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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345242/joint-estimation-of-activity-and-attenuation-for-pet-using-pragmatic-mr-based-prior-application-to-clinical-tof-pet-mr-whole-body-data-for-fdg-and-non-fdg-tracers
#1
Sangtae Ahn, Lishui Cheng, Dattesh D Shanbhag, Hua Qian, Sandeep S Kaushik, Floris P Jansen, Florian Wiesinger
Accurate and robust attenuation correction remains challenging in hybrid PET/MR particularly for torsos because it is difficult to segment bones, lungs and internal air in MR images. Additionally, MR suffers from susceptibility artifacts when a metallic implant is present. Recently, joint estimation (JE) of activity and attenuation based on PET data, also known as maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA), has gained considerable interest because of (1) its promise to address the challenges in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC), and (2) recent advances in time-of-flight (TOF) technology, which is known to be the key to the success of JE...
January 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342498/patient-reminder-and-recall-interventions-to-improve-immunization-rates
#2
REVIEW
Julie C Jacobson Vann, Robert M Jacobson, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Josephine K Asafu-Adjei, Peter G Szilagyi
BACKGROUND: Immunization rates for children and adults are rising, but coverage levels have not reached optimal goals. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. In an era of increasing complexity of immunization schedules, rising expectations about the performance of primary care, and large demands on primary care providers, it is important to understand and promote interventions that work in primary care settings to increase immunization coverage. One common theme across immunization programs in many nations involves the challenge of implementing a population-based approach and identifying all eligible recipients, for example the children who should receive the measles vaccine...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342367/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-guidelines-use-of-cftr-modulator-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Clement L Ren, Rebecca L Morgan, Christopher Oermann, Helaine E Resnick, Cynthia Brady, Annette Campbell, Richard DeNagel, Margaret Guill, Jeffrey Hoag, Andrew Lipton, Thomas Newton, Stacy Peters, Donna Beth Willey-Courand, Edward T Naureckas
BACKGROUND: CFTR modulators are a new class of medications that target the underlying defect in in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor (IVA) and IVA combined with lumacaftor (IVA/LUM) have been approved by the FDA for use in CF patients. However, the FDA label for these medications encompasses patient groups that were not studied as part of the drug approval process. CF clinicians, patients, and their families have recognized a need for recommendations to guide the use of these medications...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340784/a-new-flesh-fly-species-diptera-sarcophagidae-parasitic-on-leptodactylid-frogs
#4
Pablo Ricardo Mulieri, Eduardo Federico Schaefer, Marta Inés Duré, Cynthya Elizabeth González
Here we describe a new species of sarcophagid fly reared from larvae found feeding on three species of leptodactylid frogs collected in subtropical Corrientes Province in northeastern Argentina. Our species description is based on adult male and female external morphology and genitalia. Adult males and females of the new species were associated with certainty because all specimens studied were reared from single clutches of larvae on each of three infested frogs. Thus, adult males and females reared from each clutch were siblings that emerged almost simultaneously...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#5
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332693/ink-dating-part-ii-interpretation-of-results-in-a-legal-perspective
#7
Agnès Koenig, Céline Weyermann
The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the trend tests that focusing on the "ageing status" of an ink entry, and (3) the likelihood ratio calculation comparing the probabilities to observe the results under at least two alternative hypotheses...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332373/use-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-aop-in-chemical-management-potential-advantages-and-limitations
#8
Jaeseong Jeong, Jinhee Choi
Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a Molecular Initiating Event (MIE), Key Events (KEs), and an Adverse Outcome (AO)...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330139/phylogenomics-offers-resolution-of-major-tunicate-relationships
#9
Kevin M Kocot, Michael G Tassia, Kenneth M Halanych, Billie J Swalla
Tunicata, a diverse clade of approximately 3,000 described species of marine, filter-feeding chordates, is of great interest to researchers because tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and they facilitate comparative studies of our own biology. The group also includes numerous invasive species that cause considerable economic damage and some species of tunicates are edible. Despite their diversity and importance, relationships among major lineages of Tunicata are not completely resolved...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330072/chronic-thigh-pain-in-a-young-adult-diagnosed-as-synovial-sarcoma-a-case-report
#10
Lauren A Chambers, John M Lesher
Synovial sarcoma is a slow growing, intermediate to high grade neoplasm with extensive metastatic potential. Accurate diagnosis of synovial sarcoma may pose a challenge to providers because of its indolent growth and variable presentation. The findings of a soft-tissue, periarticular mass with calcifications in a young patient are highly suggestive of synovial sarcoma. Although different imaging modalities can aid in the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, diagnostic certainty is typically only confirmed by biopsy and histological analysis...
January 9, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327820/gastroenterology-today-between-certainties-and-news-a-meeting-held-in-turin-on-may-27-2017
#11
Rinaldo Pellicano, Davide G Ribaldone, Marco Astegiano, Luca Dughera, Edda Battaglia, Anna Morgando, Arrigo Arrigoni, Mauro Spandre, Mario Grassini, Giorgio M Saracco, Francis Mégraud
This special article reports on two crucial issues discussed during a meeting. The first was the updated management of Helicobacter pylori infection. This was approached taking into account the recent European Guidelines, with a focus on novelties in treatment. In particular, considering the increasing H. pylori antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin, in countries with a high clarithromycin resistance rate the bismuth-containing quadruple therapies should be preferred. The new formulation, with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline contained in a single capsule (three-in-one), has shown exciting results both in naive and in non-responder patients...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327710/genome-profiling-is-an-efficient-tool-to-avoid-the-stump-classification-of-uterine-smooth-muscle-lesions-a-comprehensive-array-genomic-hybridization-analysis-of-77-tumors
#12
Sabrina Croce, Agnès Ducoulombier, Agnès Ribeiro, Tom Lesluyes, Jean-Christophe Noel, Frédéric Amant, Louis Guillou, Eberhard Stoeckle, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Nicolas Penel, Anne Floquet, Laurent Arnould, Frédéric Guyon, Florence Mishellany, Camille Chakiba, Tine Cuppens, Michal Zikan, Agnès Leroux, Eric Frouin, Isabelle Farre, Catherine Genestie, Isabelle Valo, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Frédéric Chibon
The diagnosis of a uterine smooth muscle lesion is, in the majority of cases, straightforward. However, in a small number of cases, the morphological criteria used in such lesions cannot differentiate with certainty a benign from a malignant lesion and a diagnosis of smooth muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is made. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are often easy to diagnose but it is difficult or even impossible to identify a prognostic factor at the moment of the diagnosis with the exception of the stage...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325287/-the-diagnostic-value-and-limits-of-diagnostic-parameters-for-wilson-s-disease
#13
X Yang
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare and treatable genetic disorder. This paper describes the new advances and author's long-term experiences in the diagnosis of WD. The characteristics in clinical and routine tests are: the age of presentation can be quite broad, the WD could not be excluded based on age only; the patients usually have mild digestive symptoms but obvious chronic liver disease signs; liver function tests may reveal normal or a mild elevation in bilirubin, ALT and AST, but quite abnormal in serum albumin and prothrombin time in most patients; Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia, normal or markedly subnormal serum alkaline phosphatase (typically < 40 IU/L) are useful for the diagnosis of fulminant WD...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324741/facilitating-healthcare-decisions-by-assessing-the-certainty-in-the-evidence-from-preclinical-animal-studies
#14
Carlijn R Hooijmans, Rob B M de Vries, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga, Maroeska M Rovers, Mariska M Leeflang, Joanna IntHout, Kimberley E Wever, Lotty Hooft, Hans de Beer, Ton Kuijpers, Malcolm R Macleod, Emily S Sena, Gerben Ter Riet, Rebecca L Morgan, Kristina A Thayer, Andrew A Rooney, Gordon H Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann, Miranda W Langendam
Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324070/does-implementation-of-biomathematical-models-mitigate-fatigue-and-fatigue-related-risks-in-emergency-medical-services-operations-a-systematic-review
#15
Francine O James, Lauren B Waggoner, Patricia M Weiss, P Daniel Patterson, J Stephen Higgins, Eddy S Lang, Hans P A Van Dongen
BACKGROUND: Work schedules like those of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel have been associated with increased risk of fatigue-related impairment. Biomathematical modeling is a means of objectively estimating the potential impacts of fatigue on performance, which may be used in the mitigation of fatigue-related safety risks. In the context of EMS operations, our objective was to assess the evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of using biomathematical models to help mitigate fatigue and fatigue-related risks...
January 11, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320929/metacognitive-reflection-as-a-moderator-of-attitude-strength-versus-attitude-bolstering-implications-for-attitude-similarity-and-attraction
#16
Vanessa Sawicki, Duane T Wegener
"Strong" attitudes often have greater impact than "weak" attitudes. However, emerging research suggests that weak (uncertain) attitudes can substantially influence thinking or behavior. We propose metacognitive reflection as a moderator between traditional strength patterns and these emerging attitude bolstering patterns. Across six studies, research participants encountered a target person who agreed or disagreed with participants' attitudes. When focused on evaluating the target, attitudes predicted target evaluations better when the attitude was held with certainty (Study 1A), or after certainty had been primed (Studies 2A and 3; strength effects)...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320921/benefits-and-risks-with-acellular-dermal-matrix-adm-and-mesh-support-in-immediate-breast-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Håkan Hallberg, Svanheidur Rafnsdottir, Gennaro Selvaggi, Annika Strandell, Ola Samuelsson, Ida Stadig, Therese Svanberg, Emma Hansson, Richard Lewin
In modern implant-based immediate breast reconstruction, it has become common to use biological acellular dermal and synthetic matrices in combination with a tissue expander or an implant. The aim of this systematic review was to examine differences in recurrence of cancer, impact on oncological treatment, health related quality of life, complications and aesthetic outcome between matrix and no matrix in immediate breast reconstruction. Systematic searches, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were performed according to predetermined criteria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320600/providing-physicians-with-feedback-on-medication-adherence-for-people-with-chronic-diseases-taking-long-term-medication
#18
REVIEW
Vincent Zaugg, Virginie Korb-Savoldelli, Pierre Durieux, Brigitte Sabatier
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence decreases treatment efficacy and worsens clinical outcomes, but average rates of adherence to long-term pharmacological treatments for chronic illnesses are only about 50%. Interventions for improving medication adherence largely focus on patients rather than on physicians; however, the strategies shown to be effective are complex and difficult to implement in clinical practice. There is a need for new care models addressing the problem of medication adherence, integrating this problem into the patient care process...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320522/do-systematic-reviews-address-community-healthcare-professionals-wound-care-uncertainties-results-from-evidence-mapping-in-wound-care
#19
Janice Christie, Trish A Gray, Jo C Dumville, Nicky A Cullum
BACKGROUND: Complex wounds such as leg and foot ulcers are common, resource intensive and have negative impacts on patients' wellbeing. Evidence-based decision-making, substantiated by high quality evidence such as from systematic reviews, is widely advocated for improving patient care and healthcare efficiency. Consequently, we set out to classify and map the extent to which up-to-date systematic reviews containing robust evidence exist for wound care uncertainties prioritised by community-based healthcare professionals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313739/deterrence-s-element-of-sanction-certainty-friendships-vicarious-experiences-and-underage-alcohol-use
#20
Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
BACKGROUND: Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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