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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320026/-alcohol-withdrawal-and-its-major-complications
#1
Klaus Junghanns, Tilman Wetterling
Delirium tremens is one of the most common complications of alcohol withdrawal. It is potentially lethal and therefore should be detected as early as possible and be monitored and treated intensively. The assessment of risk factors with the Luebeck Alcohol-Withdrawal Risk Scale short form (LARS-11) can help to predict the risk of severe withdrawal adequately. As delirium cannot be differentiated from Wernicke-Encephalopathy with sufficient certainty high parenteral doses of Vitamin B1 and Magnesium orally should be given in case of any severe withdrawal symptoms...
March 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315424/diagnostic-criteria-for-oncocytic-renal-neoplasms-a-survey-of-urologic-pathologists
#2
Sean R Williamson, Ramya Gadde, Kiril Trpkov, Michelle S Hirsch, John R Srigley, Victor E Reuter, Liang Cheng, L Priya Kunju, Ravi Barod, Craig G Rogers, Brett Delahunt, Ondrej Hes, John N Eble, Ming Zhou, Jesse K McKenney, Guido Martignoni, Stewart Fleming, David J Grignon, Holger Moch, Nilesh S Gupta
Renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been long recognized as distinct tumors; however, it remains unknown if uniform diagnostic criteria are used to distinguish these tumor types in practice. A survey was distributed to urologic pathologists regarding oncocytic tumors. Responses were received from 17/26 invitees. Histologically, >1 mitotic figure was regarded as most worrisome (n=10) or incompatible (n=6) with oncocytoma diagnosis. Interpretation of focal nuclear wrinkling, focal perinuclear clearing, and multinucleation depended on extent and did not necessarily exclude oncocytoma if minor...
March 14, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315375/sigh-rate-during-emotional-transitions-more-evidence-for-a-sigh-of-relief
#3
Elke Vlemincx, Michel Meulders, James L Abelson
Evidence suggests that sighs regulate stress and emotions, e.g. by facilitating relief. This study aimed to investigate sigh rates during relief. In addition, links between sighs, anxiety sensitivity and HPA-axis activity were explored. Healthy volunteers (N=29) were presented cues predicting the valence of subsequent stimuli. By sequencing cues that predicted pleasant or unpleasant stimuli with or without certainty, transitions to certain pleasantness (relief) or to certain unpleasantness (control) were created and compared to no transitions...
March 14, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306711/is-glucosamine-effective-for-osteoarthritis
#4
Stephanie Harrison-Muñoz, Valentina Rojas-Briones, Sebastián Irarrázaval
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent chronic articular disease, in which pain is one of the main symptoms and a major determinant of functional loss. Several therapeutic options have been proposed, including glucosamine, but its actual usefulness has not yet been established. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified 11 systematic reviews including 35 randomized trials answering the question of interest. We extracted data, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
March 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306568/ketamine-for-cancer-pain-what-is-the-evidence
#5
Kelly Jonkman, Tine van de Donk, Albert Dahan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we assess the benefit of ketamine in the treatment of terminal cancer pain that is refractory to opioid treatment and/or complicated by neuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: While randomized controlled trials consistently show lack of clinical efficacy of ketamine in treating cancer pain, a large number of open-label studies and case series show benefit. SUMMARY: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that at low-dose has effective analgesic properties...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301792/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-an-update
#6
Vera Golder, Alberta Hoi
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women of childbearing age. New classification criteria for SLE have greater sensitivity and therefore improve the diagnostic certainty for some patients, especially those who may previously have been labelled as having undifferentiated symptoms. Uncontrolled disease activity leads to irreversible end-organ damage, which in turn increases the risk of premature death; early and sustained control of disease activity can usually be achieved by conventional immunosuppressant therapy...
March 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300480/impossible-decision-an-investigation-of-risk-trade-offs-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#7
Tom W Reader, Geetha Reddy, Stephen J Brett
In the intensive care unit (ICU), clinicians must often make risk trade-offs on patient care. For example, on deciding whether to discharge a patient before they have fully recovered in order to create a bed for another, sicker, patient. When misjudged, these decisions can negatively influence patient outcomes: yet it can be difficult, if not impossible, for clinicians to evaluate with certainty the safest course of action. Using a vignette-based interview methodology, a naturalistic decision-making approach was utilised to study this phenomena...
March 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296082/monitoring-daily-intraocular-pressure-fluctuations-with-self-tonometry-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Laurence Quérat, Enping Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of the intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by healthy subjects with icare(®) Home and to observe the IOP fluctuation and pattern of IOP fluctuation in healthy subjects over three consecutive days. METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects were recruited to the study. IOP was measured by the subjects themselves and by study staff using icare(®) Home tonometers on visits 1 and 2, as well as by study staff using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT)...
March 14, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295352/should-optimal-timing-between-two-intrauterine-transfusions-be-based-on-estimated-daily-decrease-of-hemoglobin-or-on-measurement-of-fetal-middle-cerebral-artery-peak-systolic-velocity
#9
Louise Ghesquière, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Hélène Behal, Capucine Coulon, Damien Subtil, Pascal Vaast, Charles Garabedian
BACKGROUND: To best predict the recurrence of fetal anemia after intrauterine transfusion (IUT), the measurement of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the estimation of hemoglobin (Hb) daily decrease are compared. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective study including 38 patients who had at least two IUTs in a context of red blood cell alloimmunization was conducted. PSV values before first, second, and third IUTs were collected and expected Hb level was calculated according to various Hb daily decrease formulas as proposed in the literature...
March 14, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295168/using-the-nippita-classification-system-for-women-undergoing-induction-of-labour-in-a-large-metropolitan-maternity-service-bringing-simplicity-and-certainty-to-an-important-quality-improvement-process
#10
Mary A Biro, Christine E East
In 2015 Nippita and colleagues developed a novel system to classify women undergoing induction of labour (IOL), which sought to overcome the problems of indication-based classification. We explored the utility and feasibility of this new system at Monash Health in Melbourne. We found overall induction rates of 24.7% compared with the New South Wales rates of 25.4% reported by Nippita et al. The classification system was easy to apply because it uses routinely and accurately collected data. There was no misinterpretation of the classification groups...
March 13, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294717/preparatory-encoding-of-the-fine-scale-of-human-spatial-attention
#11
Bradley Voytek, Jason Samaha, Camarin E Rolle, Zachery Greenberg, Navdeep Gill, Shai Porat, Tahim Kader, Sabahat Rahman, Rick Malzyner, Adam Gazzaley
Our attentional focus is constantly shifting: In one moment, our attention may be intently concentrated on a specific spot, whereas in another moment we might spread our attention more broadly. Although much is known about the mechanisms by which we shift our visual attention from place to place, relatively little is known about how we shift the aperture of attention from more narrowly to more broadly focused. Here we introduce a novel attentional distribution task to examine the neural mechanisms underlying this process...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294515/clinical-risk-scoring-for-predicting-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients-nafld-ms-score
#12
Surasak Saokaew, Shada Kanchanasuwan, Piyaporn Apisarnthanarak, Aphinya Charoensak, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can progress from simple steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. None of tools has been developed specifically for high-risk patients. This study aimed to develop a simple risk scoring to predict NAFLD in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: A total of 509 patients with MetS were recruited. All were diagnosed by clinicians with ultrasonography-confirmed whether they were patients with NAFLD...
March 12, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292483/an-economic-evaluation-of-sacubitril-valsartan-for-heart-failure-patients-in-the-netherlands
#13
Simon van der Pol, Fabian Degener, Maarten J Postma, Pepijn Vemer
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the PARADIGM-HF trial showed the heart failure drug combination sacubitril/valsartan to be superior to enalapril for patients with a reduced ejection fraction. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in the Netherlands using the clinical data from the PARADIGM-HF trial. METHODS: To compare sacubitril/valsartan and enalapril in a cost-effectiveness study, a Markov model was developed using the effectiveness data from the PARADIGM-HF trial...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291302/psychosocial-group-interventions-to-improve-psychological-well-being-in-adults-living-with-hiv
#14
REVIEW
Ingrid van der Heijden, Naeemah Abrahams, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Being diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and labelled with a chronic, life-threatening, and often stigmatizing disease, can impact on a person's well-being. Psychosocial group interventions aim to improve life-functioning and coping as individuals adjust to the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of psychosocial group interventions for improving the psychological well-being of adults living with HIV/AIDS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases up to 14 March 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2016), PubMed (MEDLINE) (1996 to 14 March 2016), Embase (1996 to 14 March 2016), and Clinical Trials...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290995/uses-of-polypills-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-evidence-to-date
#15
REVIEW
Mark D Huffman, Denis Xavier, Pablo Perel
Polypills have been approved in more than 30 countries, but worldwide experience with and availability of polypills remain limited, unlike fixed-dose combinations in other diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. In this Series review, we aim to propose a guide for the use of polypills in future research and clinical activities and to synthesise contemporary evidence supporting the use of polypills for prevention of atherosclerosis. Polypill uses can be categorised by population and indication, both of which influence the balance between benefits and risks...
March 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290276/meta-analysis-on-the-effect-of-interventions-used-in-cattle-processing-plants-to-reduce-escherichia-coli-contamination
#16
REVIEW
Samson Zhilyaev, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Katherine Phetxumphou, Daniel Gallagher
Cattle coming from feedlots to slaughter often harbor pathogenic E. coli that can contaminate final meat products. As a result, reducing pathogenic contamination during processing is a main priority. Unfortunately, food safety specialists face challenges when trying to determine optimal intervention strategies from published literature. Plant intervention literature results and methods vary significantly, making it difficult to implement interventions with any degree of certainty in their effectiveness. To create a more robust understanding of plant intervention effectiveness, a formal systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted on popular intervention methods...
March 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290161/corticosteroids-for-tuberculous-pleurisy
#17
REVIEW
Hannah Ryan, Jinho Yoo, Padmapriya Darsini
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used in addition to antituberculous therapy have been reported to benefit people with tuberculous pleurisy. However, research findings are inconsistent and raise doubt as to whether such treatment is worthwhile. There is also concern regarding the potential adverse effects of corticosteroids, especially in HIV-positive people. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of adding corticosteroids to drug regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285775/the-certainty-in-consumers-willingness-to-accept-pharmacist-provided-medication-therapy-management-services
#18
Lawrence M Brown, Mohamed E Rashrash, Jon C Schommer
OBJECTIVES: To describe consumers' willingness to accept medication therapy management (MTM) services provided by a pharmacist. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Internet survey included questions about willingness to use 11 components of MTM services. PARTICIPANTS: The data of 8352 United States' adults who were on 3 or more medications were obtained from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles, which included 26,173 respondents...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285101/comparative-toxicity-of-mono-and-bifunctional-alkylating-homologues-of-sulphur-mustard-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#19
Thomas W Sawyer, Karin McNeely, Kristen Louis, Pierre Lecavalier, Yanfeng Song, Mercy Villanueva, Robin Clewley
Sulphur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulphide; agent H) is a vesicant chemical warfare (CW) agent whose mechanism of action is not known with any certainty and for which there are no effective antidotes. It has a pronounced latent period before signs and symptoms of poisoning appear which it shares with the nitrogen mustards, and that differentiates it from other classes of vesicant agents. Sulphur mustard, the sulphur mustard CW agents Q (1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio) ethane) and T (1,1 bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl) ether), the H partial hydrolysis product hemi-sulphur mustard (2-chloroethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide; HSM), and the commercially available 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were characterized with respect to their toxicity in first passage cultures of proliferating human skin keratinocytes, the target cell of H-induced skin vesication...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284020/frenotomy-for-tongue-tie-in-newborn-infants
#20
REVIEW
Joyce E O'Shea, Jann P Foster, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Deirdre Breathnach, Susan E Jacobs, David A Todd, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is a condition whereby the lingual frenulum attaches near the tip of the tongue and may be short, tight and thick. Tongue-tie is present in 4% to 11% of newborns. Tongue-tie has been cited as a cause of poor breastfeeding and maternal nipple pain. Frenotomy, which is commonly performed, may correct the restriction to tongue movement and allow more effective breastfeeding with less maternal nipple pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frenotomy is safe and effective in improving ability to feed orally among infants younger than three months of age with tongue-tie (and problems feeding)...
March 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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