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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335277/receptor-meditated-endocytosis-by-hyaluronic-acid-superparamagnetic-nanovetor-for-targeting-of-cd44-overexpressing-tumor-cells
#1
Kwang Sik Yu, Meng Meng Lin, Hyun-Ju Lee, Ki-Sik Tae, Bo-Sun Kang, Je Hun Lee, Nam Seob Lee, Young Gil Jeong, Seung-Yun Han, Do Kyung Kim
The present report proposes a more rational hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugation protocol that can be used to modify the surface of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by covalently binding the targeting molecules (HA) with glutamic acid as a molecular linker on peripheral surface of SPIONs. The synthesis of HA-Glutamic Acid (GA)@SPIONs was included oxidization of nanoparticle's surface with H₂O₂ followed by activation of hydroxyl group and reacting glutamic acid as an intermediate molecule demonstrating transfection of lung cancer cells...
August 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335269/galactosylated-liposomes-for-targeted-co-delivery-of-doxorubicin-vimentin-sirna-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Hea Ry Oh, Hyun-Young Jo, James S Park, Dong-Eun Kim, Je-Yoel Cho, Pyung-Hwan Kim, Keun-Sik Kim
The combination of therapeutic nucleic acids and chemotherapeutic drugs has shown great promise for cancer therapy. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) targeting-ligand-based liposomes were tested to determine whether they can co-deliver vimentin siRNA and doxorubicin to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selectively. To achieve this goal, we developed an ASGPR receptor targeted co-delivery system called gal-doxorubicin/vimentin siRNA liposome (Gal-DOX/siRNA-L). The Gal-DOX/siRNA-L was created via electrostatic interaction of galactose linked-cationic liposomal doxorubicin (Gal-DOX-L) on vimentin siRNA...
July 30, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335103/correlation-between-gastric-emptying-and-gastric-adaptive-relaxation-influenced-by-amino-acids
#3
Masayuki Uchida, Orie Kobayashi, Chizuru Saito
Background/Aims: Amino acids have many physiological activities. We report the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation using tryptophan and amino acids with a straight alkyl chain, hydroxylated chain, and branched chain. Here we sought to further clarify the correlation between gastric emptying and gastric adaptive relaxation by using other amino acids. Methods: In Sprague-Dawley rats, gastric emptying was evaluated by a breath test using [1-¹³C] acetic acid...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334668/effect-of-glutamic-acid-on-copper-sorption-onto-kaolinite-batch-experiments-and-surface-complexation-modeling
#4
Lotfollah Karimzadeh, Robert Barthen, Madlen Stockmann, Marion Gruendig, Karsten Franke, Johanna Lippmann-Pipke
High carbonate content of the European Kupferschiefer ore deposits is a challenge for acid copper leaching (pH ≤ 2). Therefore investigating the mobility behavior of Cu(II) under conditions related to an alternative, neutrophil biohydrometallurgical Cu(II) leaching approach is of interest. As glutamic acid (Glu) might be present as a component in the growth media, we studied its effects on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto kaolinite. The binary and ternary batch sorption measurements of Cu(II) and Glu onto kaolinite were performed in the presence of 10 mM NaClO4 as background electrolyte and at a pH range from 4 to 9...
March 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334294/an-examination-of-the-role-of-l-glutamate-and-inosine-5-monophosphate-in-hedonic-taste-guided-behavior-by-mice-lacking-the-t1r1-t1r3-receptor
#5
Ginger D Blonde, Alan C Spector
The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332071/the-nutritive-value-of-marula-sclerocarya-birrea-seed-cake-for-broiler-chickens-nutritional-composition-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-oxidative-and-mycotoxin-status
#6
Doctor Mziwenkosi Nhlanhla Mthiyane, Bhekumusa Sabelo Mhlanga
This study was aimed at investigating the nutritive value of marula seed cake (MSC) as an alternative protein source for broilers. In a completely randomised design involving six replicate pens of five chickens assigned to each of five treatments, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and carcass characteristics were measured in an experiment in which 150 28-day-old broilers were fed maize-based diets containing, respectively, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% MSC at finisher phase. The results showed MSC to be remarkably high in CP (470...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332017/the-relationship-between-the-renal-reabsorption-of-cysteine-and-the-lowered-urinary-ph-in-diabetics
#7
Susumu Ogawa, Junko Takiguchi, Manami Shimizu, Kazuhiro Nako, Masashi Okamura, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Sadayoshi Ito
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In diabetic patients, reduced urinary pH (UpH) is a predictive factor for cardiorenal-vascular disorders. Synthesis of glutathione, an anti-oxidative stress substance, is induced to counteract renal oxidative stress. UpH declines as glutamate is consumed, as does the synthesis of ammonia from glutamate. Glutathione is synthesized from glutamate and cysteine; however, in diabetes, the relationship between lowered UpH and the roles of renal amino acids is unknown. We, therefore, examined the relationship between amino-acid kinetics, UpH, and renal function...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331578/trophic-discrimination-factor-of-nitrogen-isotopes-within-amino-acids-in-the-dobsonfly-protohermes-grandis-megaloptera-corydalidae-larvae-in-a-controlled-feeding-experiment
#8
Naoto F Ishikawa, Fumio Hayashi, Yoko Sasaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi
The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331060/proximal-tubule-glutamine-synthetase-expression-is-necessary-for-the-normal-response-to-dietary-protein-restriction
#9
Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Mary E Handlogten, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330270/expression-and-purification-of-a-gene-encoding-a-9-7%C3%A2-kda-pe-protein-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis
#10
S Chandra Sekar, P P Goswami, R Deb
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) contains PE family antigens which are Proline and glutamic acid rich and may play important role as T-cell antigens. In the present study, the Map 1507 ORF encoding 9.7 kDa PE protein was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into E. coli vector pQE30 UA. The recombinant plasmid designated as pQ PE was transformed into E. coli M15 cells and induced with IPTG revealed the high level expression of 11.9 kDa His-fusion protein as estimated by migration in 15 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328738/inhibition-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-by-high-fat-diets-is-it-related-to-an-effect-of-palmitic-acid-involving-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3
#11
Ana Contreras, Danila Del Rio, Ana Martínez, Carmen Gil, Lidia Morales, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo, Nuria Del Olmo
High-fat diets (HFD) impair hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and produce important changes in synaptic transmission by enhancing glutamate uptake, decreasing synaptic efficacy, and inhibiting plasticity mechanisms such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated long-term depression (LTD) within the hippocampus. Adolescent animals seem to be particularly susceptible to the detrimental effect of HFD as dietary treatments carried out between weaning and early adulthood are much more efficient in terms of hippocampal damage that those carried out during the adult period...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328212/cu-ii-based-paramagnetic-probe-to-study-rna-protein-interactions-by-nmr
#12
Leah M Seebald, Christopher M DeMott, Srivathsan Ranganathan, Papa Nii Asare Okai, Anastasia Glazunova, Alan Chen, Alexander Shekhtman, Maksim Royzen
Paramagnetic NMR techniques allow for studying three-dimensional structures of RNA-protein complexes. In particular, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data can provide valuable information about long-range distances between different structural components. For PRE NMR experiments, oligonucleotides are typically spin-labeled using nitroxide reagents. The current work describes an alternative approach involving a Cu(II) cyclen-based probe that can be covalently attached to an RNA strand in the vicinity of the protein's binding site using "click" chemistry...
March 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327992/cyst-fluid-from-cystic-malignant-brain-tumors-a-reservoir-of-nutrients-including-growth-factor-like-nutrients-for-tumor-cells
#13
Daniel Dahlberg, Eduard A Struys, Erwin E Jansen, Lars Mørkrid, Øivind Midttun, Bjørnar Hassel
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth. OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors. RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3...
January 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326936/a-role-for-the-locus-coeruleus-in-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-n-acetylaspartylglutamate-peptidase-gcpii-inhibitors-zj43-and-2-pmpa
#14
Takahiro Nonaka, Toshihiko Yamada, Tatsuhiro Ishimura, Daiying Zuo, John R Moffett, Joseph H Neale, Tatsuo Yamamoto
N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is the third most prevalent and widely distributed neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. NAAG activates a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR3) and is inactivated by an extracellular enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) in vivo. Inhibitors of this enzyme are analgesic in animal models of inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pain. NAAG and GCPII are present in the locus coeruleus, a center for the descending noradrenergic inhibitory pain system...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326749/a-case-of-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-i-with-strong-positive-gad-antibody-titer-followed-up-with-glucose-tolerance-measured-by-oral-glucose-tolerance-test
#15
(no author information available yet)
A 26-year-old Japanese woman presented with adrenal insufficiency, and treatment was started with cortisone and fludrocortisone in 1975. A few years later, she presented with hypoparathyroidism and was diagnosed with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I), and treatment with calcium and alfacalcidol was started. She was found to have subacute thyroiditis and relative adrenal failure in 2006. Her condition remained stable under treatment with cortisone, fludrocortisone, levothyroxine, calcium lactate, precipitated calcium carbonate and alfacalcidol...
January 22, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326087/arabidopsis-nac-transcription-factor-jungbrunnen1-exerts-conserved-control-over-gibberellin-and-brassinosteroid-metabolism-and-signaling-genes-in-tomato
#16
Sara Shahnejat-Bushehri, Annapurna D Allu, Nikolay Mehterov, Venkatesh P Thirumalaikumar, Saleh Alseekh, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Salma Balazadeh
The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (AtJUB1) regulates growth by directly repressing GA3ox1 and DWF4, two key genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, respectively, leading to GA and BR deficiency phenotypes. AtJUB1 also reduces the expression of PIF4, a bHLH transcription factor that positively controls cell elongation, while it stimulates the expression of DELLA genes, which are important repressors of growth. Here, we extend our previous findings by demonstrating that AtJUB1 induces similar GA and BR deficiency phenotypes and changes in gene expression when overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324172/enzymes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Laura López-Maside, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristina Sixto-Leal
Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324056/gabaergic-neurons-and-their-modulatory-effects-on-gnrh3-in-zebrafish
#18
Yanlong Song, Binbin Tao, Ji Chen, Shaoting Jia, Zuoyan Zhu, Vance L Trudeau, Wei Hu
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. To provide detailed information on the distribution of the GABA in zebrafish (Danio rerio), neurons were labeled with mCherry driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (gad67) promoter. In the transgenic line Tg(gad67:mCherry), mCherry-positive gad67 cell bodies were predominantly localized to the olfactory bulb, pallial zones, subpallium zones, parvocellular preoptic nucleus, periventricular gray zone of optic tectum, torus semicircularis, posterior tuberculum, medial longitudinal fascicle, caudal zone of periventricular hypothalamus, and oculomotor nucleus...
January 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#19
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323963/an-antibody-to-notch2-reverses-the-osteopenic-phenotype-of-hajdu-cheney-mutant-male-mice
#20
Ernesto Canalis, Archana Sanjay, Jungeun Yu, Stefano Zanotti
Notch receptors play a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), a disease characterized by osteoporosis and fractures, is associated with gain-of-NOTCH2 function mutations. To study HCS, we created a mouse model harboring a point 6955C>T mutation in the Notch2 locus upstream of the proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S) and threonine (T) domain leading to a Q2319X change at the amino acid level. Notch2Q2319X heterozygous mutants exhibited cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
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