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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046375/left-right-asymmetry-of-the-maxwell-spot-centroids-in-adults-without-and-with-dyslexia
#1
Albert Le Floch, Guy Ropars
In human vision, the brain has to select one view of the world from our two eyes. However, the existence of a clear anatomical asymmetry providing an initial imbalance for normal neural development is still not understood. Using a so-called foveascope, we found that for a cohort of 30 normal adults, the two blue cone-free areas at the centre of the foveas are asymmetrical. The noise-stimulated afterimage dominant eye introduced here corresponds to the circular blue cone-free area, while the non-dominant eye corresponds to the diffuse and irregular elliptical outline...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042299/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-spasticity-in-adults-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Djamel Bensmail, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity causes significant long-term disability-burden, requiring comprehensive management. This review evaluates evidence from published systematic reviews of clinical trials for effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes. METHODS: Data sources: A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library) databases for published systematic reviews up to 15(th) June 2017...
October 14, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034095/current-and-emerging-brain-applications-of-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound
#3
REVIEW
Ying Meng, Suganth Suppiah, Karim Mithani, Benjamin Solomon, Michael L Schwartz, Nir Lipsman
MRI guided focused ultrasound is an emerging technique that uses acoustic energy to noninvasively treat intracranial disorders. At high frequencies, it can be used to raise tissue temperatures and ablate discrete brain targets with sub-millimeter accuracy. This application is currently under investigation for a broad range of clinical applications, including brain tumors, movement disorders, and psychiatric conditions. At low frequencies MRI guided focused ultrasound can be used to modulate neuronal activity and in conjunction with injected microbubbles, can open the blood-brain barrier to enhance the delivery of therapeutic compounds...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033888/concussion-as-a-multi-scale-complex-system-an-interdisciplinary-synthesis-of-current-knowledge
#4
REVIEW
Erin S Kenzie, Elle L Parks, Erin D Bigler, Miranda M Lim, James C Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called "the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body" and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even "mild" injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033483/the-impact-of-antidepressant-treatment-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-level-an-evidence-based-approach-through-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Vijayakumar Arumugam, Vini Susan John, Nisha Augustine, Taniya Jacob, Sagar Maliakkal Joy, Suchandra Sen, Tuhinadri Sen
OBJECTIVES: Antidepressant treatment alters brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, but it is not well established whether BDNF can be used as a marker to prove the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aim at assessing the influence of antidepressant treatment on BDNF level and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score, thereby to establish the rationale of utilizing BDNF as a predictive biomarker and HDRS score as an indicator for antidepressant treatment efficacy...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033138/do-you-believe-it-verbal-suggestions-influence-the-clinical-and-neural-effects-of-escitalopram-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-trial
#6
Vanda Faria, Malin Gingnell, Johanna M Hoppe, Olof Hjorth, Iman Alaie, Andreas Frick, Sara Hultberg, Kurt Wahlstedt, Jonas Engman, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Margareta Reis, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety, but their efficacy relative to placebo has been questioned. We aimed to test how manipulation of verbally induced expectancies, central for placebo, influences SSRI treatment outcome and brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: We did a randomized clinical trial, within an academic medical center (Uppsala, Sweden), of individuals fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, recruited through media advertising...
September 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029962/answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation
#7
REVIEW
Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead, Paul Benjamin Badcock, Karl John Friston
The free-energy principle (FEP) is a formal model of neuronal processes that is widely recognised in neuroscience as a unifying theory of the brain and biobehaviour. More recently, however, it has been extended beyond the brain to explain the dynamics of living systems, and their unique capacity to avoid decay. The aim of this review is to synthesise these advances with a meta-theoretical ontology of biological systems called variational neuroethology, which integrates the FEP with Tinbergen's four research questions to explain biological systems across spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027122/hi1a-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-agent-for-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibition-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a
#8
Yandong Ren, Chengchong Li, Jinlong Chang, Rui Wang, Yuhua Wang, Xiang-Ping Chu
Strokes are the second-leading cause of death worldwide, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying stroke-induced brain damage are still uncertain. The present therapy for acute ischemic stroke is limited to thrombolysis with the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). However, rtPA has a narrow therapeutic timeframe of 3-4.5 h, and only approximately 5% of stroke patients can benefit from rtPA treatment. Neuroprotective agents, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, have shown great promise in preclinical studies...
October 13, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026076/sample-composition-alters-associations-between-age-and-brain-structure
#9
Kaja Z LeWinn, Margaret A Sheridan, Katherine M Keyes, Ava Hamilton, Katie A McLaughlin
Despite calls to incorporate population science into neuroimaging research, most studies recruit small, non-representative samples. Here, we examine whether sample composition influences age-related variation in global measurements of gray matter volume, thickness, and surface area. We apply sample weights to structural brain imaging data from a community-based sample of children aged 3-18 (N = 1162) to create a "weighted sample" that approximates the distribution of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and sex in the U...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025157/chronic-pain-after-traumatic-brain-injury-pathophysiology-and-pain-mechanisms
#10
Karen-Amanda Irvine, J David Clark
Background: Traumatic brain injury refers to a broad range of neurological, cognitive, and emotional factors that result from the application of an external force to the head. Individuals recovering from traumatic brain injury will frequently experience acute and chronic pain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiological changes resulting from traumatic brain injury and how these may be involved in the development and persistence of pain after injury...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023633/bdnf-and-bmi-effects-on-brain-structures-of-bipolar-offspring-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#11
R B Mansur, E Brietzke, R S McIntyre, B Cao, Y Lee, L Japiassú, K Chen, R Lu, W Lu, T Li, G Xu, K Lin
OBJECTIVE: To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. METHOD: Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 11, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022264/experimental-evidences-supporting-the-benefits-of-exercise-training-in-heart-failure
#12
Marcelo H A Ichige, Marcelo G Pereira, Patrícia C Brum, Lisete C Michelini
Heart Failure (HF), a common end point for many cardiovascular diseases, is a syndrome with a very poor prognosis. Although clinical trials in HF have achieved important outcomes in reducing mortality, little is known about functional mechanisms conditioning health improvement in HF patients. In parallel with clinical studies, basic science has been providing important discoveries to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of HF, as well as to identify potential targets for the treatment of this syndrome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019346/occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-development-of-a-job-exposure-matrix-for-use-in-population-based-studies-pestipop
#13
Camille Carles, Ghislaine Bouvier, Yolande Esquirol, Camille Pouchieu, Lucile Migault, Clément Piel, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Séverine Tual, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
Occupational exposure to pesticides concerns a wide population of workers not only in agriculture. The reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use is questionable because of the diversity of use. The PESTIPOP job-exposure matrix has been designed to assess pesticide occupational exposure in the general population. The matrix is composed of two axes: the first axis corresponding to jobs (combinations of occupations and industries) and the second one to pesticide exposure. The estimated exposure metric is the probability of exposure coupled with a reliability assessment (low, medium or high)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018554/psychiatric-neurosurgery-in-the-21st-century-overview-and-the-growth-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Kenneth Barrett
Ambulatory deep brain stimulation (DBS) became possible in the late 1980s and was initially used to treat people with movement disorders. Trials of DBS in people with treatment-resistant psychiatric disorder began in the late 1990s, initially focusing on obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder and Tourette syndrome. Despite methodological issues, including small participant numbers and lack of consensus over brain targets, DBS is now being trialled in a wide range of psychiatric conditions...
October 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016679/perimenopause-and-emergence-of-an-alzheimer-s-bioenergetic-phenotype-in-brain-and-periphery
#15
Lisa Mosconi, Valentina Berti, Crystal Guyara-Quinn, Pauline McHugh, Gabriella Petrongolo, Ricardo S Osorio, Christopher Connaughty, Alberto Pupi, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Richard S Isaacson, Mony J de Leon, Russell H Swerdlow, Roberta Diaz Brinton
After advanced age, female sex is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms underlying the increased AD risk in women remain largely undetermined. Preclinical studies identified the perimenopause to menopause transition, a neuroendocrine transition state unique to the female, as a sex-specific risk factor for AD. In animals, estrogenic regulation of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) falters during perimenopause. This is evident in glucose hypometabolism and decline in mitochondrial efficiency which is sustained thereafter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016274/mind-the-hype-a-critical-evaluation-and-prescriptive-agenda-for-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#16
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Catherine E Kerr, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and "key to building more resilient soldiers." Yet the mindfulness movement and empirical evidence supporting it have not gone without criticism. Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993966/neuroscience-in-nigeria-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#17
Wasiu Gbolahan Balogun, Ansa Emmanuel Cobham, Abdulbasit Amin
The science of the brain and nervous system cuts across almost all aspects of human life and is one of the fastest growing scientific fields worldwide. This necessitates the demand for pragmatic investment by all nations to ensure improved education and quality of research in Neurosciences. Although obvious efforts are being made in advancing the field in developed societies, there is limited data addressing the state of neuroscience in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we review the state of neuroscience development in Nigeria, Africa's most populous country and its largest economy, critically evaluating the history, the current situation and future projections...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987827/surgical-management-of-giant-intracranial-meningioma-operative-nuances-challenges-and-outcome
#18
Vinayak Narayan, Shyamal C Bir, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: The giant intracranial meningioma [GIM] constitutes a different spectrum of brain tumors which invade the vital neurovascular structures and makes the primary mode of treatment, surgery, a technically challenging one. The surgery of GIM is unique due to its large size, prominent vascularity, entangling and limited visualisation of various neurovascular structures and severe cerebral edema. The study reports the authors surgical experience of 80 GIM cases, the operative challenges and surgical outcome...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986415/clinical-outcomes-of-asleep-vs-awake-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease
#19
Matthew A Brodsky, Shannon Anderson, Charles Murchison, Mara Seier, Jennifer Wilhelm, Aaron Vederman, Kim J Burchiel
OBJECTIVE: To compare motor and nonmotor outcomes at 6 months of asleep deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD) using intraoperative imaging guidance to confirm electrode placement vs awake DBS using microelectrode recording to confirm electrode placement. METHODS: DBS candidates with PD referred to Oregon Health & Science University underwent asleep DBS with imaging guidance. Six-month outcomes were compared to those of patients who previously underwent awake DBS by the same surgeon and center...
October 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981957/the-role-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epilepsy-surgery-planning
#20
REVIEW
David Gloss, Sarah J Nevitt, Richard Staba
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a serious brain disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Approximately two-thirds of seizures can be controlled with antiepileptic medications (Kwan 2000). For some of the others, surgery can completely eliminate or significantly reduce the occurrence of disabling seizures. Localization of epileptogenic areas for resective surgery is far from perfect, and new tools are being investigated to more accurately localize the epileptogenic zone (the zone of the brain where the seizures begin) and improve the likelihood of freedom from postsurgical seizures...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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