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Mechanical compression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786824/intramedullary-nail-with-integrated-cephalocervical-screws-in-the-intertrochanteric-fractures-treatment-position-of-screws-in-fracture-stability
#1
Gökhan Kaynak, Mehmet Can Ünlü, Mehmet Fatih Güven, Ozan Ali Erdal, Okan Tok, Hüseyin Botanlıoğlu, Önder Aydıngöz
BACKGROUND: Stable fracture fixation is important in the treatment of intertrochanteric femur (ITF) fractures in the elderly population to prevent the loss of reduction, achieve early mobility, and restore independence. The aim of this study was to present the results of surgical treatment of stable and unstable ITF fractures using a trochanteric antegrade intramedullary nail with two cephalocervical screws in an integrated mechanism (Intertan®; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN) and evaluate the relationship between the loss of reduction and screw position in the femoral neck in two planes...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786777/the-biomechanics-of-the-inter-lamellar-matrix-and-the-lamellae-during-progression-to-lumbar-disc-herniation-which-is-the-weakest-structure
#2
Javad Tavakoli, Dhara B Amin, Brian J C Freeman, John J Costi
While microstructural observations have improved our understanding of possible pathways of herniation progression, no studies have measured the mechanical failure properties of the inter-lamellar matrix (ILM), nor of the adjacent lamellae during progression to herniation. The aim of this study was to employ multiscale, biomechanical and microstructural techniques to evaluate the effects of progressive induced herniation on the ILM and lamellae in control, pre-herniated and herniated discs (N = 7), using 2 year-old ovine spines...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786740/shear-density-coupling-for-a-compressible-single-component-yield-stress-fluid
#3
Markus Gross, Fathollah Varnik
Flow behavior of a single-component yield stress fluid is addressed on the hydrodynamic level. A basic ingredient of the model is a coupling between fluctuations of density and velocity gradient via a Herschel-Bulkley-type constitutive model. Focusing on the limit of low shear rates and high densities, the model approximates well-but is not limited to-gently sheared hard sphere colloidal glasses, where solvent effects are negligible. A detailed analysis of the linearized hydrodynamic equations for fluctuations and the resulting cubic dispersion relation reveals the existence of a range of densities and shear rates with growing flow heterogeneity...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786600/shock-synthesis-and-characterization-of-titanium-dioxide-with-%C3%AE-pbo-sub-2-sub-structure
#4
Zhen Tan, Pengwan Chen, Qiang Zhou, Jianjun Liu, Xiaofeng Mei, Bi Wang, Naifu Cui
The phase transformation behavior of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with particle sizes of 60 nm and 150 nm under shock compression have been investigated. To increase the shock pressure and reduce the shock temperature, copper powder and a small amount of paraffin were mixed with the TiO2 powder. The shock recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that both anatase and rutile TiO2 can transform to α-PbO2 phase TiO2 through shock-induced phase transition...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785178/functionally-graded-bone-and-tendon-like-polyurethane-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#5
Dai Fei Elmer Ker, Dan Wang, Anthony William Behn, Evelyna Tsi Hsin Wang, Xu Zhang, Benjamin Yamin Zhou, Ángel Enrique Mercado-Pagán, Sungwoo Kim, John Kleimeyer, Burhan Gharaibeh, Yaser Shanjani, Drew Nelson, Marc Safran, Emilie Cheung, Phil Campbell, Yunzhi Peter Yang
Critical considerations in engineering biomaterials for rotator cuff repair include bone-tendon-like mechanical properties to support physiological loading and biophysicochemical attributes that stabilize the repair site over the long-term. In this study, UV-crosslinkable polyurethane based on quadrol (Q), hexamethylene diisocyante (H), and methacrylic anhydride (M; QHM polymers), which are free of solvent, catalyst, and photoinitiator, is developed. Mechanical characterization studies demonstrate that QHM polymers possesses phototunable bone- and tendon-like tensile and compressive properties (12-74 MPa tensile strength, 0...
May 2018: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780745/impact-of-minimal-root-canal-taper-on-the-fracture-resistance-of-endodontically-treated-bicuspids
#6
Carla Zogheib, Germain Sfeir, Gianluca Plotino, Gustavo De Deus, Maha Daou, Issam Khalil
Objective: Minimal invasive endodontics preserve coronal and radicular tooth structure to increase the fracture resistance of teeth. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of final preparation taper on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups: 30 were shaped with a final apical diameter 30 and a 4% taper and 30 with 6% taper using iRaCe® instrument (FKG dentaire, Switzerland)...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780657/characterizing-cellular-mechanical-phenotypes-with-mechano-node-pore-sensing
#7
Junghyun Kim, Sewoon Han, Andy Lei, Masaru Miyano, Jessica Bloom, Vasudha Srivastava, Martha M Stampfer, Zev J Gartner, Mark A LaBarge, Lydia L Sohn
The mechanical properties of cells change with their differentiation, chronological age, and malignant progression. Consequently, these properties may be useful label-free biomarkers of various functional or clinically relevant cell states. Here, we demonstrate mechano-node-pore sensing (mechano-NPS), a multi-parametric single-cell-analysis method that utilizes a four-terminal measurement of the current across a microfluidic channel to quantify simultaneously cell diameter, resistance to compressive deformation, transverse deformation under constant strain, and recovery time after deformation...
2018: Microsystems & Nanoengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780621/thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-orthopaedics-an-update
#8
Dimitrios A Flevas, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Leonidas Dimopoulos, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, Panayiotis Koulouvaris, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication during and after hospitalization, yet is a preventable cause of in-hospital death.Without VTE prophylaxis, the overall VTE incidence in medical and general surgery hospitalized patients is in the range of 10% to 40%, while it ranges up to 40% to 60% in major orthopaedic surgery. With routine VTE prophylaxis, fatal pulmonary embolism is uncommon in orthopaedic patients and the rates of symptomatic VTE within three months are in the range of 1.3% to 10%.VTE prophylaxis methods are divided into mechanical and pharmacological...
April 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780272/experimental-study-on-the-confinement-dependent-characteristics-of-a-utah-coal-considering-the-anisotropy-by-cleats
#9
Bo-Hyun Kim, Gabriel Walton, Mark K Larson, Steve Berry
Characterizing a coal from an engineering perspective for design of mining excavations is critical in order to prevent fatalities, as underground coal mines are often developed in highly stressed ground conditions. Coal pillar bursts involve the sudden expulsion of coal and rock into the mine opening. These events occur when relatively high stresses in a coal pillar, left for support in underground workings, exceed the pillar's load capacity causing the pillar to rupture without warning. This process may be influenced by cleating, which is a type of joint system that can be found in coal rock masses...
May 2018: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780206/salt-concentration-dependence-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-lipf-6-poly-propylene-glycol-acrylate-electrolyte-at-a-graphitic-carbon-interface-a-reactive-molecular-dynamics-study
#10
Osvalds Verners, Alexey V Lyulin, Angelo Simone
This reactive molecular dynamics study explores the salt concentration dependence of the viscoelastic and mechanical failure properties of a poly(propylene glycol)/LiPF6 -based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) at a graphitic carbon electrode interface. To account for the finite-size effect of interface-confined SPE films, the properties of two distinct film thicknesses are compared with the respective bulk properties. Additionally, the effect of uniaxial compression in the interface-normal direction on free energy profiles of Li-ion SPE-desolvation is studied...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778988/synthesis-microstructure-and-mechanical-behaviour-of-a-unique-porous-phbv-scaffold-manufactured-using-selective-laser-sintering
#11
Sven H Diermann, Mingyuan Lu, Yitian Zhao, Luigi-Jules Vandi, Matthew Dargusch, Han Huang
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a promising technique for manufacturing bio-polymer scaffolds used in bone tissue engineering applications. Conventional scaffolds made using SLS have complex engineered architectures to introduce adequate porosity and pore interconnectivity. This study presents an alternative approach to manufacture scaffolds via SLS without using pre-designed architectures. In this work, a SLS process was developed for fabricating interconnected porous biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds with large surface areas and relative porosities of up to 80%...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778880/cellulose-hydrogel-with-tunable-shape-and-mechanical-properties-from-rigid-cylinder-to-soft-scaffold
#12
Noriyuki Isobe, Takehiro Komamiya, Satoshi Kimura, Ung-Jin Kim, Masahisa Wada
Cellulose hydrogel from aqueous solution of lithium bromide demonstrated excellent tunability of mechanical property and shape. A series of compression tests showed that cellulose hydrogel covered a wide range of mechanical property, where the compressive Young's modulus was controllable from 30 kPa to 1.3 MPa by changing the initial concentration of cellulose solution. Meanwhile, the diameter of the building block of gel, namely nano-fibrous cellulose, was constant at 15-20 nm irrelevant of the initial concentration of cellulose solution...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777937/investigation-of-supramolecular-interaction-in-4-4-bipyridine-crystal-by-hydrostatic-pressure-spectroscopies
#13
Aisen Li, Ping Li, Yijia Geng, Shuping Xu, Houyu Zhang, Haining Cui, Weiqing Xu
The luminescence and structural changes of 4, 4'-bipyridine in the crystal and powder forms under the effect of high pressure applied by a diamond anvil cell has been investigated through the fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies. In its single crystal structure, the 4, 4'-bipyridine molecules are paralleled arranged with the identifiable CH⋯N and π⋯π interactions among molecules. However, in the powder form, these intermolecular interactions nearly diminish. The 4, 4'-bipyridine crystal shows the obvious bathochromic-shifting of the emission band, which is different from the powder sample that displays a fixed luminescent band during compression...
May 4, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777854/dissolving-polymeric-microneedle-arrays-for-enhanced-site-specific-acyclovir-delivery
#14
Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Ismaiel A Tekko, Lalitkumar Vora, Helen O McCarthy, Ryan F Donnelly
Acyclovir is widely indicated for the treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores), typically caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). However, topical acyclovir has poor efficacy, due to its low skin permeability. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the ability of dissolving polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays to improve the local delivery of acyclovir. Acyclovir-loaded dissolving MN arrays (0.49 cm2 ) were formulated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® S-97 with 361 needles per array (589 ± 9...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777764/deformation-behavior-of-crystallized-mannitol-during-compression-using-a-rotary-tablet-press-simulator
#15
Nicolas Tarlier, Ian Soulairol, Noelia Sanchez-Ballester, Gilles Baylac, Adrien Aubert, Philippe Lefevre, Bernard Bataille, Tahmer Sharkawi
Mannitol is commonly used as a pharmaceutical excipient for tablets; the most widely used oral dosage form for drug delivery. For tableting, mannitol is provided in two different forms: native crystals and textured particles. In order to optimize its formulation, a good understanding of the mechanical behavior mechanism of mannitol is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the deformation mechanism of native mannitol crystals presenting different particle sizes. Pharmaco-technical and compression studies were performed using mannitol with different mean diameters (160 µm, 50 µm and 25 µm)...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777321/how-changes-in-interconnectivity-affect-the-bulk-properties-of-articular-cartilage-a-fibre-network-study
#16
M A Bilton, A Thambyah, R J Clarke
The remarkable compressive strength of articular cartilage arises from the mechanical interactions between the tension-resisting collagen fibrils and swelling proteoglycan proteins within the tissue. These interactions are facilitated by a significant level of interconnectivity between neighbouring collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix. A reduction in interconnectivity is suspected to occur during the early stages of osteoarthritic degeneration. However, the relative contribution of these interconnections towards the bulk mechanical properties of articular cartilage has remained an open question...
May 18, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776170/depletion-interaction-between-colloids-mediated-by-an-athermal-polymer-blend
#17
A I Chervanyov
We calculate the immersion energy of a colloid and the potential of the depletion interaction (DI) acting between colloids immersed in an athermal polymer blend. The developed theory has no limitations with respect to the polymer-to-colloid size ratios and polymer densities, covering, in particular, dense polymer blends. We demonstrate that in addition to the standard compressibility-induced mechanism of the DI there exists the mechanism relying on the correlations between compositional fluctuations specific to polymer blends...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776156/realizations-of-highly-heterogeneous-collagen-networks-via-stochastic-reconstruction-for-micromechanical-analysis-of-tumor-cell-invasion
#18
Hanqing Nan, Long Liang, Guo Chen, Liyu Liu, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao
Three-dimensional (3D) collective cell migration in a collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) is among one of the most significant topics in developmental biology, cancer progression, tissue regeneration, and immune response. Recent studies have suggested that collagen-fiber mediated force transmission in cellularized ECM plays an important role in stress homeostasis and regulation of collective cellular behaviors. Motivated by the recent in vitro observation that oriented collagen can significantly enhance the penetration of migrating breast cancer cells into dense Matrigel which mimics the intravasation process in vivo [Han et al...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775814/composite-self-expanding-bioresorbable-prototype-stents-with-reinforced-compression-performance-for-congenital-heart-disease-application-computational-and-experimental-investigation
#19
Fan Zhao, Wen Xue, Fujun Wang, Laijun Liu, Haoqin Shi, Lu Wang
Stents are vital devices to treat vascular stenosis in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Bioresorbable stents (BRSs) have been applied to reduce challenging complications caused by permanent metal stents. However, it remains almost a total lack of BRSs with satisfactory compression performance specifically for children with congenital heart disease, leading to importantly suboptimal effects. In this work, composite bioresorbable prototype stents with superior compression resistance were designed by braiding and annealing technology, incorporating poly (p-dioxanone) (PPDO) monofilaments and polycaprolactone (PCL) multifilament...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775766/miyazaki-syndrome-due-to-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-treatment-a-case-report
#20
Anita Kovács, Tamás Németh, Angéla Csomor, Tímea Novák, Ferenc Kövér, Erika Vörös
The signs and pathomechanism of Miyazaki syndrome is presented through the case of a young female patient. The patient underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt with a pressure-adjustable valve for communicating hydrocephalus years before presenting to our department with the complaints of constant headache and unsteady gait. On the basis of the clinical picture and her history, plain and contrast-enhanced cranial and whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) examinations were performed, with the scans revealing signs indicative of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension typical of Miyazaki syndrome...
May 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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