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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091763/the-prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-the-causal-agent-of-chagas-disease-in-texas-rodent-populations
#1
Adriana Aleman, Trina Guerra, Troy J Maikis, Matthew T Milholland, Ivan Castro-Arellano, Michael R J Forstner, Dittmar Hahn
Rodent species were assessed as potential hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, from five sites throughout Texas in sylvan and disturbed habitats. A total of 592 rodents were captured, resulting in a wide taxonomic representation of 11 genera and 15 species. Heart samples of 543 individuals were successfully analyzed by SybrGreen-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a 166 bp fragment of satellite DNA of T. cruzi. Eight rodents representing six species from six genera and two families were infected with T...
January 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090731/addition-of-ezetimibe-to-statins-for-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-systematic-review-of-patient-important-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Yutong Fei, Gordon Henry Guyatt, Paul Elias Alexander, Regina El Dib, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Per Olav Vandvik, Mark E Nunnally, Huda Gomaa, Rebecca L Morgan, Arnav Agarwal, Ying Zhang, Neera Bhatnagar, Frederick A Spencer
Ezetimibe is widely used in combination with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein. We sought to examine the impact of ezetimibe when added to statins on patient-important outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched through July, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ezetimibe combined with statins versus statins alone that followed patients for at least 6 months and reported on at least one of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and non-fatal strokes were included...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090239/the-screening-and-ranking-algorithm-for-change-points-detection-in-multiple-samples
#3
Chi Song, Xiaoyi Min, Heping Zhang
The chromosome copy number variation (CNV) is the deviation of genomic regions from their normal copy number states, which may associate with many human diseases. Current genetic studies usually collect hundreds to thousands of samples to study the association between CNV and diseases. CNVs can be called by detecting the change-points in mean for sequences of array-based intensity measurements. Although multiple samples are of interest, the majority of the available CNV calling methods are single sample based...
December 2016: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079562/can-an-age-adjusted-d-dimer-level-be-adopted-in-managing-venous-thromboembolism-in-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Tom Jaconelli, Mazin Eragat, Steven Crane
INTRODUCTION: Patients suspected of having venous thromboembolism (VTE), with a low pretest probability, undergo D-dimer testing. A negative D-dimer, in a low-risk patient rules out VTE with a high degree of certainty because of its high sensitivity. It is, however, a poorly specific test, and the absolute value increases with age. The aim of this study was to establish whether an age-adjusted D-dimer could be safely used instead of a standard cut-off level in low-risk patients over the age of 50 years...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076926/yoga-treatment-for-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain
#5
REVIEW
L Susan Wieland, Nicole Skoetz, Karen Pilkington, Ramaprabhu Vempati, Christopher R D'Adamo, Brian M Berman
BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e...
January 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074462/contribution-of-mri-to-clinically-equivocal-penile-fracture-cases
#6
Rüştü Türkay, Mustafa Gürkan Yenice, Sema Aksoy, Gökhan Şeker, Selçuk Şahin, Ercan İnci, Volkan Tuğcu, Ali İhsan Taşcı
BACKGROUND: Penile fracture is a surgical emergency defined as rupture of the tunica albuginea. Although most cases can be diagnosed with clinical evaluation, it has been stated in the literature that diagnosis in as many as 15% of cases can be challenging. In uncertain cases, imaging can help determine diagnosis. METHODS: Present study included 20 cases where diagnosis could not be made with certainty and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. MR images were examined for tunical rupture and accompanying pathologies...
November 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073734/acute-parasitic-and-other-infectious-myelopathies-in-the-tropics-26-cases-at-the-university-hospital-in-conakry
#7
F A Cisse, W A E Ekué, L Barry, S D Barry, M L Touré, A Cissé
In tropical countries, laboratory-confirmed diagnostic certainty of parasitic and other infectious causes of acute myelopathy is difficult because of a shortage of medical professionals and consulting delays. We performed a retrospective study of 168 patients hospitalized for spinal disorders between 2007 and 2013 and identified 26 diagnosed with acute non-compressive myelopathy of presumed sudden onset. An parasitic or other infectious cause was established for all. A preliminary clinical infection preceding the development of neurologic signs was reported for 22 patients (84...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063910/racial-ethnic-differences-in-contraceptive-preferences-beliefs-and-self-efficacy-among-women-veterans
#8
Lisa S Callegari, Xinhua Zhao, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Elian Rosenfeld, Maria K Mor, Sonya Borrero
BACKGROUND: Significant racial/ethnic disparities in unintended pregnancy persist in the US, with the highest rates observed among low-income black and Hispanic women. Differences in contraceptive preferences, beliefs, and self-efficacy may be instrumental in understanding contraceptive behaviors that underlie higher rates of unintended pregnancy among racial/ethnic minorities. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to understand how contraceptive preferences, beliefs and self-efficacy vary by race and ethnicity among women veterans...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057870/restricted-mean-survival-time-over-15-years-for-patients-starting-renal-replacement-therapy
#9
Cécile Couchoud, Emmanuelle Dantony, Mad-Hélénie Elsensohn, Emmanuel Villar, Cécile Vigneau, Olivier Moranne, Muriel Rabilloud, René Ecochard
BACKGROUND: The restricted mean survival time (RMST) estimates life expectancy up to a given time horizon and can thus express the impact of a disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the 15-year RMST of a hypothetical cohort of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), according to their age, gender and diabetes status, and to compare it with the expected RMST of the general population. METHODS: Using data from 67 258 adult patients in the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, we estimated the RMST of a hypothetical patient cohort (and its subgroups) for the first 15 years after starting RRT (cRMST) and used the general population mortality tables to estimate the expected RMST (pRMST)...
January 5, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056493/alcohol-impaired-driving-and-perceived-risks-of-legal-consequences
#10
Frank A Sloan, Sabrina A McCutchan, Lindsey M Eldred
BACKGROUND: Driving while impaired (DWI) is a threat to public health. Codified legal sanctions are a widely implemented strategy to reduce DWI. However, it is unclear that sanctioning affects individual risk perceptions so as to deter alcohol-impaired driving. METHODS: Using survey data collected from individual drivers, police, and defense attorneys specializing in DWI in 8 U.S. cities, we investigated whether risk perceptions about legal consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, both the risk of being stopped if driving while alcohol-impaired and receiving specific penalties following a DWI, deter alcohol-impaired driving...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054396/incremental-value-of-contrast-echocardiography-in-the-evaluation-of-a-cardiac-thrombus
#11
Jose Ricardo F Po, Matthew S Tong, Erica L Grove, Robert W W Biederman
A 52-year-old man presented with altered mental status and report of prior complaint of chest pain. On electrocardiography, anterolateral ST-segment elevations with Q-waves in the septal leads were seen. Initial echocardiography images demonstrated a thickened anteroseptum. Further imaging showed the presence of a well-attached laminated apical thrombus. Contrast echocardiography images showed that the thrombus had minimal attachment to the endocardial surface. CT head subsequently showed the presence of acute stroke...
January 5, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053140/efficient-bayesian-species-tree-inference-under-the-multispecies-coalescent
#12
Bruce Rannala, Ziheng Yang
We develop a Bayesian method for inferring the species phylogeny under the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model. To improve the mixing properties of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that traverses the space of species trees, we implement two efficient MCMC proposals: the first is based on the Subtree Pruning and Regrafting (SPR) algorithm and the second is based on a node-slider algorithm. Like the Nearest-Neighbor Interchange (NNI) algorithm we implemented previously, both new algorithms propose changes to the species tree while simultaneously altering the gene trees at multiple genetic loci to automatically avoid conflicts with the newly proposed species tree...
January 4, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052316/training-interventions-for-improving-telephone-consultation-skills-in-clinicians
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Vaona, Yannis Pappas, Rumant S Grewal, Mubasshir Ajaz, Azeem Majeed, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Since 1879, the year of the first documented medical telephone consultation, the ability to consult by telephone has become an integral part of modern patient-centred healthcare systems. Nowadays, upwards of a quarter of all care consultations are conducted by telephone. Studies have quantified the impact of medical telephone consultation on clinicians' workload and detected the need for quality improvement. While doctors routinely receive training in communication and consultation skills, this does not necessarily include the specificities of telephone communication and consultation...
January 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049921/in-vitro-canine-platelet-aggregation-caused-by-dirofilaria-immitis-extract
#14
Yasuhiro Takashima, Isako Onoda, Shin-Pin Chiou, Katsuya Kitoh
Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048580/we-b-brc-00-concepts-in-risk-based-assessment
#15
Benedick Fraass
: Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047920/we-b-brc-01-current-methodologies-in-risk-assessment
#16
F Rath
: Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047829/th-ab-201-07-filmless-treatment-localization-qa-for-the-cyberknife-system
#17
J Gersh, M Noll
PURPOSE: Accuray recommends daily evaluation of the treatment localization and delivery systems (TLS/TDS) of the CyberKnife. The vendor-provided solution is a Winston-Lutz-type test that evaluates film shadows from an orthogonal beam pair (known as AQA). Since film-based techniques are inherently inefficient and potentially inconsistent and uncertain, this study explores a method which provides a comparable test with greater efficiency, consistency, and certainty. This test uses the QAStereoChecker (QASC, Standard Imaging, Inc...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047253/we-b-brc-02-risk-analysis-and-incident-learning
#18
B Fraass
: Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046258/we-b-brc-03-risk-in-the-context-of-medical-imaging
#19
E Samei
: Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042764/certainty-in-a-time-of-uncertainty-the-science-of-paradox
#20
Jonathan Afoke, Prakash P Punjabi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Perfusion
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