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HAP VAP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210888/double-carbapenem-combination-as-salvage-therapy-for-untreatable-infections-by-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
M Souli, I Karaiskos, A Masgala, L Galani, E Barmpouti, H Giamarellou
We report our experience using the double-carbapenem combination as salvage therapy for patients with untreatable infections caused by KPC-2- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total of 27 patients in two institutions in Athens, Greece suffering from complicated urinary tract infections (16) with or without secondary bacteraemia (four and 12 respectively), primary (six) or catheter-related bloodstream infections (two), HAP or VAP (two) and external ventricular drainage infection (one) were treated exclusively with ertapenem and high-dose prolonged infusion meropenem because in-vitro active antimicrobials were unavailable (19) or failed (four) or were contraindicated (six)...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#2
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197677/the-research-agenda-in-vap-hap-next-steps
#3
Michael S Niederman, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Antoni Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#4
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#5
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895901/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-non-ventilated-adult-patients-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Leonor Pássaro, Stephan Harbarth, Caroline Landelle
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. METHODS: A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763732/antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#7
REVIEW
Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521441/executive-summary-management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-and-the-american-thoracic-society
#8
Andre C Kalil, Mark L Metersky, Michael Klompas, John Muscedere, Daniel A Sweeney, Lucy B Palmer, Lena M Napolitano, Naomi P O'Grady, John G Bartlett, Jordi Carratalà, Ali A El Solh, Santiago Ewig, Paul D Fey, Thomas M File, Marcos I Restrepo, Jason A Roberts, Grant W Waterer, Peggy Cruse, Shandra L Knight, Jan L Brozek
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448108/injectable-and-biodegradable-composite-bone-filler-composed-of-poly-propylene-fumarate-and-calcium-phosphate-ceramic-for-vertebral-augmentation-procedure-an-in-vivo-porcine-study
#9
Chang-Chin Wu, Li-Ho Hsu, Shoichiro Sumi, Kai-Chiang Yang, Shu-Hua Yang
Despite its common usage in vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), shortcomings of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still remain. Accordingly, injectable and biodegradable composite cements, which are composed of poly(propylene fumarate)/α-tricalcium/hydroxyapatite (PPF/α-TCP/HAP) and PPF/tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate (PPF/TtCP/DCP), were developed. A porcine model was used and cylindrical holes in critical size were created at the center of the lateral cortex of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418577/management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-2016-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-and-the-american-thoracic-society
#10
Andre C Kalil, Mark L Metersky, Michael Klompas, John Muscedere, Daniel A Sweeney, Lucy B Palmer, Lena M Napolitano, Naomi P O'Grady, John G Bartlett, Jordi Carratalà, Ali A El Solh, Santiago Ewig, Paul D Fey, Thomas M File, Marcos I Restrepo, Jason A Roberts, Grant W Waterer, Peggy Cruse, Shandra L Knight, Jan L Brozek
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347712/emerging-drugs-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#11
Adamantia Liapikou, Antoni Torres
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the leading nosocomial infections worldwide and is associated with an elevated morbidity and mortality and increased hospital costs. Nevertheless, prompt and adequate antimicrobial treatment is mandatory following VAP development, especially in the face of multidrug resistant pathogens. AREAS COVERED: We searched Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.gov site reports in English language of phase III clinical trials, between 2000-2016 referring to the antibiotic treatment of nosocomial pneumonia...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344468/the-risk-factors-for-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
Marta Wałaszek, Alicja Kosiarska, Agnieszka Gniadek, Małgorzata Kołpa, Zdzisław Wolak, Wiesław Dobroś, Jolanta Siadek
INTRODUCTION: Patients in the intensive care units (ICU) are exposed to many factors that may cause hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), a particular type of which is ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The specific risk factors for developing VAP affect patients already on the day of their admission to a unit and are associated with their underlying diseases and invasive medical procedures, which they undergo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for VAP associated with a patient and the used invasive treatment...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329135/prevalence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-antimicrobial-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-pneumonia-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Chengyi Ding, Zhirong Yang, Jing Wang, Xinran Liu, Yu Cao, Yuting Pan, Lizhong Han, Siyan Zhan
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in mainland China. METHODS: Meta-analyses of 50 studies published from 2010 to 2014 were conducted, followed by pre-defined subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa accounted for 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 17...
August 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249225/presence-of-the-panton-valentine-leukocidin-genes-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-is-associated-with-severity-and-clinical-outcome-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-a-single-center-study-in-china
#14
Chuanling Zhang, Liang Guo, Xu Chu, Limeng Shen, Yuanyu Guo, Huali Dong, Jianfeng Mao, Stijn van der Veen
The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have previously been associated with severe infections. Here, the impact of the PVL genes on severity of disease and clinical outcome of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to MRSA was investigated in a single center observational study in a hospital in China. HAP due to MRSA was diagnosed in 100 patients and 13 of the patients were PVL positive, while VAP was diagnosed in 5 patients and 2 were PVL positive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003315/epidemiology-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-results-of-a-central-european-multicenter-prospective-observational-study-compared-with-data-from-the-european-region
#15
Tomas Herkel, Radovan Uvizl, Lenka Doubravska, Milan Adamus, Tomas Gabrhelik, Miroslava Htoutou Sedlakova, Milan Kolar, Vojtech Hanulik, Vendula Pudova, Katerina Langova, Roman Zazula, Tomas Rezac, Michal Moravec, Pavel Cermak, Pavel Sevcik, Jan Stasek, Jan Malaska, Alena Sevcikova, Marketa Hanslianova, Zdenek Turek, Vladimir Cerny, Pavla Paterova
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is associated with high mortality. In Central Europe, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence and treatment of HAP. This project was aimed at collecting multicenter epidemiological data on patients with HAP in the Czech Republic and comparing them with supraregional data. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, observational study processed data from a database supported by a Czech Ministry of Health grant project...
September 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998623/investigational-drugs-in-phase-i-and-phase-ii-clincial-trials-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Vicenç Falcó, Joaquin Burgos, Elisabeth Papiol, Ricard Ferrer, Benito Almirante
INTRODUCTION: Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the main infections acquired by patients during a stay in hospital. The main issue when dealing with patients with HAP and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the increasing role of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). AREAS COVERED: In this review the authors summarize the actual situation of MDROs as a cause of HAP and VAP. They also review the current treatment options stated in the most important international guidelines...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26301604/short-course-versus-prolonged-course-antibiotic-therapy-for-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-adults
#17
REVIEW
Richard Pugh, Chris Grant, Richard P D Cooke, Ged Dempsey
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the most common hospital-acquired infection affecting patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, current national guidelines for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) are several years old and the diagnosis of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients (VAP) has been subject to considerable recent attention. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for HAP in the critically ill is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of short versus prolonged-course antibiotics for HAP in critically ill adults, including patients with VAP...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190444/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-nosocomial-pneumonia-impact-of-pneumonia-classification
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef, Antoni Torres, Catherine Chen, Jordi Rello, Jean Chastre, Massimo Antonelli, Tobias Welte, Bernard Clair, Helmut Ostermann, Esther Calbo, Richard Wunderink, Francesco Menichetti, Garrett Schramm, Vandana Menon
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the mortality associated with nosocomial pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-NP) according to pneumonia classification (community-onset pneumonia [COP], hospital-acquired pneumonia [(HAP], and ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP]). DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with Pa-NP. We compared mortality for Pa-NP among patients with COP, HAP, and VAP and used logistic regression to identify risk factors for hospital mortality and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT)...
October 2015: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25956849/ceftaroline-fosamil-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Keith S Kaye, George Udeani, Phillip Cole, Hillel David Friedland
OBJECTIVES: Ceftaroline fosamil is a novel cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against common pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Ceftaroline is inactive against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing or AmpC-overexpressing Enterobacteriaceae and has limited activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CAPTURE is a multicenter, retrospective study designed to collect information on contemporary clinical use of ceftaroline fosamil in the USA...
2015: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25742187/understanding-the-concept-of-health-care-associated-pneumonia-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#20
Federico Palacio, Luis F Reyes, Deborah J Levine, Juan F Sanchez, Luis F Angel, Juan F Fernandez, Stephanie M Levine, Jordi Rello, Ali Abedi, Marcos I Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the etiologic impact of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) in lung transplant recipients. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the microbiologic differences between HCAP and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)/ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in lung transplant recipients with a radiographically confirmed diagnosis of pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients with pneumonia at one transplant center over a 7-year period...
August 2015: Chest
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