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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651112/behavioural-medicine-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-promise-of-positive-psychology
#1
REVIEW
Laurie Keefer
Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#2
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627004/brain-connectivity-and-cognitive-processing-speed-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Riccardo Manca, Basil Sharrack, David Paling, Iain D Wilkinson, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Processing speed (PS) decline is the most commonly observed cognitive deficit in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a significant impact on quality of life. Despite its importance, knowledge of the underlying neural substrates is lacking. OBJECTIVE: As MS is increasingly recognised as a disconnection syndrome, our aim was to carry out a systematic literature review to clarify the relationship between PS performance and MRI measures of structural and functional brain connectivity in people with MS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#4
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625628/advanced-robotic-therapy-integrated-centers-artic-an-international-collaboration-facilitating-the-application-of-rehabilitation-technologies
#5
Hubertus J A van Hedel, Giacomo Severini, Alessandra Scarton, Anne O'Brien, Tamsin Reed, Deborah Gaebler-Spira, Tara Egan, Andreas Meyer-Heim, Judith Graser, Karen Chua, Daniel Zutter, Raoul Schweinfurther, J Carsten Möller, Liliana P Paredes, Alberto Esquenazi, Steffen Berweck, Sebastian Schroeder, Birgit Warken, Anne Chan, Amber Devers, Jakub Petioky, Nam-Jong Paik, Won-Seok Kim, Paolo Bonato, Michael Boninger
BACKGROUND: The application of rehabilitation robots has grown during the last decade. While meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of robotic interventions for some patient groups, the evidence is less in others. We established the Advanced Robotic Therapy Integrated Centers (ARTIC) network with the goal of advancing the science and clinical practice of rehabilitation robotics. The investigators hope to exploit variations in practice to learn about current clinical application and outcomes...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625385/targeting-macrophage-immunometabolism-dawn-in-the-darkness-of-sepsis
#6
REVIEW
V Kumar
Sepsis is known since the time (470 BC) of great Greek physician, Hippocrates. Advancement in modern medicine and establishment of separate branches of medical science dealing with sepsis research have improved its outcome. However, mortality associated with sepsis still remains higher (25-30%) that further increases to 40-50% in the presence of septic shock. For example, sepsis-associated deaths account more in comparison to deaths-associated with myocardial-infarction and certain cancers (i.e. breast and colorectal cancer)...
April 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623027/preclinical-to-clinical-translation-of-studies-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#7
Gabriela G Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Douglas T Leffa, Carla de Oliveira, Rafael Vercelino, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L S Torres
Epilepsy is a chronic brain syndrome characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharges. Despite the development of various new antiepileptic drugs, many patients are refractory to treatment and report side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been tested as alternative approaches to directly modulate the excitability of epileptogenic neural circuits. Although some pilot and initial clinical studies have shown positive results, there is still uncertainty regarding the next steps of investigation in this field...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621570/mne-scan-software-for-real-time-processing-of-electrophysiological-data
#8
Lorenz Esch, Limin Sun, Viktor Klüber, Seok Lew, Daniel Baumgarten, P Ellen Grant, Yoshio Okada, Jens Haueisen, Matti S Hämäläinen, Christoph Dinh
BACKGROUND: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) are noninvasive techniques to study the electrophysiological activity of the human brain. Thus, they are well suited for real-time monitoring and analysis of neuronal activity. Real-time MEG/EEG data processing allows adjustment of the stimuli to the subject's responses for optimizing the acquired information especially by providing dynamically changing displays to enable neurofeedback. NEW METHOD: We introduce MNE Scan, an acquisition and real-time analysis software based on the multipurpose software library MNE-CPP...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609632/naming-is-not-explaining-future-directions-for-the-cognitive-reserve-and-brain-maintenance-theories
#9
REVIEW
Jonna Nilsson, Martin Lövdén
Contemporary imaging measures of the human brain explain less than half of the differences in cognitive functioning and change among older adults. Researchers have advanced several theories and concepts to guide research that aims to better explain these individual differences in cognitive aging. Taking the fundamental measurement model in the empirical sciences as a starting point, we here scrutinize two such complementary theories, brain maintenance and cognitive reserve, in an attempt to clarify these theories, gauge their usefulness, and identify ways in which they can be further developed...
April 2, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606902/behavioral-variability-and-somatic-mosaicism-a-cytogenomic-hypothesis
#10
REVIEW
Svetlana G Vorsanova, Maria A Zelenova, Yuri B Yurov, Ivan Y Iourov
Behavioral sciences are inseparably related to genetics. A variety of neurobehavioral phenotypes are suggested to result from genomic variations. However, the contribution of genetic factors to common behavioral disorders (i.e. autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability) remains to be understood when an attempt to link behavioral variability to a specific genomic change is made. Probably, the least appreciated genetic mechanism of debilitating neurobehavioral disorders is somatic mosaicism or the occurrence of genetically diverse (neuronal) cells in an individual's brain...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604631/artificial-neural-network-detects-human-uncertainty
#11
Alexander E Hramov, Nikita S Frolov, Vladimir A Maksimenko, Vladimir V Makarov, Alexey A Koronovskii, Juan Garcia-Prieto, Luis Fernando Antón-Toro, Fernando Maestú, Alexander N Pisarchik
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are known to be a powerful tool for data analysis. They are used in social science, robotics, and neurophysiology for solving tasks of classification, forecasting, pattern recognition, etc. In neuroscience, ANNs allow the recognition of specific forms of brain activity from multichannel EEG or MEG data. This makes the ANN an efficient computational core for brain-machine systems. However, despite significant achievements of artificial intelligence in recognition and classification of well-reproducible patterns of neural activity, the use of ANNs for recognition and classification of patterns in neural networks still requires additional attention, especially in ambiguous situations...
March 2018: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604626/multistability-and-tipping-from-mathematics-and-physics-to-climate-and-brain-minireview-and-preface-to-the-focus-issue
#12
Ulrike Feudel, Alexander N Pisarchik, Kenneth Showalter
Multistability refers to the coexistence of different stable states in nonlinear dynamical systems. This phenomenon has been observed in laboratory experiments and in nature. In this introduction, we briefly introduce the classes of dynamical systems in which this phenomenon has been found and discuss the extension to new system classes. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of critical transitions and discuss approaches to distinguish them according to their characteristics. Finally, we present some specific applications in physics, neuroscience, biology, ecology, and climate science...
March 2018: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599629/the-first-awake-clipping-of-a-brain-aneurysm-in-malaysia-and-in-asean-achieving-international-standards
#13
EDITORIAL
Zamzuri Idris, Regunath Kandasamy, Yee Yik Neoh, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Mohd Erham Mat Hassan
World-renowned neurosurgeon, Professor Saleem Abdulrauf, has been featured in several medical journals for his successful "Awake Brain Aneurysm Surgery". Regarded as a "world first", this surgery, involves clipping un-ruptured brain aneurysms while patients are awake. Only one or two neurosurgery centres worldwide are capable of this. Performing the surgery while the patient is awake lowers risks of brain ischemia with neurological deficits and ventilator associated morbidities. The technique has been viewed as the start of a new era in brain surgery...
February 2018: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599461/using-human-brain-activity-to-guide-machine-learning
#14
Ruth C Fong, Walter J Scheirer, David D Cox
Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595791/athlete-brain-bank-costly-weather-and-science-on-social-media
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595363/emotion-identification-across-adulthood-using-the-dynamic-faces-database-of-emotional-expressions-in-younger-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#16
Catherine A C Holland, Natalie C Ebner, Tian Lin, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Facial stimuli are widely used in behavioural and brain science research to investigate emotional facial processing. However, some studies have demonstrated that dynamic expressions elicit stronger emotional responses compared to static images. To address the need for more ecologically valid and powerful facial emotional stimuli, we created Dynamic FACES, a database of morphed videos (n = 1026) from younger, middle-aged, and older adults displaying naturalistic emotional facial expressions (neutrality, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, happiness)...
March 29, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588944/defeating-epilepsy-a-global-public-health-commitment
#17
Shekhar Saxena, Shichuo Li
This article points out that defeating epilepsy is a global public health commitment and a new challenge. This is because: epilepsy causes a heavy burden and very high treatment gap; in the field of life sciences and medicine, the 21st century would be the "Century of Brain Science"; a number of national brain research initiatives provide a great opportunity to reveal the secret of epilepsy; the Global Campaign against Epilepsy and the Mental Health Gap Action Programme made great contributions in the epilepsy control work worldwide; the historical WHA68...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588337/psychosocial-effects-of-parent-child-book-reading-interventions-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Qian-Wen Xie, Celia H Y Chan, Qingying Ji, Cecilia L W Chan
CONTEXT: Parent-child book reading (PCBR) is effective at improving young children's language, literacy, brain, and cognitive development. The psychosocial effects of PCBR interventions are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and synthesize the effects of PCBR interventions on psychosocial functioning of children and parents. DATA SOURCES: We searched ERIC, PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, PubMed, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, and Social Work Abstracts...
March 27, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582981/predicting-outcomes-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-science-humanity-or-both
#19
Kwok M Ho
Predicting long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is difficult, but accurate assessment is paramount for both families of the patients and medical decision- making, as well as quality assurance or research purposes. Many important prognostic factors for patients with severe TBI have been identified, but most - if not all - including the Glasgow Coma Score and magnetic resonance imaging are not accurate enough to be used alone to predict patient outcomes. Clinicians should also be wary about how their predictions and decision-making can be affected by heuristics and cognitive biases...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580600/globalization-of-health-service-sharing-of-best-practices-in-perianesthesia-nursing-care-a-case-study-of-cross-border-institutional-collaboration
#20
Esther Lee, Thomas Hamelin, JoAnn Daugherty
Healthcare is a global concern among all nations and nursing is a global profession as evidenced by the flow of healthcare professionals across international boundaries. With English as the language of science and commerce and post-colonial influence in domestic healthcare practice and training, many former Anglo-speaking colonial settlements become parts of an expansive market for health human resources migration. The movement of health personnel mainly flows from low and medium income countries to high income countries to sustain their health systems...
April 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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