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María Garrido-Arandia, Bruno Cuevas-Zuviría, Araceli Díaz-Perales, Luis F Pacios
Saposins are small proteins implicated in trafficking and loading of lipids onto Cluster of Differentiation 1 (CD1) receptor proteins that in turn present lipid antigens to T cells and a variety of T-cell receptors, thus playing a crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses in humans. Despite their low sequence identity, the four types of human saposins share a similar folding pattern consisting of four helices linked by three conserved disulfide bridges. However, their lipid-binding abilities as well as their activities in extracting, transporting and loading onto CD1 molecules a variety of sphingo- and phospholipids in biological membranes display two striking characteristics: a strong pH-dependence and a structural change between a compact, closed conformation and an open conformation...
February 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M L Cuellar-Nuñez, I Luzardo-Ocampo, R Campos-Vega, M A Gallegos-Corona, E González de Mejía, G Loarca-Piña
Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is a plant that has generated great interest in recent years because of its attributed medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds of moringa leaves (MO) and evaluate their effect on a colorectal carcinogenesis model. Twenty-four male CD-1 mice were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 fed with basal diet (negative control/NC); Group 2 received AOM/DSS (positive control); Groups 3 and 4 were fed with basal diet supplemented with moringa leaves (2...
March 2018: Food Research International
Yanhong Sun, Shuqi Wang, Jianbo Ji, Guangxi Zhai, Jie Xing
Naphthoquine (NQ) is one of important partner drugs of Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum. NQ shows a high cure rate after a single oral administration. It is absorbed quickly (Tmax 2-4 h) and has a long elimination half-life (255 h). However, the metabolism of NQ has not been clarified. In this work, the metabolite profiling of NQ was studied in six liver microsomal incubates (human, cynomolgus monkey, beagle dog, mini pig, rat and CD1 mouse), seven recombinant CYP enzymes (1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) and rat (plasma, urine, bile and feces ) using liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMSn ) in conjunction with online H/D exchange...
February 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Doreen Nguyen, Bert Ely
Bacteriophages remain an understudied component of bacterial communities. Therefore, our laboratory has initiated an effort to isolate large numbers of bacteriophages that infect Caulobacter crescentus to provide an estimate of the diversity of bacteriophages that infect this common environmental bacterium. The majority of the new isolates are phicbkviruses, a genus of giant viruses that appear to be Caulobacter specific. However, we have also isolated several Podoviruses with icosahedral heads and small tails...
February 8, 2018: Current Microbiology
Richard Van Krieken, Mandeep Marway, Pavithra Parthasarathy, Neel Mehta, Alistar J Ingram, Bo Gao, Joan C Krepinsky
Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is an important potential mediator of kidney fibrosis, and is known to be upregulated in diabetic nephropathy. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of SREBP inhibition as treatment for diabetic nephropathy.Type 1 diabetes was induced in uninephrectomized male CD1 mice with streptozotocin. Mice were treated with the SREBP inhibitor fatostatin for 12 weeks. At endpoint, kidney function and pathology were assessed. Fatostatin inhibited the increase of both isoforms of SREBP (1 and 2) in diabetic kidneys...
February 5, 2018: Endocrinology
Akira Otabe, Fumio Ohta, Asuka Takumi, Barry Lynch
Two studies were conducted to further assess its mutagenic and genotoxic potential. In a bacterial reverse mutation pre-incubation study, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA were treated with aspartame at concentrations of up to 5000 μg/plate with or without metabolic activation and showed no mutagenic potential. Similarly, in vivo micronucleus testing of aspartame following gavage administration (500-2000 mg/kg body weight) to Crlj:CD1(ICR) strain SPF male mice showed no increase in the proportion of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells collected and evaluated 24 or 48 h post administration...
February 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Danúbia Silva Dos Santos, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Isalira Peroba Rezende Ramos, Fernanda Cristina Paccola Mesquita, Tais Hanae Kasai-Brunswick, Michelle Lopes Araújo Christie, Gustavo Monnerat Cahli, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Sandro Torrentes da Cunha, Jonathas Xavier Pereira, Emiliano Medei, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (Dox) is a chemotherapy drug with limited application due to cardiotoxicity that may progress to heart failure. This study aims to evaluate the role of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (CM-mESCs) in the treatment of Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC) in mice. METHODS: The mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) line E14TG2A was characterized by karyotype analysis, gene expression using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Cells were transduced with luciferase 2 and submitted to cardiac differentiation...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jeroen F Vermeulen, Wim Van Hecke, Elisabeth J M Adriaansen, Mieke K Jansen, Rianne G Bouma, José Villacorta Hidalgo, Paul Fisch, Roel Broekhuizen, Wim G M Spliet, Marcel Kool, Niels Bovenschen
Pediatric medulloblastomas are the most frequently diagnosed embryonal tumors of the central nervous system. Current therapies cause severe neurological and cognitive side effects including secondary malignancies. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve survival and to avoid morbidity. Efficient killing of tumor cells using immunotherapy requires to overcome cancer-associated strategies to evade cytotoxic immune responses. Here, we examined the immune response and immune evasion strategies in pediatric medulloblastomas...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Charlotte A James, Krystle K Q Yu, Martine Gilleron, Jacques Prandi, Vijayendar R Yedulla, Zuzanna Z Moleda, Eleonora Diamanti, Momin Khan, Varinder K Aggarwal, Josephine F Reijneveld, Peter Reinink, Stefanie Lenz, Ryan O Emerson, Thomas J Scriba, Michael N T Souter, Dale I Godfrey, Daniel G Pellicci, D Branch Moody, Adriaan J Minnaard, Chetan Seshadri, Ildiko Van Rhijn
Mycobacterial cell wall lipids bind the conserved CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules and activate T cells via their T cell receptors (TCRs). Sulfoglycolipids (SGLs) are uniquely synthesized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but tools to study SGL-specific T cells in humans are lacking. We designed a novel hybrid synthesis of a naturally occurring SGL, generated CD1b tetramers loaded with natural or synthetic SGL analogs, and studied the molecular requirements for TCR binding and T cell activation...
January 29, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Wael Awad, Jérôme Le Nours, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I related molecule MR1 is a monomorphic and evolutionary conserved antigen (Ag)-presenting molecule that shares the overall architecture of MHC-I and CD1 proteins. However, in contrast to MHC-I and the CD1 family that present peptides and lipids, respectively, MR1 specifically presents small organic molecules. During microbial infection of mammalian cells, MR1 captures and presents vitamin B precursors, derived from the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin, on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs)...
February 2, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jaime Felipe Guerrero-Garzón, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Fernando Zamudio, Gerardo Corzo, Alejandro Alagón, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez
The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) represent an extremely diverse protein family in elapid venoms, where the short chain α-neurotoxins are the most relevant toxin group from the clinical point of view. Essentially, the 3FTxs variability and the low proportions of α-neurotoxins in the venoms of North American coral snakes make it difficult to obtain effective elapid antivenoms against the envenomation symptoms caused mainly by these α-neurotoxins. In this work, thirty 3FTx transcript sequences were obtained from the venom glands of four coral snake species from Mexico (M...
January 29, 2018: Biochimie
Chaoping Liu, Chun Yuen Ho, Roberto Dos Reis, Yishu Foo, Pengfei Guo, Juan Antonio Zapien, Wladek Walukiewicz, Kinman Yu
In this work, we have synthesized Cd1-xGaxO1+δ alloy thin films at room temperature over the entire composition range by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. We found that alloy films with high Ga contents of x>0.3 are amorphous. Amorphous Cd1-xGaxO1+δ alloys in the composition range of 0.3<x<0.5 exhibit high electron mobility of 10-20 cm2 V-1s-1 with resistivity in the range of 10-2 to high 10-4 Ω-cm range. The resistivity of the amorphous alloys can also be controlled over 5 orders of magnitude from 7×10-4 Ω-cm to 77 Ω-cm by doping with oxygen...
February 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Katsuhiro Nagata, Yujin Suto, John Cognetti, Kevin D Browne, Kenichiro Kumasaka, Victoria E Johnson, Lewis Kaplan, Joshua Marks, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
BACKGROUND: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) administered immediately after TBI reduces brain leukocyte (LEU) accumulation, and enhances early cognitive recovery, but may increase bleeding after injury. It is unknown how non-anticoagulant heparins such as 2,3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH), impact post-TBI cerebral inflammation and long term recovery. We hypothesized that ODSH after TBI reduces LEU-mediated brain inflammation and improves long term neurological recovery. METHODS: CD1 male mice (n=66) underwent either TBI (controlled cortical impact; CCI) or sham craniotomy...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Cristina Sánchez, Kiwamu Minamisawa
Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide gas by respiratory nitrite reductases (NiRs) is the key step of denitrification. Denitrifiers are strictly divided into two functional groups based on whether they possess the copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) encoded by nirK or the cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase (cdNiR) encoded by nirS. Recently, some organisms carrying both nirK and nirS genes have been found. Bradyrhizobium oligotrophicum S58 is a nitrogen-fixing oligotrophic bacterium that carries a set of genes for complete denitrification of nitrate to dinitrogen, including nirK and nirS genes...
January 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Robert Greite, Anja Thorenz, Rongjun Chen, Mi-Sun Jang, Song Rong, Michael J Brownstein, Susanne Tewes, Li Wang, Bita Baniassad, Torsten Kirsch, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Martin Meier, Hermann Haller, Katja Hueper, Faikah Gueler
Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a severe complication after major surgery and a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated potential mechanisms, which contribute to IRI induced progression to chronic kidney disease. Acute kidney injury was induced by unilateral IRI for 35 min in CD1 and C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Unilateral IRI was chosen in order to overcome mortality. Renal morphology, NGAL up-regulation, and neutrophil infiltration as well as peritubular capillary density was studied by immunohistochemistry...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Srinivasan Sundararaj, Jingjing Zhang, S Harsha Krovi, Romain Bedel, Kathryn D Tuttle, Natacha Veerapen, Gurdyal S Besra, Yogesh Khandokar, T Praveena, Jérôme Le Nours, Jennifer L Matsuda, Jamie Rossjohn, Laurent Gapin
MHC class I-like CD1 molecules have evolved to present lipid-based antigens to T cells. Differences in the antigen-binding clefts of the CD1 family members determine the conformation and size of the lipids that are presented, although the factors that shape CD1 diversity remain unclear. In mice, two homologous genes, CD1D1 and CD1D2, encode the CD1d protein, which is essential to the development and function of natural killer T (NKT) cells. However, it remains unclear whether both CD1d isoforms are equivalent in their antigen presentation capacity and functions...
January 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qiang Zhang, Xinpeng Gao, Yanyun Ren, Xinhua Ding, Jiajia Qiu, Ning Li, Fanchang Zeng, Zhaohui Chu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stephanie Gras, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Adam Shahine, Jérôme Le Nours
The immune system has evolved to protect hosts from pathogens. T cells represent a critical component of the immune system by their engagement in host defence mechanisms against microbial infections. Our knowledge of the molecular recognition by T cells of pathogen-derived peptidic antigens that are presented by the major histocompatibility complex glycoproteins is now well established. However, lipids represent an additional, distinct chemical class of molecules that when presented by the family of CD1 antigen-presenting molecules can serve as antigens, and be recognized by specialized subsets of T cells leading to antigen-specific activation...
January 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mohammad I Rahman, Iffat Jahan, Mir M Khalid, Israt Jahan, Rijwan U Ahammad, Shamsun Nahar, Zhahirul Islam
The post-infectious autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is triggered by molecular mimicry between microbial glycolipid antigens and human peripheral nerve gangliosides. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 2 of CD1A (*01/*02) and CD1E (*01/*02) were assessed using PCR-RFLP; no significant differences in genotype or allele frequency were observed between 200 patients with GBS and 200 healthy controls. CD1 gene polymorphisms cannot be recognized as a susceptibility or disease-causative factor for GBS in the Bangladeshi population...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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