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Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Sreya Bagchi, Sha Li, Chyung-Ru Wang
Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer treatment is an emerging field of study. Till now, several tumor-derived, peptide-specific T cell responses have been harnessed for treating cancers. However, the contribution of lipid-specific T cells in tumor immunity has been understudied. CD1 molecules, which present self- and foreign lipid antigens to T cells, are divided into group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d). Although the role of CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT) in several tumor models has been well established, the contribution of group 1 CD1-restricted T cells in tumor immunity remains obscure due to the lack of group 1 CD1 expression in mice...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Jan Čáp
Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads to thyroid dysfunction in up to one half of treated patients, hypothyroidism being the most common. It is caused by destructive thyroiditis, impaired transport of T4 into the cell and deiodinase induction. Bexarotene is a nuclear retinoid X receptor agonist. Its application is accompanied with central hypothyroidism and hypertriglyceriaemia in virtually all patients and it also increases thyroxin metabolism. Autoimmune endocrine side effects are common in cancer immunotherapy...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Andrew Kohut, Nishi Patel, Harpreet Singh
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive high-resolution echocardiography to evaluate cardiovascular function of small animals is increasingly being used due to availability of genetically engineered murine models. Even though guidelines and standard values for humans were revised by the American Society of Echocardiography, evaluations on murine models are not performed according to any standard protocols. These limitations are preventing translation of preclinical evaluations to clinical meaningful conclusions...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Keisuke Ejima, Peng Li, Daniel L Smith, Tim R Nagy, Inga Kadish, Thomas van Groen, John A Dawson, Yongbin Yang, Amit Patki, David B Allison
BACKGROUND: Differing opinions exist on whether associations obtained in observational studies can be reliable indicators of a causal effect if the observational study is sufficiently well controlled and executed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this, we conducted two animal observational studies that were rigorously controlled and executed beyond what is achieved in studies of humans. In study 1, we randomized 332 genetically identical C57BL/6J mice into three diet groups with differing food energy allotments and recorded individual self-selected daily energy intake and lifespan...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wen-Huan Huang, Jia-Zhi Li, Lu-Sha Gao, Yan-Xin Wang, Shu-Ya Liu, Min Jiang, Tong Liu, Yao-Yu Wang
Based on Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and 4,4'-((5-carboxy-1,3-phenylene)bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid (H3cpbda), two isomeric coordination polymers, {[Cd1.5(cpbda)(bpa)(H2O)2]·1.5H2O}n (1), [Cd(H2cpbda)2(bpa)0.5(H2O)]n (2), were synthesized by using different solvent-systems. The complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Owing to the obvious structural difference between the two isomeric complexes, the further fluorescence sensing and dye selection and adsorption were investigated...
September 27, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jianli Liang, Yuan Ma, Jian Wu, Feng Cheng, Bo Liu, Xiaowu Wang
Using map-based cloning, we delimited the Ms - cd1 gene responsible for the male sterile phenotype in B. oleracea to an approximately 39-kb fragment. Expression analysis suggests that a new predicted gene, a homolog of the Arabidopsis SIED1 gene, is a potential candidate gene. A dominant genic male sterile (DGMS) mutant 79-399-3 in Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) is controlled by a single gene named Ms-cd1, which was genetically mapped on chromosome C09. The derived DGMS lines of 79-399-3 have been successfully applied in hybrid cabbage breeding and commercial hybrid seed production of several B...
October 4, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Haijun Bao, Xiaofang Yang, Ying Zhuang, Yuxiu Huang, Tao Wang, Mingyang Zhang, Dingkun Dai, Shaoxian Wang, Hua Xiao, Gengping Huang, Jinxia Kuai, Luyang Tao
Poloxamer 188 (P188) has been reported to reseal plasma membranes and attenuate TBI-induced neuronal death by suppressing apoptosis. Recent studies also confirm increased autophagy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of plasmalemmal resealing by P188 on neuronal autophagy in TBI. Scratch test was performed in rat cell line PC-12 in vitro, followed by immunofluorescence analysis of LC3 24h after PC-12 cell stretch-injury in vitro. CD1 mice were randomized into saline and P188-treatment groups (both undergoing intravenous injection of 4mg/ml, 100μl via the caudal vein 30min after TBI) as well as sham group...
September 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Aranzazu Duque, Concepción Vinader-Caerols, Santiago Monleón
We have previously observed impairing effects of social defeat stress (CSDS) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) in mice. Given the similarity between changes produced by social stress in animals and symptoms of certain human psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, the effects of the antidepressant clomipramine on IA impairment produced by CSDS were evaluated in the present study. Male CD1 mice were randomly assigned to the groups: non-stressed+saline, non-stressed+clomipramine, stressed+saline and stressed+clomipramine...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Parin Kamseng, Satariya Trakulsrichai, Objoon Trachoo, Walaiporn Yimniam, Bhakbhoom Panthan, Paisan Jittorntam, Pimjai Niparuck, Pitsucha Sanguanwit, Winai Wananukul, Sumalee Jindadamrongwech
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cause(s) of a Thai male proband presenting low oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and severe anemia. METHODS: As Hb variant was suspected, Hb typing was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, and subsequently Hb variant was identified by DNA sequencing. Complete blood counts were performed using automated blood cell counter and oxygen saturation was measured by pulse oximetry. RESULTS: Proband was compound heterozygous for Hb Louisville [β42(CD1)Phe→Leu] and Hb La Desirade [β129(H7)Ala→Val]...
September 27, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
R Jarrett, G Ogg
Langerhans cells express constitutively high levels of CD1a, a member of the CD1 family of molecules which are known to present lipid antigens to T cells. Whilst much human skin immunology research has focussed on the function of T cells which recognise peptides presented by HLA molecules, in contrast few studies have addressed the role of CD1a and lipid antigens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disease. House dust mite and bee and wasp venom extracts were found to generate CD1a reactivity, but paradoxically this function was within the protein and not lipid fraction...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Jenson Qi, Wensheng Lang, Margery A Connelly, Fuyong Du, Yin Liang, Gary W Caldwell, Tonya Martin, Michael K Hansen, Gee-Hong Kuo, Michael D Gaul, Alessandro Pocai, Seunghun Lee
Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol (DAG) from free fatty acids (FFA) and sn-monoacylglycerol (MG), the two major hydrolysis products of dietary fat. To demonstrate MGAT2-mediated cellular activity of triglyceride (TG) synthesis, we utilized 1-oleoyl-glycerol-d5 as a substrate to trace MGAT2-driven 1-oleoyl-glycerol-d5 incorporation into TG in HEK293 cells stably expressing human MGAT2. The oleoyl-glycerol-d5 incorporated major TG species were then quantified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) in a 96-well format...
September 22, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Sumana Chakravarty, Priya Jhelum, Unis Ahmad Bhat, Wenson D Rajan, Swati Maitra, Salil S Pathak, Anant B Patel, Arvind Kumar
Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Therapeutic interventions to minimize ischemia-induced neural damage are limited due to poor understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating complex pathophysiology in stroke. Recently, epigenetic mechanisms mostly histone lysine (K) acetylation and deacetylation have been implicated in ischemic brain damage and have expanded the dimensions of potential therapeutic intervention to the systemic/ local administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Martine Gilleron, Marco Lepore, Emilie Layre, Diane Cala-De Paepe, Naila Mebarek, James A Shayman, Stéphane Canaan, Lucia Mori, Frédéric Carrière, Germain Puzo, Gennaro De Libero
Complex antigens require processing within antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to form T cell stimulatory complexes with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. It remains unknown whether lipids with multi-acylated moieties also necessitate digestion by lipases to become capable of binding CD1 molecules and stimulate T cells. Here, we show that the mycobacterial tetra-acylated glycolipid antigens phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIM) are digested to di-acylated forms by pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) and lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) within APCs...
September 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Sy-Jye Leu, Yi-Yuan Yang, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Yu-Chen Wu, Ming-Chyi Huang, Yuen-Lun Lee, Chi-Ching Chen, Winston W Shen, Ko-Jiunn Liu
Valproic acid (VPA), with inhibition activity mainly towards histone deacetylase (HDAC) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3, and lithium, with inhibition activity mainly toward GSK-3, are both prescribed in clinical as mood-stabilizers and anticonvulsants for the control of bipolar disorder. This study aims to compare the immuno-modulation activities of VPA and lithium, especially on the differentiation and functions of dendritic cells (DC). Our data show that treatment with VPA or lithium effectively alleviated the severity of collagen-induced arthritis triggered by LPS in mice...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mahmoud T Abo-Elfadl, Amira M Gamal-Eldeen, Mostafa M Elshafey, Gamil M Abdalla, Shawkey S Ali, Moustafa R K Ali, Mahmoud F M Zawrah
BACKGROUND: The photothermal properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are promising therapeutic modality for cancer. The study objective is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the prepared PEGylated gold nano-semicubes (PEG-GNSCs) in skin cancer. The synthesized PEG-GNSCs were intermediate between cubic and rod shapes (low aspect ratio- rods). METHODS: In vitro toxicity was investigated in human skin melanoma Sk-Mel-28 cells, and skin squamous cell carcinoma was induced in CD1 mice by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Luc Van Kaer, Lan Wu, Sebastian Joyce
The CD1 proteins are a family of non-polymorphic and MHC class I-related molecules that present lipid antigens to subsets of T lymphocytes with innate- or adaptive-like immune functions. Recent studies have provided new insight into the identity of immunogenic CD1 antigens and the mechanisms that control the generation and loading of these antigens onto CD1 molecules. Furthermore, substantial progress has been made in identifying CD1-restricted T cells and decoding the diverse immunological functions of distinct CD1-restricted T cell subsets...
September 9, 2016: Trends in Immunology
Elisa Principi, Rossana Girardello, Antonino Bruno, Isabella Manni, Elisabetta Gini, Arianna Pagani, Annalisa Grimaldi, Federico Ivaldi, Terenzio Congiu, Daniela De Stefano, Giulia Piaggio, Magda de Eguileor, Douglas M Noonan, Adriana Albini
The increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in several industrial applications raises concerns on their potential toxicity due to factors such as tissue penetrance, small dimensions, and biopersistence. Using an in vivo model for CNT environmental exposure, mimicking CNT exposition at the workplace, we previously found that CNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in the lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidneys via the bloodstream in CD1 mice. Here, we monitored and traced the accumulation of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs), administered systemically in mice, in different organs and the subsequent biological responses...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Cristian Berce, Ciprian Lucan, Bobe Petrushev, Sanda Boca, Mirela Miclean, Orsolya Sarpataki, Simion Astilean, Anca Buzoianu, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Anca Bojan
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed at evaluating the biodistribution of Tween(®) 20-gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates and their potential toxicity on the bone marrow before moving on to Phase I clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tween(®) 20-conjugated GNPs were injected intravenously for 21 days in male Crl:CD1(ICR) mice. Body weight of the mice was evaluated each day. After the sub-chronic Tween(®) 20-GNPs administration, blood samples were harvested, and a full blood count was done individually...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hong Du, Kuang Liang, Cheng-Zong Yuan, Hong-Li Guo, Xiao Zhou, Yi-Fan Jiang, An-Wu Xu
In this work, we report the synthesis of Cd1-xZnxS zinc blende/wurtzite (ZB/WZ) heterophase nanojunctions with highly efficient charge separation by a solvothermal method in a mixed solution of diethylenetriamine (DETA) and distilled water. l-Cysteine was selected as a sulfur source and a protecting ligand for stabilization of the ZB/WZ homojunction. The optimal ternary chalcogenide Cd0.7Zn0.3S elongated nanocrystals (NCs) without any cocatalyst loading show very high visible light photocatalytic activity with H2 production efficiency of 3...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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