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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140552/the-influence-of-phylogeny-social-style-and-sociodemographic-factors-on-macaque-social-network-structure
#1
Krishna N Balasubramaniam, Brianne A Beisner, Carol M Berman, Arianna De Marco, Julie Duboscq, Sabina Koirala, Bonaventura Majolo, Andrew J MacIntosh, Richard McFarland, Sandra Molesti, Hideshi Ogawa, Odile Petit, Gabriele Schino, Sebastian Sosa, Cédric Sueur, Bernard Thierry, Frans B M de Waal, Brenda McCowan
Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139087/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-adipogenic-differentiation
#2
Danielle de Villiers, Marnie Potgieter, Melvin A Ambele, Ladislaus Adam, Chrisna Durandt, Michael S Pepper
Interest in reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation/adipose tissue function is steadily increasing. This is due in part to a search for alternative avenues for combating obesity, which results from the excess accumulation of adipose tissue. Obesity is a major risk factor for complex disorders such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The ability of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes is often used as a model for studying adipogenesis in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138991/test-retest-reliability-and-interpretation-of-common-concussion-assessment-tools-findings-from-the-ncaa-dod-care-consortium
#3
Steven P Broglio, Barry P Katz, Shi Zhao, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions...
November 14, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133424/dopamine-reward-prediction-error-signal-codes-the-temporal-evaluation-of-a-perceptual-decision-report
#4
Stefania Sarno, Victor de Lafuente, Ranulfo Romo, Néstor Parga
Learning to associate unambiguous sensory cues with rewarded choices is known to be mediated by dopamine (DA) neurons. However, little is known about how these neurons behave when choices rely on uncertain reward-predicting stimuli. To study this issue we reanalyzed DA recordings from monkeys engaged in the detection of weak tactile stimuli delivered at random times and formulated a reinforcement learning model based on belief states. Specifically, we investigated how the firing activity of DA neurons should behave if they were coding the error in the prediction of the total future reward when animals made decisions relying on uncertain sensory and temporal information...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130474/interventions-for-the-reduction-of-prescribed-opioid-use-in-chronic-non-cancer-pain
#5
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Emma Fisher, Kyla H Thomas, Leslie Hearn, Sheena Derry, Cathy Stannard, Roger Knaggs, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: This is the first update of the original Cochrane Review published in 2013. The conclusions of this review have not changed from the 2013 publication. People with chronic non-cancer pain who are prescribed and are taking opioids can have a history of long-term, high-dose opioid use without effective pain relief. In those without good pain relief, reduction of prescribed opioid dose may be the desired and shared goal of both patient and clinician. Simple, unsupervised reduction of opioid use is clinically challenging, and very difficult to achieve and maintain...
November 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129815/biological-effects-of-adipocytes-in-sulfur-mustard-induced-toxicity
#6
Hua Xu, Zhongcai Gao, Peng Wang, Bin Xu, Yajiao Zhang, Long Long, Cheng Zong, Lei Guo, Weijian Jiang, Qinong Ye, Lili Wang, Jianwei Xie
Sulphur mustard (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide; SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent whose mechanism of acute or chronic action is not known with any certainty and to date there is no effective antidote. SM accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) has been originally verified in our previous study. To evaluate the biological effect caused by the presence of abundant SM in adipocyte and assess the biological role of AT in SM poisoning, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. High content analysis revealed multi-cytotoxicity in SM exposed cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and adipocytes showed a relative moderate damage compared with non-adipocytes...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124799/the-certainty-of-uncertainty-can-we-teach-a-constructive-response
#7
Georgina White, Simon Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122587/the-splicing-code
#8
REVIEW
Marco Baralle, Francisco Ernesto Baralle
This issue dedicated to the code of life tackles very challenging and open questions in Biology. The genetic code, brilliantly uncovered over 50 years ago is an example of a univocal biological code. In fact, except for very few and marginal variations, it is the same from bacteria to man, the RNA stretch: 5' GUGUUC 3' reads as the dipeptide: Val-Phe in bacteria, in yeast, in Arabidopsis, in zebra fish, in mouse and in human. A degree of ambiguity is possible if mutations are introduced in the tRNAs in a way that the anticodon reads one amino acid but the aminoacyl-transferase attaches a different one onto the tRNA...
November 6, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119547/interventions-to-improve-access-to-cataract-surgical-services-and-their-impact-on-equity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ramke, Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Ilse Blignault, Clare Gilbert, Karl Blanchet, Robin Christensen, Anthony B Zwi, Peter Tugwell
BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118971/local-allergic-rhinitis-evolution-of-concepts
#10
EDITORIAL
Cristoforo Incorvaia, Nicola Fuiano, Irene Martignago, Bruna L Gritti, Erminia Ridolo
The discovery of an exclusive local production of IgE antibodies dates back to the 1970s, but only recently the pathophysiology of such phenomenon was deeply investigated, leading to the concept of local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Currently, LAR is defined by the occurrence, in patients with symptoms clearly suggesting allergic rhinitis but with negative results to common allergy testing, of allergen specific IgE in the nasal mucosa. Most studies investigating LAR were based on the development of rhinitis symptoms following nasal provocation test (NPT) with the suspected allergens, but such test may be performed by a number of options, none of them being as yet acknowledged and recommended in consensus document...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117771/the-interaction-of-correctness-of-and-certainty-in-mcq-responses
#11
Mike Tweed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115983/genetic-model-misspecification-in-genetic-association-studies
#12
Amadou Gaye, Sharon K Davis
OBJECTIVE: The underlying model of the genetic determinant of a trait is generally not known with certainty a priori. Hence, in genetic association studies, a dominant model might be erroneously modelled as additive, an error investigated previously. We explored this question, for candidate gene studies, by evaluating the sample size required to compensate for the misspecification and improve inference at the analysis stage. Power calculations were carried out with (1) the true dominant model and (2) the incorrect additive model...
November 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114470/histopathologic-and-molecular-approach-to-staging-of-multiple-lung-nodules
#13
REVIEW
Frank Schneider, Sanja Dacic
Distinguishing multiple primary lung cancers from intrapulmonary metastases in patients with synchronous multifocal lung adenocarcinomas can be challenging. The most recent 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual (AJCC staging manual) distinguishes four disease patterns in patients with multiple lung nodules: (I) two or more distinct and histologically different masses (considered unrelated and staged as individual cancers); (II) multiple ground-glass or part-solid nodules, histologically of with lepidic growth pattern (considered separate tumors, T staged based on highest T stage lesion); (III) patchy areas of ground-glass and consolidations, histologically often invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (considered single tumor with diffuse "pneumonic-type" involvement); and (IV) separate nodules with the same histologic features based on comprehensive histologic subtyping (considered intrapulmonary metastases)...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113499/certainty-of-decisions-a-process-based-model-for-decision-making-for-children-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#14
Jori F Bogetz, Julie Hauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112745/drivers-of-tuberculosis-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Barun Mathema, Jason R Andrews, Ted Cohen, Martien W Borgdorff, Marcel Behr, Judith R Glynn, Roxana Rustomjee, Benjamin J Silk, Robin Wood
Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111990/cancer-risk-associated-with-exposure-to-bitumen-and-bitumen-fumes-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Kenneth A Mundt, Linda D Dell, Lori Crawford, Sonja N Sax, Paolo Boffetta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cancer risks are increased among bitumen (asphalt) workers. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer risks (lung, upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), esophagus, bladder, kidney, stomach, and skin) and bitumen exposure. Certainty in the epidemiological evidence that bitumen-exposed workers experience increased cancer risks was rated using GRADE criteria. RESULTS: After excluding lower quality studies, lung cancer risks were not increased among bitumen-exposed workers (meta-RR 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110717/bayesian-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-parameter-mapping-in-the-human-heart
#17
Georg R Spinner, Constantin von Deuster, Kerem C Tezcan, Christian T Stoeck, Sebastian Kozerke
BACKGROUND: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging of diffusion and perfusion in the heart suffers from high parameter estimation error. The purpose of this work is to improve cardiac IVIM parameter mapping using Bayesian inference. METHODS: A second-order motion-compensated diffusion weighted spin-echo sequence with navigator-based slice tracking was implemented to collect cardiac IVIM data in early systole in eight healthy subjects on a clinical 1.5 T CMR system...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109110/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-more-doubts-than-certainties
#18
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey E Gotts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107769/the-evaluative-role-of-rostrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-rule-based-category-learning
#19
Dmitrii Paniukov, Tyler Davis
Category learning is a critical neurobiological function that allows organisms to simplify a complex world. Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) is often active in neurobiological studies of category learning; however, the specific role this region serves in category learning remains uncertain. Previous category learning studies have hypothesized that the rlPFC is involved in switching between rules, whereas others have emphasized rule abstraction and evaluation. We aimed to clarify the role of rlPFC in category learning and dissociate switching and evaluation accounts using two common types of category learning tasks: matching and classification...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107356/a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-intrapericardial-fibrinolysis-in-patients-with-pericardial-effusion
#20
Alison B Wiyeh, Eleanor A Ochodo, Charles S Wiysonge, Aloysious Kakia, Abolade A Awotedu, Arsen Ristic, Bongani M Mayosi
Pericardial effusion is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space. The complications of pericardial effusion can either be acute (e.g., cardiac tamponade) or chronic (e.g., constrictive pericarditis). We have conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrapericardial fibrinolysis in preventing complications of pericardial effusion. We searched for both published and unpublished studies. 29 studies, with a total of 109 patients were included in this review; 17 case reports, 11 case series, and one randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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