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circadian in parkinson

E Vichayanrat, D A Low, V Iodice, E Stuebner, E M Hagen, C J Mathias
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring (24-h ABPM) can provide vital information on circadian blood pressure (BP) profiles, which are commonly abnormal in Parkinson's disease with and without autonomic failure (PD + AF and PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Twenty-four-hour ABPM has not been directly compared between these disorders regarding cardiovascular autonomic function. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of 24-h ABPM with diary compared to head-up tilting (HUT) in diagnosing orthostatic hypotension (OH) in these patients...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Richard Gordon, Matthew L Neal, Jie Luo, Monica R Langley, Dilshan S Harischandra, Nikhil Panicker, Adhithiya Charli, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Trent M Woodruff, Qun-Yong Zhou, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Michael Verwey, Sabine Dhir, Shimon Amir
Circadian clock proteins form an autoregulatory feedback loop that is central to the endogenous generation and transmission of daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. Increasingly, circadian rhythms in clock gene expression are being reported in diverse tissues and brain regions that lie outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in mammals. For many of these extra-SCN rhythms, however, the region-specific implications are still emerging. In order to gain important insights into the potential behavioral, physiological, and psychological relevance of these daily oscillations, researchers have begun to focus on describing the neurochemical, hormonal, metabolic, and epigenetic contributions to the regulation of these rhythms...
2016: F1000Research
César Osório de Oliveira, Luciane Bc Carvalho, Karla Carlos, Cristiane Conti, Marcio M de Oliveira, Lucila Bf Prado, Gilmar F Prado
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing and common neurological disorder that may have a huge impact in the quality of life of those with frequent and intense symptoms. Patients complain of unpleasant sensations in the legs, at or before bedtime, and feel an urge to move the legs, which improves with movement, such as walking. Symptoms start with the patient at rest (e.g. sitting or lying down), and follow a circadian pattern, increasing during the evening or at night...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Safa Bouabid, Karim Fifel, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal
Manganese (Mn) intoxication is associated with neurological dysfunctions collectively known as Parkinsonism or Manganism. Like in Parkinson's disease, Manganism is associated with motor disturbances, together with non-motor symptoms including cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits. Although sleep dysfunctions are commonly reported among workers exposed to Mn, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the rest-activity rhythms in rats treated daily with MnCl2 (10mg/kg, i...
September 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
Christiana Ossig, Daniel Sippel, Mareike Fauser, Florin Gandor, Wolfgang H Jost, Georg Ebersbach, Alexander Storch
BACKGROUND: Since previous studies aimed to study nonmotor symptom (NMS) fluctuations in direct conjunction with motor oscillations, there are no data available on the temporal context of NMS fluctuations and motor oscillations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate circadian patterns and temporal connections of NMS and motor fluctuations in PD. METHODS: 15 controls, 17 non-fluctuating and 15 fluctuating PD patients completed two diaries by rating 4 key psychiatric (anxiety, depressive mood, inner restlessness, concentration/attention deficits), fatigue and 4 autonomic NMS (excessive sweating, sialorrhea, bladder urgency, dizziness) absent or present and motor function (Off, On with/without dyskinesia, and asleep) for every hour for 5 consecutive days...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Lynn Marie Trotti, Elias G Karroum
In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders are common; they impair the quality of life for patients and caregivers and are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Melatonin has circadian, hypnotic, and free radical-scavenging effects, and preclinical data suggest benefits of melatonin on neurodegeneration. However, randomized, controlled trials of melatonin in patients with neurodegenerative diseases have not shown strong effects. Trials in Alzheimer's patients demonstrate a lack of benefit on sleep quantity...
July 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Garima Shukla, Bhavna Kaul, Anupama Gupta, Vinay Goyal, Madhuri Behari
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythm sleep disorder-advanced sleep-phase type is a relatively uncommon disorder, mostly seen among the elderly population. Impaired circadian rhythms have been reported in neurodegenerative conditions; however, there are no reports of any circadian rhythm sleep disorder among patients with Parkinsonian syndromes. We report two patients who presented with this circadian rhythm disorder, and were then diagnosed with a Parkinsonian syndrome. The cases. A 65-year-old retired man presented with history of abrupt change in sleep schedules, sleeping around 6...
September 2015: National Medical Journal of India
E Lauretti, A Di Meco, S Merali, D Praticò
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although rare genetically linked cases of PD have been reported, most incidences are sporadic in nature. Late-onset, sporadic PD is thought to result from the combined effects of genetic and environmental risk factors exposure. Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders are recurrent among PD patients and appear early in the disease. Although some evidence supports a relationship between circadian disruption (CD) and PD, whether this is secondary to the motor symptoms or, indeed, is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease remains to be investigated...
April 5, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Alessandra Fratto, Miriam Sturniolo, Gennarina Arabia, Antonio Gambardella, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: To compare circadian autonomic fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. METHODS: This is a case-control study including 20 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD) and 20 PD patients without RBD (PD). In all patients, we measured the components of HRV in the frequency domain during 24-h with daytime and night time recordings. Selected variables considered were low-frequency (LF) influenced by the sympathetic system and high-frequency (HF) influenced by the parasympathetic system...
May 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
David P Breen, Cristina Nombela, Romina Vuono, P Simon Jones, Kate Fisher, David J Burn, David J Brooks, Akhilesh B Reddy, James B Rowe, Roger A Barker
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that melatonin-a hormone produced by the pineal gland under circadian control-contributes to PD-related sleep dysfunction. We hypothesized that degenerative changes to the neural structures controlling pineal function (especially the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus) may be responsible for reduced melatonin output in these patients. We compared hypothalamic volumes in PD patients with matched controls and determined whether volume loss correlated with reduced melatonin output in the PD group...
July 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sabra M Abbott, Aleksandar Videnovic
Sleep-wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep-wake abnormalities are often accompanied by neurodegenerative or neurotransmitter changes. However, in addition to being a symptom of the underlying neurodegenerative condition, there is also emerging evidence that sleep disturbance itself may contribute to the development and facilitate the progression of several of these disorders...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
V M Kovalzon, M V Ugrumov, T S Pronina, V B Dorokhov, A I Manolov, V V Dolgikh, Y V Ukraintseva, L S Moiseenko, M G Poluektov, A L Kalinkin
The results of study of sleep-wakefulness cycle in experimental models of pre-clinical and early clinical stages of Parkinson's disease present and compared to some clinical examples. The conclusion is, the increase in activity level and decrease in total amount of slow wave and paradoxical sleep in model animals are taking place at the same circadian period of the secretion of pineal melatonin as sleep disorders in patients.
November 2015: Fiziologiia Cheloveka
Dario Arnaldi, Alice Latimier, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Marie Vidailhet, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVES: Melatonin is a chronobiotic treatment which also alleviates rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Because the mechanisms of this benefit are unclear, we evaluated the clock-dependent REM sleep characteristics in patients with RBD, whether idiopathic (iRBD) or associated with Parkinson's Disease (PD), and we compared findings with PD patients without RBD and with healthy subjects. METHODS: An overnight videopolysomnography was performed in ten iRBD patients, ten PD patients with RBD (PD + RBD+), ten PD patients without RBD (PD + RBD-), and ten controls...
January 2016: Sleep Medicine
Linnéa Bergenholm, Teresa Collins, Neil D Evans, Michael J Chappell, Joanna Parkinson
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling can improve safety assessment, but few PKPD models describing drug-induced QRS and PR prolongations have been published. This investigation aims to develop and evaluate PKPD models for describing QRS and PR effects in routine safety studies. METHODS: Exposure and telemetry data from safety pharmacology studies in conscious beagle dogs were acquired. Mixed effects baseline and PK-QRS/PR models were developed for the anti-arrhythmic compounds AZD1305, flecainide, quinidine and verapamil and the anti-muscarinic compounds AZD8683 and AZD9164...
May 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Daniel J van Wamelen, Raymund Ac Roos, Nasir A Aziz
Aside from the well-known motor, cognitive and psychiatric signs and symptoms, Huntington disease (HD) is also frequently complicated by circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances. Despite the observation that these disturbances often precede motor onset and have a high prevalence, no studies are available in HD patients which assess potential treatments. In this review, we will briefly outline the nature of circadian rhythm and sleep disturbances in HD and subsequently focus on potential treatments based on findings in other neurodegenerative diseases with similarities to HD, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer disease...
December 2015: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Jacques Montplaisir
The Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal houses one of the first sleep centers founded 40 years ago. This center contributed to virtually every aspect of sleep medicine. It grew considerably over time to become one of the largest sleep centers worldwide. It is now called the Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine (CARSM). Fourteen researchers and more than 30 research PhDs and postdoctoral fellows are working together in a 1,500 square-meter facility that includes separate units for fundamental and clinical studies and for the sleep disorders clinic...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Christopher B Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T Case, Sean-Paul G Williams, Jennifer A Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E Rubio, Caryl E Sortwell, Timothy J Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P Seal
UNLABELLED: The striatum is essential for many aspects of mammalian behavior, including motivation and movement, and is dysfunctional in motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and is thus well positioned to regulate dopamine (DA) signaling and locomotor activity, a canonical measure of basal ganglia output. We now report that VGLUT3 knock-out (KO) mice show circadian-dependent hyperlocomotor activity that is restricted to the waking cycle and is due to an increase in striatal DA synthesis, packaging, and release...
November 11, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhuqin Gu, BinBin Wang, Yong-Biao Zhang, Hui Ding, Yanli Zhang, Jun Yu, Mingliang Gu, Piu Chan, Yanning Cai
Circadian disruptions may result in sleep problems, oxidative stress and an altered inflammatory response. These symptoms may contribute to PD pathogenesis, despite a lack of direct experimental evidence supporting this relationship. Clock genes are essential to drive and maintain circadian rhythm. To elucidate the possible role of circadian disruptions in PD, we investigated 132 tag variants in eight clock genes. We genotyped these tags within 1,394 Chinese cases and 1,342 controls using Illumina GoldenGate chips...
2015: Scientific Reports
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