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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454798/functional-bowel-disorders-gastroenterology-s-75-th-anniversary
#1
John W Wiley, Lin Chang
Articles appearing in Gastroenterology have played an integral role in the evolution of our understanding of Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD), including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), beginning with the prescient contributions of Almy and Tulin in 1947 and 1949 that highlighted the role of stress to enhance perception of abdominal pain and promote colon contractions. Subsequent publications have codified diagnostic criteria and stratified subpopulations of FBD (Manning and ROME I-IV), which resulted in improved symptom-based therapeutic interventions...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454493/updating-the-recommendations-for-treatment-of-tardive-syndromes-a-systematic-review-of-new-evidence-and-practical-treatment-algorithm
#2
REVIEW
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452165/the-beneficial-role-of-early-exercise-training-following-stroke-and-possible-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Ying Xing, Si-Dong Yang, Fang Dong, Man-Man Wang, Ya-Shuo Feng, Feng Zhang
Exercise training is a regular therapy for stroke patients in clinic. However, whether the early exercise is beneficial for stroke patients is still controversial. The review was performed in databases of OVID, PUBMED, and ISI Web of Science, from respective inception to December 2017. In this review, we summarize the effect of different exercise intensity, initiation time, and style on ischemic stroke. Moreover, the possible mechanism is also discussed. The conclusion is that the voluntary exercise is better in promoting the functional recovery following stroke compared to forced exercise; too early initiated exercise might play a harmful role following stroke, while early initiated exercise might exert benefits after stroke; mild and moderate intensity exercise training could generate better neuroprotection in comparison with high intensity exercise training; early excise training could regulate the process of brain edema, cell apoptosis, oxidative damage, stem cells and other mechanisms in order to exert neuroprotection for brain...
February 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445440/comparison-of-clinical-and-radiological-outcome-of-carotid-angioplasty-and-stenting-after-direct-navigation-versus-exchange-methods-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Mojtaba Rismanchi, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of microembolic brain infarcts after direct navigation method versus exchange method in carotid artery stenting and vertebral artery origin angioplasty. Methods and Material: This is a prospective study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran. Consecutive patients undergoing "carotid angioplasty and stenting" and "vertebral artery origin stenting" were randomly assigned into two groups with "direct navigation method" and "exchange method...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444556/transvenous-embolization-of-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yi-Bin Fang, Jun-Soo Byun, Jian-Min Liu, Timo Krings, Vitor M Pereira, Waleed Brinjikji
INTRODUCTION: The safety and efficacy of transvenous embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) remains relatively poorly understood. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine outcomes of transvenous embolization of brain AVMs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Data Sources include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and the Web of Science. All case series with ≥4 patients receiving transvenous embolization of brain AVMs published through September 2017 were included...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443053/neuroimaging-field-methods-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-neuroimaging-to-study-global-child-development-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Kaja K Jasińska, Sosthène Guei
Portable neuroimaging approaches provide new advances to the study of brain function and brain development with previously inaccessible populations and in remote locations. This paper shows the development of field functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging to the study of child language, reading, and cognitive development in a rural village setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Innovation in methods and the development of culturally appropriate neuroimaging protocols allow a first-time look into the brain's development and children's learning outcomes in understudied environments...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442469/brain-death-associated-pathological-events-and-therapeutic-options
#7
REVIEW
Paweł Chudoba, Wojciech Krajewski, Joanna Wojciechowska, Dorota Kamińska
BACKGROUND: At present, organ transplantation is the most efficient treatment of end-stage failure of various organs, including the heart, lungs, pancreas, intestines, kidney, and liver. Despite the efforts to use organs from living donors or from donors after circulatory death, most of the organs are recovered from brain dead (BD) donors. METHODS: The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on November 2015 using the terms "brain dead donor" and "deceased donor" in conjunction with "transplantation", "graft", "organ", "hemodynamic", "hormonal", or "management"...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441659/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-provide-new-perspectives-on-bipolar-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Thomaz Oliveira, Victor Marinho, Valécia Carvalho, Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Carla Ayres, Silmar Teixeira, Monara Nunes, Victor Hugo Bastos, Giovanny R Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to present a broad view of how genetic polymorphisms in genes that control the rhythmicity and function of circadian rhythm may influence the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed to identify and select papers reporting studies on variations in circadian genes and BD. A search of Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to review the literature...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440515/integrative-studies-of-cultural-evolution-crossing-disciplinary-boundaries-to-produce-new-insights
#9
Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman, Nicole Creanza
Culture evolves according to dynamics on multiple temporal scales, from individuals' minute-by-minute behaviour to millennia of cultural accumulation that give rise to population-level differences. These dynamics act on a range of entities-including behavioural sequences, ideas and artefacts as well as individuals, populations and whole species-and involve mechanisms at multiple levels, from neurons in brains to inter-population interactions. Studying such complex phenomena requires an integration of perspectives from a diverse array of fields, as well as bridging gaps between traditionally disparate areas of study...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429858/-neuropathology-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-proposal-of-a-protocol-for-neuropathological-examination
#10
Clémence Delteil, David Meyronet, Andre Maues de Paula, Anne Jouvet, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
According to the French High Authority for Health, sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) is defined as "a sudden death that occurs in an infant, whereas nothing in its known history could have predicted it". This is an exclusion diagnosis. There are great interregional disparities despite the professional recommendations established in February 2007. For the examination of the brain, instructions are not adapted to current and research practice. The role of the pathologist, like anyone involved in SUDI, is to eliminate an abuse head trauma and to determine the cause of death...
February 8, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425197/how-the-microbiome-challenges-our-concept-of-self
#11
Tobias Rees, Thomas Bosch, Angela E Douglas
Today, the three classical biological explanations of the individual self--the immune system, the brain, the genome--are being challenged by the new field of microbiome research. Evidence shows that our resident microbes orchestrate the adaptive immune system, influence the brain, and contribute more gene functions than our own genome. The realization that humans are not individual, discrete entities but rather the outcome of ever-changing interactions with microorganisms has consequences beyond the biological disciplines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421159/the-effects-of-chronic-stress-on-the-human-brain-from-neurotoxicity-to-vulnerability-to-opportunity
#12
REVIEW
Sonia J Lupien, Robert-Paul Juster, Catherine Raymond, Marie-France Marin
For the last five decades, science has managed to delineate the mechanisms by which stress hormones can impact on the human brain. Receptors for glucocorticoids are found in the hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex, three brain regions involved in memory processing and emotional regulation. Studies have shown that chronic exposure to stress is associated with reduced volume of the hippocampus and that chronic stress can modulate volumes of both the amygdala and frontal cortex, suggesting neurotoxic effects of stress hormones on the brain...
February 5, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412800/organ-transplantation-and-donation-from-the-point-of-view-of-medical-students-in-iran-ethical-aspects-and-knowledge
#13
Mahmoud Abbasi, Mehrzad Kiani, Mehdi Ahmadi, Bahare Salehi
Organ transplantation is an effective process that prolongs the lives of individuals suffering from incapacitating conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the view point of medical students in Iran regarding ethical aspects and knowledge on organ transplantation and donation. The participants included 165 medical students from different faculties of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. They were assessed using a reliable questionnaire that examined their ethical aspects and knowledge regarding organ transplantation and donation...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409928/the-most-cited-works-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-100-most-cited-articles
#14
Lei Li, Xiaoye Ma, Sajan Pandey, Xianyu Deng, Songyu Chen, Daming Cui, Liang Gao
BACKGROUND: There is an abundance of works published on severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Bibliometric analyses are aiming to have a macroscopic view of research activities about sTBI and are helpful in determining the most impactful studies within this field. METHODS: we performed a generalized search using the database of Web of Science (WoS), organized the references by the number of citations, and reviewed full length-articles for the top 100 cited papers...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409683/neural-correlates-of-unconsciousness-in-large-scale-brain-networks
#15
REVIEW
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
The biological basis of consciousness is one of the most challenging and fundamental questions in 21st century science. A related pursuit aims to identify the neural correlates and causes of unconsciousness. We review current trends in the investigation of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological states of unconsciousness at the level of large-scale functional brain networks. We focus on the roles of brain connectivity, repertoire, graph-theoretical techniques, and neural dynamics in understanding the functional brain disconnections and reduced complexity that appear to characterize these states...
February 3, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406019/community-reintegration-participation-and-employment-issues-in-veterans-and-service-members-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Gail Powell-Cope
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the signature injury of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and neighboring countries. Although similarities exist between veterans and service members with TBI, levels of severity and different constellations of coexisting comorbid conditions affect them differently. These conditions affect physical, cognitive, and emotional function, which in turn can complicate community reintegration (CR), or the ability to return to family, vocational, and community life...
February 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402871/oral-health-and-brain-injury-causal-or-casual-relation
#17
Rajath Sasidharan Pillai, Kiran Iyer, Rubens Spin-Neto, Simple Futarmal Kothari, Jørgen Feldbæk Nielsen, Mohit Kothari
BACKGROUND: To systematically review the current literature investigating the association between oral health and acquired brain injury. METHODS: A structured search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CENTRAL electronic databases until March 2017 by 2 independent reviewers. The preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines were used for systematic review. RESULTS: Even though the objective was to assess the association between oral health and acquired brain injury, eligible studies focused solely on different forms of stroke and stroke subtypes...
January 9, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402530/subconcussive-head-impacts-in-sport-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#18
Lynda Mainwaring, Kaleigh M Ferdinand Pennock, Sandhya Mylabathula, Benjamin Z Alavie
PURPOSE: To identify and evaluate the evidence that examines subconcussive impacts in sport-specific settings, and address two objectives: a) to determine how 'subconcussion' is characterized in the current literature, and b) to identify directions for future research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: CINAHL, EMBASE, MedLine, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for articles that sought to assess subconcussive impacts or outcomes related to non-concussive head impact exposure...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402231/the-first-international-conference-on-syngap1-related-brain-disorders-a-stakeholder-meeting-of-families-researchers-clinicians-and-regulators
#19
REVIEW
Monica Weldon, Murat Kilinc, J Lloyd Holder, Gavin Rumbaugh
BACKGROUND: Pathologic mutations in SYNGAP1 cause a genetically defined form of intellectual disability (ID) with comorbid epilepsy and autistic features. While only recently discovered, pathogenicity of this gene is a relatively frequent genetic cause of classically undefined developmental delay that progresses to ID with commonly occurring comorbidities. MAIN BODY: A meeting of 150 people was held that included affected individuals and their caregivers, clinicians that treat this and related brain disorders, neuroscientists that study SYNGAP1 biology or the function of related genes, and representatives from government agencies that fund science and approve new medical treatments...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400480/through-the-looking-glass-psycinfo-as-an-historical-archive-of-trends-in-psychology
#20
Jeremy Trevelyan Burman
Those interested in tracking trends in the history of psychology cannot simply trust the numbers produced by inputting terms into search engines like PsycINFO and then constraining by date. This essay is therefore a critical engagement with that longstanding interest to show what it is possible to do, over what period, and why. It concludes that certain projects simply cannot be undertaken without further investment by the American Psychological Association. This is because forgotten changes in the assumptions informing the database make its index terms untrustworthy for use in trend-tracking before 1967...
February 5, 2018: History of Psychology
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