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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#1
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346648/esrb-negatively-regulates-expression-of-the-glutamine-sythetase-glna-in-the-fish-pathogen-edwardsiella-piscicida
#2
Yunpeng Guan, Kaiyu Yin, Mian Zhou, Minjun Yang, Yuanxing Zhang, Xiaohong Liu, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen invading a wide range of fish species. Response regulator EsrB is essential for activation of type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS). In this study, proteomes of the wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and a ΔesrB mutant strains were compared to identify the regulon components of EsrB cultured in DMEM allowing T3/T6SS expression. As a result, 19 proteins showed different expression, which were identified to be associated with T3/T6SS, related to amino acid transport and metabolism, and energy production...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345446/the-first-south-american-case-of-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-to-select-compatible-embryo-for-cord-blood-transplantation-as-treatment-for-sickle-cell-anemia
#3
Ciro D Martinhago, Kalina Rn Endo, Mariana A Oliveira, Alex Mm Dias, Gislaine S Pereira, Augusto M Azzolini, Paula Rq Estrada, Caio G Bruzaca, Ana Carolina N Martinhago
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited systemic hemoglobinopathy that affects hemoglobin production in red blood cells, leading to early morbidity and mortality. It is caused by a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.20A>T) in the β-globin gene (HBB) that changes a glutamic acid to a valine in the protein. We present a case report of a fertile couple, both carriers of the sickle cell anemia mutation, with one affected daughter. Six cycles of assisted reproductive techniques were performed, resulting in 53 embryos in cleavage stage...
January 18, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344970/carbon-allocation-to-major-metabolites-in-illuminated-leaves-is-not-just-proportional-to-photosynthesis-when-gaseous-conditions-co2-and-o2-vary
#4
Cyril Abadie, Camille Bathellier, Guillaume Tcherkez
In gas-exchange experiments, manipulating CO2 and O2 is commonly used to change the balance between carboxylation and oxygenation. Downstream metabolism (utilization of photosynthetic and photorespiratory products) may also be affected by gaseous conditions but this is not well documented. Here, we took advantage of sunflower as a model species, which accumulates chlorogenate in addition to sugars and amino acids (glutamate, alanine, glycine and serine). We performed isotopic labelling with 13 CO2 under different CO2 /O2 conditions, and determined 13 C contents to compute 13 C-allocation patterns and build-up rates...
January 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344832/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-6-and-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-are-involved-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-roots-to-l-glutamate
#5
Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, Javier Raya-González, Gustavo Ravelo-Ortega, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Maricela Ramos-Vega, Patricia León, José López-Bucio, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García
The function and components of L-glutamate signaling pathways in plants have just begun to be elucidated. Here, using a combination of genetic and biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that a MAPK module is involved in the control of root developmental responses to this amino acid. Root system architecture plays an essential role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic factors via adjusting signal transduction and gene expression. L-Glutamate (L-Glu), an amino acid with neurotransmitter functions in animals, inhibits root growth, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344671/role-of-mir-34c-in-the-cognitive-function-of-epileptic-rats-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol
#6
Yiqing Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Yayun Liao, Donghua Zou, Xing Wei, Qi Huang, Yuan Wu
Studies suggest that microRNA (miR)‑34c may serve a role in cognitive function in rodent and primate groups. A previous study demonstrated an increase in miR‑34c expression in chronic epileptic rats with memory disorders, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of miR‑34c on cognitive function in epileptic rats remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in cognitive function in temporal lobe epileptic rats, induced by repeated injections of PTZ, following treatment with an miR‑34c agomir compared with a scramble group...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343517/early-infant-diet-and-islet-autoimmunity-in-the-teddy-study
#7
Ulla Uusitalo, Hye-Seung Lee, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Kendra Vehik, Jimin Yang, Sandra Hummel, Katherine Silvis, Åke Lernmark, Marian Rewers, William Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Olli Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey Krischer, Suvi M Virtanen, Jill M Norris
OBJECTIVE: To examine duration of breastfeeding and timing of complementary foods and risk of islet autoimmunity (IA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The TEDDY study prospectively follows 8,676 children with increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the U.S., Finland, Germany, and Sweden. This study included 7,563 children with at least 9 months of follow-up. Blood samples were collected every 3 months from birth to evaluate IA, defined as persistent, confirmed positive insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase, or insulinoma antigen-2...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341137/estimation-of-chronological-age-from-postmortem-tissues-based-on-amino-acid-racemization
#8
Sıtkı Tiplamaz, Mehmet Zafer Gören, Nurşen Turan Yurtsever
Skin and cartilage tissue specimens from 32 male and 13 female corpses aged between 17 and 50 years were collected within 24 h after the death. Each specimen was analyzed for the composition of dextro (D) and levo (L) forms of aspartate, glutamate, and alanine. Linear regression models were constructed using ln [(1 + D/L)/(1 - D/L] equation to define the relationship between the extent of racemization and the chronological age. Aspartate D/L rates from cartilage showed high correlation (r = 0.779, p < 0...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338930/neurologic-disorders-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-a-comparison-of-anti-gad-antibody-titers-and-time-dependent-changes-between-neurologic-disease-and-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Hideto Nakajima, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yuiko Inaba, Chiharu Tsutsumi, Kiichi Unoda, Takafumi Hosokawa, Fumiharu Kimura, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Masamichi Date, Haruko Kitaoka
To determine clinical features of neurologic disorders associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD-Ab), we examined titers and time-dependent changes of anti-GAD-Ab. Six patients, stiff person syndrome (2), cerebellar ataxia (1), limbic encephalitis (1), epilepsy (1), brainstem encephalitis (1), were compared with 87 type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without neurologic disorders. Anti-GAD-Ab titers and index were higher in neurologic disorders than in T1DM, suggesting intrathecal antibody synthesis...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338492/genetic-variation-of-gria3-gene-is-associated-with-vulnerability-to-methamphetamine-dependence-and-its-associated-psychosis
#10
Sri-Arun Iamjan, Samur Thanoi, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug commonly leading to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Disturbances in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been proposed as neurobiological mechanisms and the α-amino-3 hydroxy-5 methyl-4 isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor has been implicated in these processes. Moreover, genetic variants in GRIAs, genes encoding AMPA receptor subunits, have been observed in association with both drug dependence and psychosis. We hypothesized that variation of GRIA genes may be associated with METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335553/mutations-in-ppe38-block-pe_pgrs-secretion-and-increase-virulence-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Louis S Ates, Anzaan Dippenaar, Roy Ummels, Sander R Piersma, Aniek D van der Woude, Kim van der Kuij, Fabien Le Chevalier, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Carolina Guapillo, Connie R Jiménez, Arnab Pain, Edith N G Houben, Robin M Warren, Roland Brosch, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Wilbert Bitter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a large number of secreted and exported proteins for its virulence, immune modulation and nutrient uptake. Most of these proteins are transported by the different type VII secretion systems1,2. The most recently evolved type VII secretion system, ESX-5, secretes dozens of substrates belonging to the PE and PPE families, which are named for conserved proline and glutamic acid residues close to the amino terminus3,4. However, the role of these proteins remains largely elusive 1 ...
January 15, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335199/3-d-mineralized-silk-fibroin-polycaprolactone-composite-scaffold-modified-with-polyglutamate-conjugated-with-bmp-2-peptide-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#12
Jingjing Luo, Haitao Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Xiaokang Cui, Junjiu Gao, Xin Wang, Jie Xiong
In the field of bone tissue engineering, an ideal three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold should not only structurally mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) in large tissues but also mechanically support the bone healing process and provide biochemical cues to induce osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of functionalisation of scaffolds by coupling polyglutamate acid conjugated with BMP-2 peptide onto silk fibroin (SF)/polycaprolactone (PCL) (SF/PCL) blend nanofibers. The morphology, composition, and mineralisation, were confirmed by FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy...
December 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335069/functional-roles-of-glutamic-acid-e143-and-e705-residues-in-the-n-terminus-and-transmembrane-domain-7-of-anoctamin-1-in-calcium-and-noxious-heat-sensing
#13
Jonghyun Choi, Yongwoo Jang, Haedong Kim, Jungwon Wee, Sinyoung Cho, Woo Sung Son, Sung Min Kim, Young Duk Yang
Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is an anion channel that is activated by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and noxious heat. Although the critical roles of ANO1 have been elucidated in various cell types, the control of its gating mechanisms by Ca2+ and heat remain more elusive. To investigate critical amino acid residues for modulation of Ca2+ and heat sensing, we constructed a randomized mutant library for ANO1. Among 695 random mutants, reduced Ca2+ sensitivity was observed in two mutants (mutant 84 and 87). Consequently, the E143A mutant showed reduced sensitivity to Ca2+ but not to high temperatures, whereas the E705V mutant exhibited reduced sensitivity to both Ca2+ and noxious heat...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333693/polypeptide-polymer-brushes-by-light-induced-surface-polymerization-of-amino-acid-n-carboxyanhydrides
#14
Timo Stukenkemper, Xavier Paquez, M W G M Verhoeven, Emiel J M Hensen, Aylvin A Dias, Dermot F Brougham, Andreas Heise
Silicon wafers are decorated with photoamine generator 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl carbamate. UV-irradiation in the presence of benzyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride is carried out, resulting in the release of the surface-bound primary amines, making them viable N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerization initiators. Successful polypeptide grafting is confirmed by water contact angle measurements as well as by ellipsometry, revealing a poly(benzyl-l-glutamate) (PBLG) layer of ≈3 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of amide groups in the grafted PBLG while time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy provides additional evidence for the presence of PBLG on the surface...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333478/a-general-method-for-intracellular-protein-delivery-through-e-tag-protein-engineering-and-arginine-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#15
Rubul Mout, Vincent M Rotello
In this protocol, we describe a method for direct cytosolic protein delivery that avoids endosomal entrapment of the delivered proteins. We achieved this by tagging the desired protein with an oligo glutamic acid tag (E-tag), and subsequently using carrier gold nanoparticles to deliver these E-tagged proteins. When E-tagged proteins and nanoparticles were mixed, they formed nanoassemblies, which got fused to cell membrane upon incubation and directly released the E-tagged protein into cell cytosol. We used this method to deliver a wide variety of proteins with different sizes, charges, and functions in various cell lines (Mout et al...
December 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333041/pharmacological-evaluation-of-hepatoprotective-activity-of-ahpl-aytab-0613-tablet-in-carbon-tetrachloride-ethanol-and-paracetamol-induced-hepatotoxicity-models-in-wistar-albino-rats
#16
Sanjay U Nipanikar, Sohan S Chitlange, Dheeraj Nagore
Background: Hepatotoxicity ultimately leads to liver failure. Conventional treatment options for hepatotoxicity are limited and not safe. Objective: Formulation AHPL/AYTAB/0613 is developed to provide safer and effective hepatoprotective drug of natural origin. A study was conducted to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0613 (three dosages) in comparison with marketed formulations in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331744/urinary-metabolomics-study-the-mechanism-of-taohong-siwu-decoction-intervention-in-acute-blood-stasis-model-rats-based-on-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Xiaosong Zhang, Pengling Li, Yongli Hua, Peng Ji, Wanling Yao, Qi Ma, Ziwen Yuan, Yanqiao Wen, Chaoxue Yang, Yanming Wei
Taohong Siwu Decoction (TSD) is a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine and is widely used to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis. However, the effect mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here, a urinary metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) was conducted to explore the changes in the endogenous metabolites and to assess the integral efficacy of TSD on acute blood stasis model rats. Then, parameters for hemorheology and coagulation functions were detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330883/genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-individuals-with-pathogenic-rere-variants
#19
Valerie K Jordan, Brieana Fregeau, Xiaoyan Ge, Jessica Giordano, Ronald J Wapner, Tugce B Balci, Melissa T Carter, John A Bernat, Amanda N Moccia, Anshika Srivastava, Donna M Martin, Stephanie L Bielas, John Pappas, Melissa D Svoboda, Marlène Rio, Nathalie Boddaert, Vincent Cantagrel, Andrea M Lewis, Fernando Scaglia, Jennefer N Kohler, Jonathan A Bernstein, Annika M Dries, Jill A Rosenfeld, Colette DeFilippo, Willa Thorson, Yaping Yang, Elliott H Sherr, Weimin Bi, Daryl A Scott
Heterozygous variants in the arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (RERE) have been shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH). Here we report nine individuals with NEDBEH who carry partial deletions or deleterious sequence variants in RERE. These variants were found to be de novo in all cases in which parental samples were available. An analysis of data from individuals with NEDBEH suggests that point mutations affecting the Atrophin-1 domain of RERE are associated with an increased risk of structural eye defects, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies and sensorineural hearing loss when compared to loss-of-function variants that are likely to lead to haploinsufficiency...
January 13, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330181/a-novel-l-glutamate-exporter-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#20
Yu Wang, Guoqiang Cao, Deyu Xu, Liwen Fan, Xinyang Wu, Xiaomeng Ni, Shuxin Zhao, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyper-production of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. Identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for understanding and engineering of transport reactions. Herein, a novel l-glutamate exporter MscCG2 that extensively exists in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains but is distinct from the only known l-glutamate exporter MscCG was discovered in an industrial l-glutamate producing C...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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