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Ldl AND oxLdl

Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Siroon Bekkering, Bastiaan A Blok, Leo A B Joosten, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
BACKGROUND: Innate immune memory or 'trained immunity' has recently been described as an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in-vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Salvador Damián-Zamacona, Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Mabel Z Ibarra-Abundis, Laura Uribe-Figueroa, Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Karla Paola Macedo-Alcibia, Blanca Delgado-Coello, Jaime Mas-Oliva, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda
BACKGROUND: Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. OBJECTIVE: The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli...
2016: PloS One
Xavier Deplanque, Delphine Muscente-Paque, Eric Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE) standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Kannadasan AnandBabu, S R Bharathidevi, Sarangapani Sripriya, Parveen Sen, Vadivelu Jaya Prakash, Appukuttan Bindu, Natarajan Viswanathan, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease causing visual impairment in old age. Oxidative stress is one of the main contributors for the disease progression. Paraoxonase (PON), a HDL-resident antioxidant enzyme which removes oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which is not studied much in AMD. This study assesses the PON activities in relation to the lipid status and genetic variants in AMD patients. In this prospective case-control study, a total of 48 AMD patients and 30 unrelated healthy controls were recruited...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Daniela Gradinaru, Denisa Margina, Claudia Borsa, Cristina Ionescu, Mihaela Ilie, Marieta Costache, Anca Dinischiotu, Gabriel-Ioan Prada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the serum levels of adiponectin and systemic oxidative stress exerted on lipids, proteins, as well as endothelial function and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk markers, in elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: The serum advanced glycation and oxidation protein products, low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation (oxLDL), nitric oxide metabolic pathway products (NOx), serum lipid peroxidation, as well as total antioxidant/oxidative capacity (TAC/TOC), were analyzed in elderly subjects with MS (n = 44), compared to aged-matched control (n = 39)...
September 29, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Tiina Vilmi-Kerälä, Outi Palomäki, Päivi Kankkunen, Leena Juurinen, Jukka Uotila, Ari Palomäki
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an indicator of future cardiovascular disease. We investigated if sensitive biomarkers of increased cardiovascular risk differ between women with and without a history of GDM few years after pregnancy, and whether obesity affects the results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied two cohorts - 120 women with a history of GDM and 120 controls, on average 3.7 years after delivery. Circulating concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were determined by ELISA...
September 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Sandra Wagner, Mugurel Apetrii, Ziad A Massy, Kleber E Marcus, Graciela E Delgado, Scharnagel Hubert, März Winfried, Marie Metzger, Patrick Rossignol, Alan Jardine, Hallvard Holdaas, Bengt Fellström, Roland Schmieder, Bénédicte Stengel, Faiez Zannad
Statin treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the general population, but it has little or no benefit in hemodialyzed patients (HD). This may reflect different underlying pathophysiology of CVD in patients treated with HD, maybe involving the oxidative stress. Our aim was to assess the association of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), determinated by Mercodia oxLDL ELISA Kit, with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in HD patients based on the AURORA trial (rosuvastatin vs placebo), and patients not on HD from the LURIC study...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Research
Juan Antonio López-Villodres, Miriam Abdel-Karim, José Pedro De La Cruz, María Dolores Rodríguez-Pérez, José Julio Reyes, Rocío Guzmán-Moscoso, Guillermo Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, José Antonio González-Correa
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on cardiovascular biomarkers and morphometric parameters of the arterial wall in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Seven groups of rats (N=10 per group) were studied for 2 months: nondiabetic rats (NDR), diabetic rats treated with saline (DR) and DR treated with HT (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.). DR had higher platelet aggregation values, higher thromboxane B2, plasma lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), myeloperoxidase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations, and lower aortic 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and nitric oxide production than NDR...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lei Xu, Yi-Ru Wang, Pei-Cheng Li, Bo Feng
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic macroangiopathy. Our previous study have found that AGEs can increase the lipid droplets accumulation in aortas of diabetic rats, but the current understanding of the mechanisms remains incomplete by which AGEs affect lipids accumulation in macrophages and accelerate atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of AGEs on lipids accumulation in macrophages and the possible molecular mechanisms including cholesterol influx, esterification and efflux of macrophages...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Paweł Burchardt, Agnieszka Zawada, Jolanta Kaczmarek, Justyna Marcinkaniec, Henryk Wysocki, Bogna Wierusz-Wysocka, Marian Grzymisławski, Janusz Rzeźniczak, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dariusz Naskręt
INTRODUCTION    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cholesteryl ester lipase (CEL) may oxidize low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of metformin on the metabolism of atherogenic lipid fractions in relation to Lp-PLA2 and CEL levels, as well as assess consequent improvement in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was an open-label randomized clinical trial that lasted 6 months...
August 25, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Hui Yan, Shuai Wang, Zhenwei Li, Zewei Sun, Jie Zan, Wenting Zhao, Yanyun Pan, Zhen Wang, Mingjie Wu, Jianhua Zhu
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis of macrophages contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. R‑spondin 2 (Rspo2), a member of the cysteine‑rich secreted proteins, has been shown to be involved in the oncogenesis of several types of cancer. It has also been found to be abundantly expressed among the four R‑spondin members in macrophages. The present study was performed to determine whether Rspo2 is involved in the ox‑LDL‑induced apoptosis of macrophages. It was identified that Rspo2 inhibited oxLDL‑induced apoptosis in the presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activator using flow cytometry...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
A L Henning, A S Venable, J L Vingren, D W Hill, B K McFarlin
BACKGROUND: Macrophage-derived foam cells are the predominant component of arterial plaques in the early stages of atherosclerosis. One factor that poses a major risk for plaque development is high levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as a result of a high-fat meal. In order to better understand how an individuals' diet affects arterial plaque deposition via the process of foam cell formation, we measured the acute circulating monocyte activity response after consuming a high-fat meal (85% of daily fat allowance)...
August 29, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Ali El-Bahrawy, Abdelmetalab Tarhuni, Hogyoung Kim, Venkat Subramaniam, Ilyes Benslimane, Zakaria Abd Elmajeed, Samuel Okpechi, Mohamed Ghonim, Ramadan Hemeida, Amira Abo-Yousef, Gamal El-Sherbiny, Ihab Abdel-Raheem, Jong Kim, Amarjit S Naura, Hamid Boulares
Although deficiency in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is linked to many diseases, its effect on colon homeostasis remains unknown.  ApoE appears to control inflammation by regulating NF-kB.  This study was designed to examine whether ApoE deficiency affects factors of colon integrity in vivo and given the likelihood that ApoE deficiency increases oxidized lipids and TNF-α, this study also examined whether such deficiency enhances the inflammatory potential of oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) and TNF-α, in colon epithelial cells in vitro   Here we show that ApoE deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation systemically and in colonic tissues as assessed by TNF-α levels...
August 18, 2016: Bioscience Reports
W de Munter, E J W Geven, A B Blom, B Walgreen, M M A Helsen, L A B Joosten, J Roth, T Vogl, F A J van de Loo, M I Koenders, W B van den Berg, P M van der Kraan, P L E M van Lent
OBJECTIVE: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in inflamed synovium is oxidized and taken-up by synoviocytes. In this study, we investigate whether direct injection of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) into a normal murine knee joint induces joint pathology and whether synovial macrophages are involved in that process. DESIGN: Synovium was obtained from end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) patients in order to analyze LDL-uptake. Murine knee joints were injected five consecutive days with oxLDL, LDL, or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline (PBS))...
August 8, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Xiaopeng Liu, Yue Tang, Yongchun Cui, Hong Zhang, Dong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy participates in plaque formation and progression; however, its association with foam cells' fate is unknown. To investigate autophagy features and its effect on the fate of different-stage macrophage foam cells (FCs). Different-stage FCs were obtained through incubation of THP-1 macrophages (THP-M) with oxidized low-density lipoprotein LDL (oxLDL, 80 μg/mL) for various durations (0-72 h). Autophagy in THP-1 macrophage FCs and in apoE-/- mice was regulated by Rapamycin (80 ug/mL) or 3-MA (10 mM)...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
T Houben, E Brandsma, S M A Walenbergh, M H Hofker, R Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is viewed as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is a condition hallmarked by lipid accumulation in the liver (steatosis) along with inflammation (hepatitis). Currently, the etiology and mechanisms leading to obesity-induced liver inflammation are not clear and, as a consequence, strategies to diagnose or treat NASH in an accurate manner do not exist. In the current review, we put forward the concept of oxidized lipids as a significant risk factor for NASH...
July 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chin-Sheng Lin, Pang-Yen Liu, Chen-Hao Lian, Ching-Heng Lin, Jenn-Haung Lai, Ling-Jun Ho, Shih-Ping Yang, Shu-Meng Cheng
BACKGROUND: Macrophages can imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors to become foam cells, which is critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Mounting evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory nature of Chinese herbs have the capacity to halt the complex mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. This study examined the effects of Chinese herbs on foam cell formation. METHODS: Chinese herbs were obtained from the Sun Ten pharmaceutic company...
July 2016: Acta Cardiol Sin
John G Babish, Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, William J Keller, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Holly Brabazon, Joseph Lamb, Hani C Soudah, Xiaolan Kou, Zhe Zhang, Linda M Pacioretty, Matthew L Tripp
We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen...
May 31, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yanchun Li, Zhongyang Lu, Yan Huang, Maria F Lopes-Virella, Gabriel Virella
Considerable evidence is available supporting the atherogenic role of immune complexes (IC) formed by modified forms of LDL and their corresponding antibodies in humans and other species. In this study, we assessed the effect of IgG F(ab')2 fragments of murine anti-mouse oxLDL, which binds oxLDL forming IC that cannot interact with Fcγ receptors, on the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that treatment with the F(ab')2 fragments for 8weeks significantly reduced the content of macrophages and interleukin 6 expression in atherosclerotic lesions...
July 22, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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