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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923182/profiles-of-brain-metastases-prioritization-of-therapeutic-targets
#1
Sherise D Ferguson, Siyuan Zheng, Joanne Xiu, Shouhao Zhou, Mustafa Khasraw, Priscilla K Brastianos, Santosh Kesari, Jethro Hu, Jeremy Rudnick, Michael E Salacz, David Piccioni, Suyun Huang, Michael A Davies, Isabella C Glitza, John V Heymach, Jianjun Zhang, Nuhad K Ibrahim, John F DeGroot, Joseph McCarty, Barbara J O'Brien, Raymond Sawaya, Roeland G W Verhaak, Sandeep K Reddy, Waldemar Priebe, Zoran Gatalica, David Spetzler, Amy B Heimberger
We sought to compare the tumor profiles of brain metastases from common cancers with those of primary tumors and extracranial metastases in order to identify potential targets and prioritize rational treatment strategies. Tumor samples were collected from both the primary and metastatic sites of non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma from patients in locations worldwide, and these were submitted to Caris Life Sciences for tumor multiplatform analysis, including gene sequencing (Sanger and next-generation sequencing with a targeted 47-gene panel), protein expression (assayed by immunohistochemistry), and gene amplification (assayed by in situ hybridization)...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915006/communicating-abstract-meaning-concepts-revealed-in-words-and-gestures
#2
Lenka Zdrazilova, David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
words refer to concepts that cannot be directly experienced through our senses (e.g. truth , morality ). How we ground the meanings of abstract words is one of the deepest problems in cognitive science today. We investigated this question in an experiment in which 62 participants were asked to communicate the meanings of words (20 abstract nouns, e.g. impulse ; 10 concrete nouns, e.g. insect ) to a partner without using the words themselves (the taboo task). We analysed the speech and associated gestures that participants used to communicate the meaning of each word in the taboo task...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914996/a-peircean-account-of-concepts-grounding-abstraction-in-phylogeny-through-a-comparative-neuroscientific-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Cuccio, Vittorio Gallese
The nature of concepts has always been a hotly debated topic in both philosophy and psychology and, more recently, also in cognitive neuroscience. Different accounts have been proposed of what concepts are. These accounts reflect deeply different conceptions of how the human mind works. In the last decades, two diametrically opposed theories of human cognition have been discussed and empirically investigated: the Computational Theory of Mind, on the one hand (Fodor 1983 The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology ; Pylyshyn 1984 Computation and cognition: toward a foundation for cognitive science ), and Embodied Cognition (Barsalou 2008 Annu...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914990/varieties-of-abstract-concepts-development-use-and-representation-in-the-brain
#4
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The capacity for abstract thought is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability to form and use abstract concepts like 'fantasy' and 'grace' have not been elucidated yet. This theme issue brings together developmental, social and cognitive psychologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, philosophers and computer scientists to present theoretical insights and novel evidence on how abstract concepts are acquired, used and represented in the brain...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911672/visibility-graphs-for-fmri-data-multiplex-temporal-graphs-and-their-modulations-across-resting-state-networks
#5
Speranza Sannino, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Lucas Lacasa, Daniele Marinazzo
Visibility algorithms are a family of methods that map time series into graphs, such that the tools of graph theory and network science can be used for the characterization of time series. This approach has proved a convenient tool, and visibility graphs have found applications across several disciplines. Recently, an approach has been proposed to extend this framework to multivariate time series, allowing a novel way to describe collective dynamics. Here we test their application to fMRI time series, following two main motivations, namely that (a) this approach allows vs to simultaneously capture and process relevant aspects of both local and global dynamics in an easy and intuitive way, and (b) this provides a suggestive bridge between time series and network theory that nicely fits the consolidating field of network neuroscience...
October 1, 2017: Network neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907583/fifteen-minute-consultation-modern-day-art-and-science-of-managing-cerebral-palsy
#6
Jill Cadwgan, Jane Goodwin, Charlie Fairhurst
While there remains limited intervention to address the damage to the developing brain, current multidisciplinary management of cerebral palsy (CP) needs to minimise the impact of secondary musculoskeletal complications. A focus on comorbidities to maximise function for activity and participation by supporting the child and family in their environment is required. Comprehensive clinical guidance was published by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) earlier this year. This article aims to provide a practical clinical approach to the child and family based on:(1) art: empathy, listening and weighing up the clinical picture of the child and family in context; diagnosis, the need for support and space; and care coordination at the right time; and (2) science: the current science in CP care is rapidly expanding in terms of plasticity, pathophysiology, functional assessments and treatments...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906710/a-meta-analysis-of-cytokine-concentrations-in-eating-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Bethan Dalton, Savani Bartholdy, Lauren Robinson, Marco Solmi, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Gerome Breen, Ulrike Schmidt, Hubertus Himmerich
Cytokines are signalling molecules, which play an important role in both immune system function and brain development and function, and subsequently mental states and behaviour. Cytokines have been implicated in eating disorders (EDs) due to their role in psychological health, body weight and appetite regulation. This meta-analysis examined cross-sectional and longitudinal studies measuring concentrations of cytokines in individuals with EDs. Using PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed relevant articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904654/a-high-density-scalp-eeg-dataset-acquired-during-brief-naps-after-a-visual-working-memory-task
#8
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
There is growing interest in understanding how specific neural events that occur during sleep, including characteristic spindle oscillations between 10 and 16 Hz (Hz), are related to learning and memory. Neural events can be recorded during sleep using the well-known method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). While publicly available sleep EEG datasets exist, most consist of only a few channels collected in specific patient groups being evaluated overnight for sleep disorders in clinical settings. The dataset described in this Data in Brief includes 22 participants who each participated in EEG recordings on two separate days...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904190/the-childbearing-experience-of-women-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-iran-a-phenomenological-study
#9
Zahra Khazaeipour, Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Alireza Salehi-Nejad, Maryam Shabany
STUDY DESIGN: This was a qualitative study conducted using an interpretative phenomenological approach. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the experience of pregnancy and childbirth in women with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The data were collected using telecommunication and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with eight women with SCI...
June 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903402/conceptual-issues-in-neuroscientific-research-on-empathy
#10
REVIEW
Gerrit Glas
This paper gives an analysis of some conceptual issues in the neuroscientific study of empathy. The focus will almost exclusively be on a seminal paper by Decety and Jackson (2004) on the functional architecture of empathy. The authors withstand reductionistic tendencies in the exposition of what their findings might mean for the psychology of social cognition. They are aware of the thorny conceptual issues that arise when attempting to bridge intuitive folk psychological conceptions of empathy with explanations offered by social psychology, developmental science, and, most of all, neuroscience...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898194/potential-antidepressant-effect-of-amantadine-a-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-trials
#11
Inara F Raupp-Barcaro, Maria A Vital, José C Galduróz, Roberto Andreatini
OBJECTIVE: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895737/brain-connectivity-networks-and-the-aesthetic-experience-of-music
#12
REVIEW
Mark Reybrouck, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Listening to music is above all a human experience, which becomes an aesthetic experience when an individual immerses himself/herself in the music, dedicating attention to perceptual-cognitive-affective interpretation and evaluation. The study of these processes where the individual perceives, understands, enjoys and evaluates a set of auditory stimuli has mainly been focused on the effect of music on specific brain structures, as measured with neurophysiology and neuroimaging techniques. The very recent application of network science algorithms to brain research allows an insight into the functional connectivity between brain regions...
June 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895273/prevalence-of-acute-stress-disorder-among-road-traffic-accident-survivors-a-meta-analysis
#13
Wenjie Dai, Aizhong Liu, Atipatsa C Kaminga, Jing Deng, Zhiwei Lai, Jianzhou Yang, Shi Wu Wen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic accident (RTA), an unexpected traumatic event, may not only lead to death and serious physical injuries, but also could put survivors at an increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, particularly acute stress disorder (ASD). Early assessment of trauma-related psychological responses is important because acute trauma responses in the early post-traumatic period are among the robust predictors of long-term mental health problems. However, estimates of the prevalence of ASD among RTA survivors varied considerably across studies...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893072/-process-in-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#14
Mengmeng Liu, Xinran Cheng, Kaikai Li, Mingrui Xu, Yongji Wu, Mengli Wang, Qianru Zhang, Wenyong Yan, Chang Luo, Shanting Zhao
Stem cell research has become a frontier in the field of life sciences, and provides an ideal model for exploring developmental biology problems such as embryogenesis, histiocytosis, and gene expression regulation, as well as opens up new doors for clinical tissue defective and inheritance diseases. Among them, menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are characterized by wide source, multi-directional differentiation potential, low immune rejection characteristics. Thus, MenSCs can achieve individual treatment and have the most advantage of the clinical application...
May 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892518/pathways-to-neuroprediction-opportunities-and-challenges-to-prediction-of-treatment-response-in-depression
#15
Scott A Langenecker, Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, K Luan Phan, Heide Klumpp
Purpose of review: We set out to review the current state of science in neuroprediction, using biological measures of brain function, with task based fMRI to prospectively predict response to a variety of treatments. Recent findings: Task-based fMRI neuroprediction studies are balanced between whole brain and ROI specific analyses. The predominant tasks are emotion processing, with ROIs based upon amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, both within the salience and emotion network...
March 2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891199/velocity-based-adaptive-registration-and-fusion-for-fractionated-stereotactic-radiosurgery-using-the-small-animal-radiation-research-platform
#16
Paul J Black, Deborah R Smith, Kunal Chaudhary, Eric P Xanthopoulos, Christine Chin, Catherine S Spina, Mark E Hwang, Mark Mayeda, Yi-Fang Wang, Eileen P Connolly, Tony J C Wang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng, Cheng-Chia Wu
PURPOSE: To implement Velocity-based image fusion and adaptive deformable registration to enable treatment planning for preclinical murine models of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL6 mice underwent 3 unique cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans: 2 in the prone position and a third supine. A single T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of a murine metastatic brain tumor model was selected for MRI-to-CBCT registration and gross tumor volume (GTV) identification...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890289/at-the-origin-of-the-history-of-glia
#17
REVIEW
Xue Fan, Yves Agid
The history of brain science is dominated by the study of neurons. However, there are as many glial cells as neurons in the human brain, their complexity increases during evolution, and glial cells play important roles in brain function, behavior, and neurological disorders. Although neurons and glial cells were first described at the same time in the early 19th century, why did the physiological study of glial cells only begin in the 1950s? What are the scientific breakthroughs and conceptual shifts that determined the history of glial cells in relation to that of neurons? What is the impact of the history of glia on the evolution of neuroscience? In order to answer these questions, we reconstructed the history of glial cells, from their first description until the mid-20th century, by examining the relative role of technical developments and scientific interpretations...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888310/network-based-approaches-to-examining-stress-in-the-adolescent-brain
#18
REVIEW
Tiffany C Ho, Emily L Dennis, Paul M Thompson, Ian H Gotlib
Exposure to stress, particularly in periods of rapid brain maturation such as adolescence, can profoundly influence developmental processes that undergird the organization of structural and functional brain networks and that may mediate the association between stressful experiences and maladaptive outcomes. While studies in translational developmental neuroscience often focus on how specific brain regions or targeted connections are altered by stress and psychiatric disease, the emerging field of network science may be especially valuable for elucidating the impact of stress on the intricate connectomics of the adolescent brain...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886871/stephen-t-casper-and-delia-gavrus-eds-the-history-of-the-brain-and-mind-sciences-technique-technology-therapy-new-york-university-of-rochester-press-2017-pp-i-310-%C3%A2-95-00-hardback-isbn-9781580465953
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886175/a-mind-full-of-self-self-referential-processing-as-a-mechanism-underlying-the-therapeutic-effects-of-mindfulness-training-on-internalizing-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Yanli Lin, Courtney P Callahan, Jason S Moser
The aim of the current review is to advance the hypothesis that change in self-referential processing is a key but under-examined mechanism through which mindfulness training confers its therapeutic benefits for individuals with internalizing disorders. Consequently, we integrated neuroscientific studies on aberrant self-referential processing in internalizing disorders with contemplative science scholarship examining the effects of mindfulness training on the self-referential system. Reviewing these literatures yielded four major conclusions: (1) internalizing disorders can be characterized by excessive self-referential processing and emotion dysregulation; (2) mindfulness training has moderate effects on reducing internalizing symptoms; (3) mindfulness training promotes the shifting from narrative self-focus to present-centered experiential awareness; (4) such mindfulness-induced changes in self-reference is accompanied by reduced activation in overactive self-referential brain regions that have been implicated in internalizing disorders...
June 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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