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glutamic acid

Tomoki Nakayoshi, Koichi Kato, Shuichi Fukuyoshi, Ohgi Takahashi, Eiji Kurimoto, Akifumi Oda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Chirality
Laura J Marholz, Nicholas A Zeringo, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk, Laurie L Parker
A majority of the 90 human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are understudied "orphan" enzymes with few or no known substrates. Designing experiments aimed at assaying the catalytic activity of these PTKs has been a long-running problem. In the past, researchers have used polypeptides with a randomized 4:1 molar ratio of glutamic acid to tyrosine as general PTK substrates. However, these substrates are inefficient and perform poorly for many applications. In this work, we apply the KINATEST-ID pipeline for artificial kinase substrate discovery to design a set of candidate "universal" PTK peptide substrate sequences...
March 12, 2018: Biochemistry
Sven H Giese, Yasushi Ishihama, Juri Rappsilber
Hydrophilic strong anion exchange chromatography (hSAX) is becoming a popular method for the pre-fractionation of proteomic samples. However, the use and further development of this approach is affected by the limited understanding of its retention mechanism and the absence of elution time prediction. Using a set of 59,297 confidentially identified peptides, we performed an explorative analysis and built a predictive deep learning model. As expected, charged residues are the major contributors to the retention time through electrostatic interactions...
March 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Stefan E Payer, Hannah Pollak, Silvia M Glueck, Kurt Faber
The promiscuous regio- and stereoselective hydration of 4-hydroxystyrenes catalyzed by ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. (FDC_ Es ) depends on bicarbonate bound in the active site, which serves as a proton relay activating a water molecule for nucleophilic attack on a quinone methide electrophile. This "cofactor" is crucial for achieving improved conversions and high stereoselectivities for ( S )-configured benzylic alcohol products. Similar effects were observed with simple aliphatic carboxylic acids as additives...
March 2, 2018: ACS Catalysis
Marek J Noga, Ronald Zielman, Robin M van Dongen, Sabine Bos, Amy Harms, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Thomas Hankemeier, Michel D Ferrari
Introduction: Metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising technique for studying brain diseases. Measurements should reflect the in vivo situation, so ex vivo metabolism should be avoided. Objective: To investigate the effects of temperature (room temperature vs. 4 °C), centrifugation and ethanol, as anti-enzymatic additive during CSF sampling on concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine and other endogenous amines. Methods: CSF samples from 21 individuals were processed using five different protocols...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Hao Ji, Xinyao Lu, Hong Zong, Bin Zhuge
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important non-protein amino acid involved in the response to various environmental stresses in plant cells. The objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that intracellular accumulation of GABA improves osmotic tolerance in the unconventional yeast Candida glycerinogenes. In C. glycerinogenes, the expression of UGA4 encoding GABA-specific permease is highly induced by hyperosmotic stress. Exogenous GABA application enhanced intracellular GABA accumulation and promoted cell growth under hyperosmotic conditions...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Sorelle Dongmo Nsogning, Susann Fischer, Thomas Becker
Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Hiroki Takagi, Yuji Seta, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Takashi Toyono, Tatsuo Kawamoto
The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system...
March 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Mehmet Tecellioglu, Ozden Kamisli, Suat Kamisli, Fatma Ebru Yucel, Cemal Ozcan
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune epilepsy is a rarely diagnosed condition. Recognition of the underlying autoimmune condition is important, as these patients can be resistant to antiepileptic drugs. AIMS: To determine the autoimmune and oncological antibodies in adult drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause and identify the clinical, radiological, and EEG findings associated with these antibodies according to data in the literature. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy of unknown cause were prospectively identified...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Trixi von Schlippenbach, Peter J Oefner, Wolfram Gronwald
Non-uniform sampling (NUS) allows the accelerated acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra. The aim of this contribution was the systematic evaluation of the impact of various quantitative NUS parameters on the accuracy and precision of 2D NMR measurements of urinary metabolites. Urine aliquots spiked with varying concentrations (15.6-500.0 µM) of tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, lactic acid, and threonine, which can only be resolved fully by 2D NMR, were used to assess the influence of the sampling scheme, reconstruction algorithm, amount of omitted data points, and seed value on the quantitative performance of NUS in1 H,1 H-TOCSY and1 H,1 H-COSY45 NMR spectroscopy...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Diego E Pafundo, Takeaki Miyamae, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos
BACKGROUND: Testing hypotheses regarding the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction in schizophrenia requires understanding the mechanisms of NMDAR regulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuit function. NMDAR antagonists are thought to produce pyramidal cell (PC) disinhibition. However, inhibitory parvalbumin-positive basket cells (PVBCs) have modest NMDAR-mediated excitatory drive and thus are unlikely to participate in NMDAR antagonist-mediated disinhibition. Interestingly, recent studies demonstrated that presynaptic NMDARs enhance transmitter release at central synapses...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Wanxin Li, Song Zhang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jing Yu, Zeqi Li, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
Many antibiotics are used to kill pathogenic Escherichia coli each year, resulting in an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains. In this study, an integrated metabonomic-proteomic method was performed to systematically compare the profiles of metabolites and proteins with or without ciprofloxacin (CFLX) treatment. Proteomics identified 290 altered proteins including 143 with decreased and 147 increased expression, respectively. Metabonomics identified 65 altered metabolites including 58 and 7 with decreased and increased expression, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
M Ohkuma, M Kaneda, S Yoshida, A Fukuda, E Miyachi
Signaling by glutamatergic synapses plays an important role in visual processing in the retina. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay system to monitor the dynamics of extracellular glutamate in a slice preparation from the mouse retina. High K stimulation induced an elevation of fluorescence in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina when glutamate transporters were inhibited by dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA). The high K-induced fluorescence signals in the IPL were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker Cd2+ ...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa González Arbelaez, Guillermo Schinella, María Laura Massa, Eduardo Spinedi, Flavio Francini
AIM: Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity -LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Michifumi Kokubo, Asahi Haijima, Noriyuki Koibuchi
Mild perinatal hypothyroidism may result from inadequate iodine intake, insufficient treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, or exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Because thyroid hormone is critical for brain development, severe hypothyroidism that is untreated in infancy causes irreversible cretinism. Milder hypothyroidism may also affect cognitive development; however, the effects of mild and/or moderate hypothyroidism on brain development are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the behavior of adult male mice rendered mildly hypothyroid during the perinatal period using low-dose propylthiouracil (PTU)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Rezeda A Akhmadishina, Ruslan Garifullin, Natalia V Petrova, Marat I Kamalov, Timur I Abdullin
Although delocalized lipophilic cations have been identified as effective cellular and mitochondrial carriers for a range of natural and synthetic drug molecules, little is known about their effects on pharmacological properties of peptides. The effect of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation on bioactivity of antioxidant tetrapeptides based on the model opioid YRFK motif was studied. Two tetrapeptide variants with L-arginine (YRFK) and D-arginine (YrFK) were synthesized and coupled with carboxyethyl-TPP (TPP-3) and carboxypentyl-TPP (TPP-6) units...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ke He, Yun Hu, Jun-Cheng Shi, Yun-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Ming Mao
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more frequently in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of UTIs in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients and methods: A total of 3,652 Chinese inpatients with T2D were reviewed and data on their clinical characteristics, symptoms of UTIs, random blood glucose, HbA1c, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, insulin autoantibody, albumin excretion rate in 24-hour urine, urine culture and susceptibility to antibiotics, and so on were collected...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jacob J Baker, Robert B Abramovitch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) senses and adapts to acidic environments during the course of infection. Acidic pH-dependent adaptations include the induction of metabolic genes associated with anaplerosis and growth arrest on specific carbon sources. Here we report that deletion of isocitrate lyase or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase results in reduced growth at acidic pH and altered metabolite profiles, supporting that remodeling of anaplerotic metabolism is required for pH-dependent adaptation. Mtb cultured at pH 5...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Weiqun Yang, Fei Zhao, Yanjun Fang, Li Li, Chaonan Li, Na Ta
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) is a widely used environmental organic pollutant. Studies have revealed the presence of both TCEP and its metabolites in environmental media. The neurotoxicity of TCEP has been investigated in vitro but rarely in mammals. This study aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of TCEP on rats and to explore the possible intrinsic relationships between neurochemical alterations and the neurotoxic effects. For this, 6-week-old female SD rats were administered 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg/d TCEP daily by oral gavage for 60 days...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Zhigao Niu, Eleni Samaridou, Emilie Jaumain, Julie Coëne, Gabriela Ullio, Neha Shrestha, Josep Garcia, Matilde Durán-Lobato, Sulay Tovar, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, M Mar Arroyo-Jiménez, Rocío Ramos-Membrive, Iván Peñuelas, Aloïse Mabondzo, Véronique Préat, Meritxell Teixidó, Ernest Giralt, María José Alonso
The objective of this work was the development of a new drug nanocarrier intended to overcome the barriers associated to the oral modality of administration and to assess its value for the systemic or local delivery of peptides. The nanocarrier was rationally designed taking into account the nature of the intestinal barriers and was loaded with insulin, which was selected as a model peptide. The nanocarrier consisted of a nanocomplex between insulin and a hydrophobically-modified cell penetrating peptide (CPP), enveloped by a protecting polymer...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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