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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#1
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#2
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906509/principles-of-brain-development
#3
REVIEW
Joan Stiles
Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#4
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905259/regenerative-pharmacology-recent-developments-and-future-perspectives
#5
James Koudy Williams, Karl-Erik Andersson
This review focuses on the current status of research that utilizes the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize and characterize the development, maturation and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues. These regenerative pharmacologic approaches have been applied to diseases of the urogenital tract, the heart, the brain, the musculoskeletal system and diabetes. Approaches have included the use of growth factors (such as VEGF and chemokines (stromal-derived factor - CXCL12) to mobilize cell to the sights of tissue loss or damage...
December 1, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901215/a-systematic-review-of-the-neural-correlates-of-positive-emotions
#6
Leonardo Machado, Amaury Cantilino
Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of human studies reporting neural correlates of positive emotions. Methods: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched in January 2016 for scientific papers written in English. No restrictions were placed on year of publication. Results: Twenty-two articles were identified and 12 met the established criteria. Five had been published during the last 4 years. Formation and regulation of positive emotions, including happiness, are associated with significant reductions in activity in the right prefrontal cortex and bilaterally in the temporoparietal cortex, as well as with increased activity in the left prefrontal regions...
November 24, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900341/subventricular-zone-associated-glioblastoma-a-call-for-translational-research-to-guide-clinical-decision-making
#7
Andrew W Smith, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most devastating primary cancer of the central nervous system, with an expected overall survival in most patients of about 14 months. Despite extensive research, outcomes for GBM have been largely unchanged since the introduction of temozolomide in 2005. We believe that in order to achieve a breakthrough in therapeutic management, we must begin to identify subtypes of GBM, and tailor treatment to best target a particular tumor's vulnerabilities. Our group has recently produced an examination of the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy directed at tumors that contact the subventricular zone (SVZ), the 3-5 mm lateral border of the lateral ventricles that contains the largest collection of neural stem cells in the adult brain...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899735/improving-departments-of-psychology
#8
Ed Diener
Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#9
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893874/association-of-perivascular-localization-of-aquaporin-4-with-cognition-and-alzheimer-disease-in-aging-brains
#10
Douglas M Zeppenfeld, Matthew Simon, J Douglas Haswell, Daryl D'Abreo, Charles Murchison, Joseph F Quinn, Marjorie R Grafe, Randall L Woltjer, Jeffrey Kaye, Jeffrey J Iliff
Importance: Cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), are common within the aging population, yet the factors that render the aging brain vulnerable to these processes are unknown. Perivascular localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid-β, through the brainwide network of perivascular pathways termed the glymphatic system, which may be compromised in the aging brain. Objectives: To determine whether alterations in AQP4 expression or loss of perivascular AQP4 localization are features of the aging human brain and to define their association with AD pathology...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#11
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888923/determination-of-time-of-death-in-forensic-science-via-a-3-d-whole-body-heat-transfer-model
#12
Catherine Bartgis, Alexander M LeBrun, Ronghui Ma, Liang Zhu
This study is focused on developing a whole body heat transfer model to accurately simulate temperature decay in a body postmortem. The initial steady state temperature field is simulated first and the calculated weighted average body temperature is used to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient at the skin surface, based on thermal equilibrium before death. The transient temperature field postmortem is then simulated using the same boundary condition and the temperature decay curves at several body locations are generated for a time frame of 24h...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887998/the-intricacies-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-metabolic-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Erin B Bruce, Annette D de Kloet
Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which is best-known as an endocrine system with established roles in hydromineral balance and blood pressure control, has emerged as a fundamental regulator of many additional physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this manuscript, we celebrate and honor Randall Sakai's commitment to his trainees, as well as his contribution to science. Scientifically, Randall made many notable contributions to the recognition of the RAS's roles in brain and behavior...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882504/media-portrayal-of-a-landmark-neuroscience-experiment-on-free-will
#14
Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljevic
The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881854/the-neural-and-computational-bases-of-semantic-cognition
#15
Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy T Rogers
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a new framework that we term controlled semantic cognition (CSC). CSC offers solutions to long-standing queries in philosophy and cognitive science, and yields a convergent framework for understanding the neural and computational bases of healthy semantic cognition and its dysfunction in brain disorders...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876129/metabolic-syndrome-a-truly-psychosomatic-disorder-a-global-hypothesis
#16
Shrikant Madhukar Ghike
Exact cause of the metabolic syndrome [MS], a global epidemic, is still unclear. Man has same fundamental needs to live as animals but modern man's life-style compels him to acquire certainty of resources for all his needs in a complex social network. Today money has become the sole life essential need. Contrarily none of the animals needs to earn money. Brain is also an organ of the human body with a unique thought process to define logical actions to achieve a person's goals. This way life is a flow of desires followed by logical actions...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872367/the-neurobiology-of-uncertainty-implications-for-statistical-learning
#17
REVIEW
Uri Hasson
The capacity for assessing the degree of uncertainty in the environment relies on estimating statistics of temporally unfolding inputs. This, in turn, allows calibration of predictive and bottom-up processing, and signalling changes in temporally unfolding environmental features. In the last decade, several studies have examined how the brain codes for and responds to input uncertainty. Initial neurobiological experiments implicated frontoparietal and hippocampal systems, based largely on paradigms that manipulated distributional features of visual stimuli...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869996/efficacy-of-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-on-pain-control-in-migraine-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Lívia Shirahige, Lorena Melo, Fernanda Nogueira, Sérgio Rocha, Kátia Monte-Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) on pain control in migraine patients. BACKGROUND: Recent studies have used NIBS as an abortive and prophylactic treatment for migraine; however, its efficacy regarding meaningful clinical effects remains to be critically analyzed. DESIGN: Systematic review of controlled clinical trials. METHODS: Searches were conducted in six databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BIREME), CINAHL (via EBSCO), Scopus (via EBSCO), Web of Science, and CENTRAL...
November 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869302/brain-function-is-linked-to-ldl-cholesterol-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk
#19
Liesel-Ann C Meusel, Nicole D Anderson, Matthew D Parrott, William Yuen, Ekaterina Tchistiakova, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sid Feldman, Carol E Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine how cardiovascular risk is associated with working memory task performance and task-related suppression of default-mode network (DMN) activity in cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study of older adults with cardiovascular risk factors. SETTING: Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty older adults with cardiovascular risk factors...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865786/human-connectomics-across-the-life-span
#20
REVIEW
Xi-Nian Zuo, Ye He, Richard F Betzel, Stan Colcombe, Olaf Sporns, Michael P Milham
Connectomics has enhanced our understanding of neurocognitive development and decline by the integration of network sciences into studies across different stages of the human life span. However, these studies commonly occurred independently, missing the opportunity to test integrated models of the dynamical brain organization across the entire life span. In this review article, we survey empirical findings in life-span connectomics and propose a generative framework for computationally modeling the connectome over the human life span...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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