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Yang Liu, Mingqing Zhang, Xiuqi Fang
By merging reconstructed phenological series from published articles and observations of China Phenology Observation Network (CPON), the first blooming date of Amygdalus davidiana (FBA) in Beijing between 1741 and 2000 is reconstructed. The Butterworth method is used to remove the multi-year variations for generating the phenological series of annual variations in the first blooming date of A. davidiana. The extreme delay years in the phenological series are identified using the percentage threshold method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Valérie Zimmerlé, Emeline Laurent, Valérie Tauveron, Annabel Maruani, Emmanuelle Le Bidre, Mahtab Samimi, Laurent Machet
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous cancers are very common, easily visible on skin. The general practitioner (GP) is in the front line to manage the lesions. He has to recognize malignancy and refer most often to the specialist for excision, or consider that the lesion is benign and in ambiguous cases, offer clinical monitoring. The current low medical density in the Centre Val de Loire area makes access to general practitioners (GP) and dermatologists harder. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPs' everyday practice in cutaneous cancers screening in general, and particularly in melanoma screening, in a rural region of France...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Haoyuan Hong, Paraskevas Tsangaratos, Ioanna Ilia, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Chong Xu
The main objective of the present study was to utilize Genetic Algorithms (GA) in order to obtain the optimal combination of forest fire related variables and apply data mining methods for constructing a forest fire susceptibility map. In the proposed approach, a Random Forest (RF) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used to produce a forest fire susceptibility map for the Dayu County which is located in southwest of Jiangxi Province, China. For this purpose, historic forest fires and thirteen forest fire related variables were analyzed, namely: elevation, slope angle, aspect, curvature, land use, soil cover, heat load index, normalized difference vegetation index, mean annual temperature, mean annual wind speed, mean annual rainfall, distance to river network and distance to road network...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Breanna I Krueger, Holly L Storkel, Utako Minai
Purpose: The purpose of the present studies was to determine how children's identification and processing of misarticulated words was influenced by substitution commonness. Method: Sixty-one typically developing preschoolers across 3 experiments heard accurate productions of words (e.g., "leaf"), words containing common substitutions (e.g., "weaf"), and words containing uncommon substitutions (e.g., "yeaf"). On each trial, preschoolers chose between a real object picture (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Guang Yang, Jing Xu, Xiu-Lian Chi, Chun-Xin Zang, Ling Que
The three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefit sarising from the utilization of genetic resources.The Nagoya Protocol significantly advances the CBD's third objective by providing a strong basis for greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources.In June 2016, the Chinese government approved the accession to the Nagoya Protocol...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thomas Verhaeghe, Christof Van Poucke, Geertrui Vlaemynck, Jan De Block, Marc Hendrickx
Heat-induced color changes of crustaceans are commonly described as the release of astaxanthin. In this study on Crangon crangon, it was found that astaxanthin plays a minor role in the (dis)coloration. By LC-HRMS, two polar, process dependent pigments were found. One pigment was identified as riboflavin and one as drosopterin (level-2 certainty). Thermal treatments had highest effect on drosopterin concentration changes and were chosen as indicator for a kinetic study of heat-induced color changes. The kinetic data fitted a consecutive step model (r2  = 0...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Marco van Zwetselaar, Balthazar Nyombi, Tolbert Sonda, Happiness Kumburu, Nyasatu Chamba, Marieke C J Dekker, Kajiru G Kilonzo, Sarah J Urasa, Blandina T Mmbaga
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas species have been documented to yield false positive results in microbiological tests for Vibrio cholerae. They share many biochemical properties with Vibrio species, with which they were jointly classified in the family Vibrionaceae until genotypic information provided new insights. Aeromonas species are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections, albeit with great apparent variation in pathogenicity and virulence both between and within species of the genus...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Frank Birklein, Seena K Ajit, Andreas Goebel, Roberto S G M Perez, Claudia Sommer
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition that usually affects a single limb, often following an injury. The underlying pathophysiology seems to be complex and probably varies between patients. Clinical diagnosis is based on internationally agreed-upon criteria, which consider the reported symptoms, presence of signs and exclusion of alternative causes. Research into CRPS biomarkers to support patient stratification and improve diagnostic certainty is an important scientific focus, and recent progress in this area provides an opportunity for an up-to-date topical review of measurable disease-predictive, diagnostic and prognostic parameters...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Ramūnas Aleksiejūnas, Žydrūnas Podlipskas, Saulius Nargelas, Arūnas Kadys, Marek Kolenda, Kazimieras Nomeika, Jūras Mickevičius, Gintautas Tamulaitis
Indium nitride has a good potential for infrared optoelectronics, yet it suffers from fast nonradiative recombination, the true origin of which has not been established with certainty. The diffusion length of free carriers at high densities is not well investigated either. Here, we study carrier recombination and diffusion using the light-induced transient grating technique in InN epilayers grown by pulsed MOCVD on c-plane sapphire. We show that direct Auger recombination governs the lifetime of carriers at densities above ~1018  cm-3 ...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adrian P Brady
The job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer's personal preferences...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
(no author information available yet)
Background: Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. People with type 1 diabetes must manage their blood glucose levels by monitoring the amount of glucose in their blood and administering appropriate amounts of insulin via injection or an insulin pump. Continuous glucose monitoring may be beneficial compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose using a blood glucose meter. It provides insight into a person's blood glucose levels on a continuous basis, and can identify whether blood glucose levels are trending up or down...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Iracema da Silva Frazão, Everton Botelho Sougey, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Tatiana de Paula Santana da Silva, Murilo Duarte da Costa Lima
INTRODUCTION: The abuse of alcohol and other drugs is a worldwide problem, the treatment of which poses a challenge to healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: This study presents a proposal for a systematic review to analyse the psychometric properties of assessment tools developed to measure the self-efficacy of drug users with regard to resisting the urge to take drugs in high-risk situations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The guiding question was based on PICOS (Population Intervention Comparator Outcome Setting), and the report of the methods of review protocol was written in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
José María Ariso
Most scholars agree that empathy is one of the keys for medical education, but it is not yet clear precisely how this term should be defined. Currently, the predominant tendency in this area consists in considering empathy within the context of narrative medicine or, more specifically, within the interaction theory instead of the simulation theory of empathy. A significant development of the interaction theory is "second-order empathy". After describing the outlines of this kind of empathy, I suggest that the practitioner should also inquire about the patient's certainties - in Wittgenstein's sense - in order the better to enrich and understand her narrative...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Samuel J Yang, Marc Berndl, D Michael Ando, Mariya Barch, Arunachalam Narayanaswamy, Eric Christiansen, Stephan Hoyer, Chris Roat, Jane Hung, Curtis T Rueden, Asim Shankar, Steven Finkbeiner, Philip Nelson
BACKGROUND: Large image datasets acquired on automated microscopes typically have some fraction of low quality, out-of-focus images, despite the use of hardware autofocus systems. Identification of these images using automated image analysis with high accuracy is important for obtaining a clean, unbiased image dataset. Complicating this task is the fact that image focus quality is only well-defined in foreground regions of images, and as a result, most previous approaches only enable a computation of the relative difference in quality between two or more images, rather than an absolute measure of quality...
March 15, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Kris Dierickx, Rik Vandenberghe
BACKGROUND: Today, many healthcare or dementia organizations, clinicians, and companies emphasize the importance of detection of Alzheimer's disease in an early phase. This idea has gained considerable momentum due to the development of biomarkers, the recent FDA and EMA approval of three amyloid tracers, and the failure of a number of recent therapeutic trials conducted in the early dementia phase. On the one hand, an early etiological diagnosis can lead to early and more efficacious intervention...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Eva E Tejerina, Rebeca Padilla, Elena Abril, Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Aida Ballen, José María Rodríguez-Barbero, José Ángel Lorente, Andrés Esteban
We evaluate the evolution over time of discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and post-mortem findings in critically ill patients, and to assess the factors associated with these discrepancies. We conducted a prospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent autopsy autopsies in a medical-surgical ICU between January 2008 and December 2015. Among 7.655 patients admitted to our ICU, 671 (8.8%) died. Clinical autopsy was performed in 215 (32%) patients. Major missed diagnoses were noted in 38 patients (17...
March 9, 2018: Human Pathology
Ignacio Neumann, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Per Olav Vandvik, Thomas Agoritsas, Gemma Mas, Elie A Akl, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Jose Emparanza, Lauren McCullagh, Catherine De Sitio, Thomas McGinn, Hind Almodaimegh, Khalid Almodaimegh, Solange Rivera, Luis Rojas, Jérôme Stirnemann, Jihad Irani, Sani Hlais, Reem Mustafa, Fadi Bdair, Abdelrahman Aly, Annette Kristiansen, Ariel Izcovich, Anggie Ramirez, Jan Brozek, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations to assist clinicians in decision-making and to reduce the gap between best current research evidence and clinical practice. However, some argue that providing pre-appraised evidence summaries alone, rather than recommendations, is more appropriate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinicians' preferences, understanding of the evidence and intended course of action in response to evidence summaries with and without recommendations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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