningfully compare interventions/outcomes. AIM: To explore palliative care stakeholders' views on what makes a patient more or less complex and insights on capturing complexity at patient-level. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews, analysed using Framework analysis...
February 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361117/discrepancy-between-low-levels-of-mtor-activity-and-high-levels-of-p-s6-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-may-be-explained-by-pas-domain-containing-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-mediated-phosphorylation
#10
Dóra Marosvári, Noémi Nagy, Csilla Kriston, Beáta Deák, Melinda Hajdu, Csaba Bödör, Irén Csala, Attila G Bagó, Zoltán Szállási, Anna Sebestyén, Lilla Reiniger
The primary aim of this study was to determine mTOR-pathway activity in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), which could be a potential target for therapy. After demonstrating that p-S6 positivity largely exceeded mTOR activity, we aimed to identify other pathways that may lead to S6 phosphorylation. We measured mTOR activity with immunohistochemistry for p-mTOR and its downstream effectors p(T389)-p70S6K1, p-S6, and p-4E-BP1 in 31 cases of PCNSL and 51 cases of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and evaluated alternative S6 phosphorylation pathways with p-RSK, p(T229)-p70S6K1, and PASK antibodies...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282219/mutant-calreticulin-knockin-mice-develop-thrombocytosis-and-myelofibrosis-without-a-stem-cell-self-renewal-advantage
#11
Juan Li, Daniel Prins, Hyun Jung Park, Jacob Grinfeld, Carlos Gonzalez-Arias, Stephen Loughran, Oliver M Dovey, Thorsten Klampfl, Cavan Bennett, Tina L Hamilton, Dean C Pask, Rachel Sneade, Matthew Williams, Juliet Aungier, Cedric Ghevaert, George S Vassiliou, David G Kent, Anthony R Green
Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are detected in approximately 40% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Multiple different mutations have been reported, but all result in a +1-bp frameshift and generate a novel protein C terminus. In this study, we generated a conditional mouse knockin model of the most common CALR mutation, a 52-bp deletion. The mutant novel human C-terminal sequence is integrated into the otherwise intact mouse CALR gene and results in mutant CALR expression under the control of the endogenous mouse locus...
February 8, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230027/genome-of-the-tasmanian-tiger-provides-insights-into-the-evolution-and-demography-of-an-extinct-marsupial-carnivore
#12
Charles Y Feigin, Axel H Newton, Liliya Doronina, Jürgen Schmitz, Christy A Hipsley, Kieren J Mitchell, Graham Gower, Bastien Llamas, Julien Soubrier, Thomas N Heider, Brandon R Menzies, Alan Cooper, Rachel J O'Neill, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest carnivorous Australian marsupial to survive into the modern era. Despite last sharing a common ancestor with the eutherian canids ~160 million years ago, their phenotypic resemblance is considered the most striking example of convergent evolution in mammals. The last known thylacine died in captivity in 1936 and many aspects of the evolutionary history of this unique marsupial apex predator remain unknown. Here we have sequenced the genome of a preserved thylacine pouch young specimen to clarify the phylogenetic position of the thylacine within the carnivorous marsupials, reconstruct its historical demography and examine the genetic basis of its convergence with canids...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075447/stress-induced-changes-in-color-expression-mediated-by-iridophores-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#13
Anna C Lewis, Katrina J Rankin, Andrew J Pask, Devi Stuart-Fox
Stress is an important potential factor mediating a broad range of cellular pathways, including those involved in condition-dependent (i.e., honest) color signal expression. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the relationship between stress and color expression are largely unknown. We artificially elevated circulating corticosterone levels in male tawny dragon lizards, Ctenophorus decresii , to assess the effect of stress on the throat color signal. Corticosterone treatment increased luminance (paler throat coloration) and decreased the proportion of gray, thereby influencing the gray reticulations that produce unique patterning...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819196/specialized-odorant-receptors-in-social-insects-that-detect-cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-and-candidate-pheromones
#14
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752836/corrigendum-large-scale-production-of-megakaryocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-chemically-defined-forward-programming
#15
Thomas Moreau, Amanda L Evans, Louella Vasquez, Marloes R Tijssen, Ying Yan, Matthew W Trotter, Daniel Howard, Maria Colzani, Meera Arumugam, Wing Han Wu, Amanda Dalby, Riina Lampela, Guenaelle Bouet, Catherine M Hobbs, Dean C Pask, Holly Payne, Tatyana Ponomaryov, Alexander Brill, Nicole Soranzo, Willem H Ouwehand, Roger A Pedersen, Cedric Ghevaert
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11208.
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708145/tunable-thz-polariton-laser-based-on-1342-nm-wavelength-for-enhanced-terahertz-wave-extraction
#16
Andrew J Lee, David J Spence, Helen M Pask
We detail the operation of a THz laser source based on non-linear stimulated polariton scattering (SPS) in Mg:LiNbO<sub>3</sub>. This system utilizes a fundamental wavelength of 1342 nm to completely avoid the negative effect of free-carrier generation within high-resistivity silicon (Si) prisms used to extract THz radiation from the Mg:LiNbO<sub>3</sub> crystal. THz power of up to 23.6 μW (62.3 μW when chopped at 50% duty cycle) was detected at 1.33 THz, and frequency tunability across the range 1...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696298/functional-characterization-of-odorant-receptors-in-the-ponerine-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#17
Jesse D Slone, Gregory M Pask, Stephen T Ferguson, Jocelyn G Millar, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Anandasankar Ray, Laurence J Zwiebel
Animals use a variety of sensory modalities-including visual, acoustic, and chemical-to sense their environment and interact with both conspecifics and other species. Such communication is especially critical in eusocial insects such as honey bees and ants, where cooperation is critical for survival and reproductive success. Various classes of chemoreceptors have been hypothesized to play essential roles in the origin and evolution of eusociality in ants, through their functional roles in pheromone detection that characterizes reproductive status and colony membership...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538171/proliferation-drives-aging-related-functional-decline-in-a-subpopulation-of-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-compartment
#18
Kristina Kirschner, Tamir Chandra, Vladimir Kiselev, David Flores-Santa Cruz, Iain C Macaulay, Hyun Jun Park, Juan Li, David G Kent, Rupa Kumar, Dean C Pask, Tina L Hamilton, Martin Hemberg, Wolf Reik, Anthony R Green
Aging of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment is characterized by lineage bias and reduced stem cell function, the molecular basis of which is largely unknown. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we identified a distinct subpopulation of old HSCs carrying a p53 signature indicative of stem cell decline alongside pro-proliferative JAK/STAT signaling. To investigate the relationship between JAK/STAT and p53 signaling, we challenged HSCs with a constitutively active form of JAK2 (V617F) and observed an expansion of the p53-positive subpopulation in old mice...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499695/dapagliflozin-modulates-glucagon-secretion-in-an-sglt2-independent-manner-in-murine-alpha-cells
#19
A Solini, G Sebastiani, L Nigi, E Santini, C Rossi, F Dotta
AIM: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce renal glucose uptake through an insulin-independent mechanism. They also increase glucagon concentration, although the extent to which this is due to a direct effect on pancreatic alpha cells remains unclear. METHODS: In the present work, αTC1 cells treated with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (Dapa) were analyzed for glucose transporters, molecular mediators of hormone secretion, glucagon and GLP-1 release, and the effects of somatostatin...
May 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472940/runx2-repeat-variation-does-not-drive-craniofacial-diversity-in-marsupials
#20
Axel H Newton, Charles Y Feigin, Andrew J Pask
BACKGROUND: Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a transcription factor essential for skeletal development. Variation within the RUNX2 polyglutamine / polyalanine (QA) repeat is correlated with facial length within orders of placental mammals and is suggested to be a major driver of craniofacial diversity. However, it is not known if this correlation exists outside of the placental mammals. RESULTS: Here we examined the correlation between the RUNX2 QA repeat ratio and facial length in the naturally evolving sister group to the placental mammals, the marsupials...
May 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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