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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#1
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238085/communication-dynamics-in-complex-brain-networks
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger, Bratislav Misic, Olaf Sporns
Neuronal signalling and communication underpin virtually all aspects of brain activity and function. Network science approaches to modelling and analysing the dynamics of communication on networks have proved useful for simulating functional brain connectivity and predicting emergent network states. This Review surveys important aspects of communication dynamics in brain networks. We begin by sketching a conceptual framework that views communication dynamics as a necessary link between the empirical domains of structural and functional connectivity...
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237931/tau-mediated-neurodegeneration-and-potential-implications-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Xi-Lin Wu, Juan Piña-Crespo, Yun-Wu Zhang, Xiao-Chun Chen, Hua-Xi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To review recent research advances on tau, a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a biomarker for AD onset, and potential target for AD therapy. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on a comprehensive search using online literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Literature search was based on the following keywords: Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), therapeutics, plasma, imaging, propagation, spreading, seeding, prion, conformational templating, and posttranslational modification...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231354/-top-cited-academic-articles-in-acupuncture-and-moxibustion-research
#4
Shengfeng Lu, Ying Zou, Rudong Wang, Meiling Yu
OBJECTIVE: To identify the 100 top-cited articles published in journals dedicated to acupuncture & moxibustion research and analyze their characteristics so as to explore its academic state. METHODS: All the articles were collected from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, January 1, 1943 to December 25, 2016), Web of Science (January 1, 1950 to December 25, 2016), WANFANG Database (January 1, 1998 to December 25, 2016). The top-cited articles were selected and analyzed with regard to publication year, number of citations, journals, authors, country or region, institution, title, type and subject...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226437/on-effective-graphic-communication-of-health-inequality-considerations-for-health-policy-researchers
#5
Yukiko Asada, Hannah Abel, Chris Skedgel, Grace Warner
Policy Points: Effective graphs can be a powerful tool in communicating health inequality. The choice of graphs is often based on preferences and familiarity rather than science. According to the literature on graph perception, effective graphs allow human brains to decode visual cues easily. Dot charts are easier to decode than bar charts, and thus they are more effective. Dot charts are a flexible and versatile way to display information about health inequality. Consistent with the health risk communication literature, the captions accompanying health inequality graphs should provide a numerical, explicitly calculated description of health inequality, expressed in absolute and relative terms, from carefully thought-out perspectives...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217330/-cognitive-neuroscience-of-aging-contributions-and-challenges
#6
Fernando Díaz, Arturo X Pereiro
The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a young discipline that has emerged as a result of the combination of: A) the theoretical and explanatory frameworks proposed by the cognitive psychology perspective throughout the second half of the twentieth century; B) the designs and methodological procedures arising from experimental psychology and the need to test the hypotheses proposed from the cognitive psychology perspective; C) the contributions of the computer sciences to the explanation of brain functions; and D) the development and use of neuroimaging techniques that have enabled the recording of brain activity in humans while tasks that test some cognitive process or function are performed...
December 4, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216192/tracking-the-career-development-of-scientists-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-trained-through-tdr-s-research-capacity-strengthening-programmes-learning-from-monitoring-and-impact-evaluation
#7
Béatrice Halpaap, Mahnaz Vahedi, Edith Certain, Tini Alvarado, Caroline Saint Martin, Corinne Merle, Michael Mihut, Pascal Launois
The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) co-sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank and WHO has been supporting research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries for over 40 years. In order to assess and continuously optimize its capacity strengthening approaches, an evaluation of the influence of TDR training grants on research career development was undertaken. The assessment was part of a larger evaluation conducted by the European Science Foundation. A comprehensive survey questionnaire was developed and sent to a group of 117 trainees supported by TDR who had completed their degree (masters or PhD) between 2000 and 2012; of these, seventy seven (77) responded...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#8
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204309/laser-application-in-neurosurgery
#9
REVIEW
Evgenii Belykh, Kaan Yagmurlu, Nikolay L Martirosyan, Ting Lei, Mohammadhassan Izadyyazdanabadi, Kashif M Malik, Vadim A Byvaltsev, Peter Nakaji, Mark C Preul
Background: Technological innovations based on light amplification created by stimulated emission of radiation (LASER) have been used extensively in the field of neurosurgery. Methods: We reviewed the medical literature to identify current laser-based technological applications for surgical, diagnostic, and therapeutic uses in neurosurgery. Results: Surgical applications of laser technology reported in the literature include percutaneous laser ablation of brain tissue, the use of surgical lasers in open and endoscopic cranial surgeries, laser-assisted microanastomosis, and photodynamic therapy for brain tumors...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202007/epigenetic-advances-in-behavioral-and-brain-sciences-have-relevance-for-public-policy
#10
Tania L Roth
Nature and nurture work together to drive development, behavior, and health. Behavioral epigenetics research has uncovered the underlying mechanisms for how this happens. Children's early years in development may offer the greatest opportunity for environmental and experiential factors to influence epigenome (chemical compounds telling our genes what to do), but evidence suggests it is never too late. The policy implications of this research are vast, including relevance for child development, health, and disease intervention and prevention...
2017: Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198504/female-sexual-dysfunction-medical-and-psychological-treatments-committee-14
#11
Sheryl A Kingsberg, Stanley Althof, James A Simon, Andrea Bradford, Johannes Bitzer, Joana Carvalho, Kathryn E Flynn, Rossella E Nappi, Jennifer B Reese, Roya L Rezaee, Leslie Schover, Jan L Shifrin
INTRODUCTION: Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198282/neuropsychology-of-learning-disabilities-the-past-and-the-future
#12
Jack M Fletcher, Elena L Grigorenko
Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198271/the-neuropsychology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-looking-back-peering-ahead
#13
Keith Owen Yeates, Harvey S Levin, Jennie Ponsford
The past 50 years have been a period of exciting progress in neuropsychological research on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropsychologists and neuropsychological testing have played a critical role in these advances. This study looks back at three major scientific advances in research on TBI that have been critical in pushing the field forward over the past several decades: The advent of modern neuroimaging; the recognition of the importance of non-injury factors in determining recovery from TBI; and the growth of cognitive rehabilitation...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185169/how-predictive-are-sex-and-empathizing-systemizing-cognitive-style-for-entry-into-the-academic-areas-of-social-or-physical-sciences
#14
Y Groen, A B M Fuermaier, L I Tucha, J Koerts, O Tucha
Based on the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory, it was hypothesized that the underrepresentation of female students in the physical sciences and the underrepresentation of males in the social sciences relates to differences in E-S cognitive style between the sexes. This hypothesis was tested in 115 physical science students and 155 social science students from a university in the Netherlands. The students completed visuospatial tests and the systemizing quotient-revised (SQ-R) as measures for systemizing, and a Cartoon Prediction test and the empathy quotient (EQ) as measures for empathizing...
November 28, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182309/fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-chemical-sensing-in-the-brain-and-beyond
#15
James G Roberts, Leslie A Sombers
In this review we will describe the electroanalytical method known as fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), how it has advanced over the years, and in what way(s) it is impacting other sciences. To begin, a brief history will be discussed. The various means to enhance chemical selectivity by manipulating the applied potential will be covered. Some limitations of this electroanalytical method will be highlighted to inform and provide clarity to the scientific community. The intent is to seek out effective solutions to the difficult problems associated with the technique, so that the field will continue to flourish...
November 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182149/multi-scale-multi-modal-analysis-uncovers-complex-relationship-at-the-brain-tissue-implant-neural-interface-new-emphasis-on-the-biological-interface
#16
Nicholas J Michelson, Alberto L Vazquez, James R Eles, Joseph William Salatino, Erin K Purcell, Jordan John Williams, Tracy Cui, Takashi D Yoshida Kozai
Implantable neural electrode devices are important tools for neuroscience research and have an increasing range of clinical applications. However, the intricacies of the biological response after implantation, and their ultimate impact on recording performance, remain challenging to elucidate. Establishing a relationship between the neurobiology and chronic recording performance is confounded by technical challenges related to traditional electrophysiological, material, and histological limitations. This can greatly impact the interpretations of results pertaining to device performance and tissue health surrounding the implant...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174593/brain-regions-showing-white-matter-loss-in%C3%A2-huntington-s-disease-are-enriched-for-synaptic-and-metabolic-genes
#17
Peter McColgan, Sarah Gregory, Kiran K Seunarine, Adeel Razi, Marina Papoutsi, Eileanoir Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, Peter Holmans, Rachael I Scahill, Chris A Clark, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
BACKGROUND: The earliest white matter changes in Huntington's disease are seen before disease onset in the premanifest stage around the striatum, within the corpus callosum, and in posterior white matter tracts. While experimental evidence suggests that these changes may be related to abnormal gene transcription, we lack an understanding of the biological processes driving this regional vulnerability. METHODS: Here, we investigate the relationship between regional transcription in the healthy brain, using the Allen Institute for Brain Science transcriptome atlas, and regional white matter connectivity loss at three time points over 24 months in subjects with premanifest Huntington's disease relative to control participants...
October 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168729/the-mental-homologies-of-mammals-towards-an-understanding-of-another-mammals-world-view
#18
Marthe Kiley-Worthington
Mammals' mental homologies include that they look after their young, suckle and protect them; they acquire information about the world by learning. They have five types of sensory receptors and a brain to analyze the information and they feel: that is they are sentient. Mental homologies have been largely ignored by behavioural scientists since Darwin because of certain historical beliefs. This however has not been the case for people who have had to do with non-human mammals who have long recognized their mental similarities to humans...
November 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167633/integrating-brain-science-and-law-neuroscientific-evidence-and-legal-perspectives-on-protecting-individual-liberties
#19
REVIEW
Calvin J Kraft, James Giordano
Advances in neuroscientific techniques have found increasingly broader applications, including in legal neuroscience (or "neurolaw"), where experts in the brain sciences are called to testify in the courtroom. But does the incursion of neuroscience into the legal sphere constitute a threat to individual liberties? And what legal protections are there against such threats? In this paper, we outline individual rights as they interact with neuroscientific methods. We then proceed to examine the current uses of neuroscientific evidence, and ultimately determine whether the rights of the individual are endangered by such approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167088/network-neuroscience-theory-of-human-intelligence
#20
REVIEW
Aron K Barbey
An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory...
November 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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