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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652912/efficacy-of-submucosal-epinephrine-injection-for-the-prevention-of-postpolypectomy-bleeding-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-studies
#1
REVIEW
Thawatchai Tullavardhana, Prinya Akranurakkul, Withoon Ungkitphaiboon, Dolrudee Songtish
BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most common major complication following colonoscopic polypectomy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether submucosal epinephrine injections could prevent the occurrence of postpolypectomy bleeding. METHOD: The dataset was defined by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane database for appropriate randomized controlled studies published before April 2015. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the preventative effect of submucosal epinephrine injection for overall, early, and delayed postpolypectomy bleeding...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650000/andexanet-alfa-a-recombinant-mimetic-of-human-factor-xa-for-the-reversal-of-anticoagulant-therapies
#2
G Escolar, M Diaz-Ricart, E Arellano-Rodrigo
Activated coagulation factor X (FXa) is a common target for classic and newer anticoagulants. Parenteral anticoagulants with an indirect inhibitory action on FXa (low-molecular-weight heparins) have a well-established clinical efficacy in the prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic conditions. More recently developed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as a new class of antithrombotic drugs. Rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are direct inhibitors of FXa approved for the management of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation...
May 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646960/the-controversial-role-of-breast-milk-in-gbs-late-onset-disease
#3
Petra Zimmermann, Amanda Gwee, Nigel Curtis
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most common causes of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis does not play a significant role in reducing the risk of GBS late-onset disease. One of the proposed mechanisms for GBS late-onset disease is infection through contaminated breast milk. Infants in whom breast milk is thought to be the source for GBS late-onset disease are more heavily colonised and reports suggest they have a higher recurrence rate compared to infants with other potential sources...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643547/rabies%C3%A2-%C3%A2-epidemiology-pathogenesis-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-a-comprehensive-review
#4
Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Mani Saminathan, Sanjay Kapoor, G B Manjunatha Reddy, Shibani Panda, Kuldeep Dhama
Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638554/effect-of-professional-dental-prophylaxis-on-the-surface-gloss-and-roughness-of-cad-cam-restorative-materials
#5
Toshiko Sugiyama, Atsushi Kameyama, Tomoka Enokuchi, Akiko Haruyama, Aoi Chiba, Setsuko Sugiyama, Makoto Hosaka, Toshiyuki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the surface gloss and roughness of different indirect restorative materials for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM): two types of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks (Shofu Block HC and Estelite Block) and two types of CAD/CAM ceramic blocks (IPS Empress CAD and Celtra DUO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: After polishing the CAD/CAM blocks and applying prophylaxis pastes, professional dental prophylaxis was performed using four different experimental protocols (n = 5 each): mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s four times (Group 1); four cycles of mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s and Merssage Fine for 10 s (Group 2); four cycles of mechanical cleaning with Merssage Regular for 10 s and Merssage Fine for 30 s (Group 3); and mechanical cleaning with Merssage Fine for 10 s four times (Group 4)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637751/ifit2-is-a-restriction-factor-in-rabies-virus-pathogenicity
#6
Benjamin M Davis, Volker Fensterl, Tessa M Lawrence, Andrew W Hudacek, Ganes C Sen, Matthias J Schnell
Understanding the interactions between rabies virus (RABV) and individual host cell proteins is critical for the development of targeted therapies. Here we report that Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (Ifit2), an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) with possible RNA-binding capacity, is an important restriction factor for rabies virus. When Ifit2 was depleted, RABV grew more quickly in mouse neuroblastoma in vitro This effect was replicated in vivo, where Ifit2 knockout mice displayed a dramatically more severe disease phenotype than wild-type after intranasal inoculation of RABV...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635328/dietary-implications-for-patients-receiving-long-term-oral-anticoagulation-therapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-thromboembolic-disease
#7
Emmanouela Kampouraki, Farhad Kamali
The effectiveness of oral anticoagulation therapy with warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist) in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, including stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation is well recognised. However, warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window and an unpredictable anticoagulation response, which make it difficult to achieve and maintain optimal anticoagulation. Various dietary factors, including sudden changes in eating patterns, can significantly alter anticoagulation control, thereby potentially exposing patients to the risk of bleeding or thromboembolic complications...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629932/systemic-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-burn-patients-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Guillermo Enrique Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To review studies of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in burn patients. METHODS: Human clinical trials during the period 1966-2016 where prophylactic systemic antibiotics were compared with placebo or no intervention were identified in electronic databases. RESULTS: Nineteen trials met the selection criteria. Early post-burn period prophylaxis was assessed in non severe burn patients (6 trials), and in severe burn patients (7 trials)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629235/atrial-fibrillation-as-a-complication-of-ibrutinib-therapy-clinical-features-and-challenges-of-management
#10
Bronwyn C Thorp, Xavier Badoux
Ibrutinib is a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor finding increasingly widespread use in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Evidence of an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) emerged in Phase III studies with a median incidence of approximately 6%. The mechanism remains unknown, but inhibition of a cardioprotective pathway has been proposed. Ibrutinib induces a platelet function defect, increasing the bleeding risk of anticoagulation for AF stroke prophylaxis. Multiple potential drug interactions are an added complication...
June 20, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625306/spinal-induced-hypotension-incidence-mechanisms-prophylaxis-and-management-summarizing-20-years-of-research
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer E Lee, Ronald B George, Ashraf S Habib
Hypotension commonly occurs in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. This leads to maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, including maternal nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis, and might even lead to cardiovascular collapse if not treated. Arterial dilatation and reduction in systemic vascular resistance are the major contributors to spinal-induced hypotension. Therefore, strategies aimed at expanding the intravascular volume with fluid loading or increasing venous return with lower extremities mechanical compression and lateral tilt have had limited effectiveness in the management of spinal-induced hypotension...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620893/systemic-antibiotics-for-preventing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-comatose-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Cássia Righy, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Jordi Vallés, Fernando A Bozza, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
BACKGROUND: Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EO-VAP) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in comatose patients. However, VAP prevention bundles focus mainly on late-onset VAP and may be less effective in preventing EO-VAP in comatose patients. Systemic antibiotic administration at the time of intubation may have a role in preventing EO-VAP. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of systemic antibiotic administration in VAP prevention in comatose patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608277/-oral-anticoagulation-using-coumarins-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Sucker, Jens Litmathe
Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are used for the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic and thromboembolic events. Most important indications are venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation, and mechanical heart-valve replacement. Hence they are from high relevance for the neurologist and his daily praxis in cardio-neurological routine. Here, we give an overview about VKA with focus on mode of action, indications and efficacy, practical aspects of treatment, side effects, and monitoring.
June 12, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599984/prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-seizures-in-neuro-oncology
#14
F Chassoux, E Landre
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy related to brain tumors is often difficult to treat and may impact the quality of life. We performed a review of current recommendations for the prevention of postoperative seizures and optimizing the anti-epileptic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on studies performed since 2000 we conducted the review by (1) analyzing the incidence of tumoral epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptogenicity; (2) describing the current medical and surgical strategy according to oncologic treatments; (3) discussing the management of postoperative seizures; (4) considering the drug withdrawal after oncologic therapy...
June 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598908/the-rate-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-doubles-in-trauma-patients-with-hypercoagulable-thromboelastography
#15
Jason B Brill, Jayraan Badiee, Ashley L Zander, James D Wallace, Paul R Lewis, Michael J Sise, Vishal Bansal, Steven R Shackford
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in trauma can occur in patients at low risk. Conventional coagulation tests do not predict VTE. Studies investigating thromboelastography (TEG) for VTE risk are conflicting and have not included routine surveillance to detect deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We undertook a prospective study of TEG to evaluate its utility in predicting VTE. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on all adult trauma patients admitted to our level I trauma center from 2013 to 2015...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590256/thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-laparoscopic-surgery-for-gynecologic-benign-diseases-results-of-a-single-center-experience-in-922-procedures
#16
Emanuele Sturlese, Onofrio Triolo, Roberta Grasso, Antonio Simone Laganà, Annalisa Retto, Diego Rossetti, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Giuseppe Sarpietro, Rosanna De Dominici
AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the role of preoperative evaluation risk for venous tromboembolism (VTE) in patients submitted to laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic benign diseases. METHODS: Date from nine hundred twenty-two women affected by adnexal benign diseases treated with laparoscopic procedures were collected and included in this study. VTE risk was assessed by "on line Caprini score calculator". Patients with one or more negative risk factors for Caprini's score underwent to venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (VTP)...
June 8, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579749/comprehensive-review-of-visual-defects-reported-with-topiramate
#17
REVIEW
Lisa Ford, Jeffrey L Goldberg, Fred Selan, Howard E Greenberg, Yingqi Shi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze clinical patterns of visual field defects (VFDs) reported with topiramate treatment and assess possible mechanism of action (MOA) for antiepileptic drug (AED) associated VFDs. METHODS: A comprehensive topiramate database review included preclinical data, sponsor's clinical trials database, postmarketing spontaneous reports, and medical literature. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) suggestive of retinal dysfunction/damage were summarized...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576246/venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-thermal-injury-a-review-of-risk-assessment-tools-and-current-knowledge-on-the-effectiveness-and%C3%A2-risks-of-mechanical-and-chemical-prophylaxis
#18
REVIEW
Christopher J Pannucci, Andrea T Obi, Benjamin H Timmins, Amalia L Cochran
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be a life-threatening or limb-threatening complication of thermal injury. The severity of burn injury can be used to predict VTE risk among patients with thermal injury, and a weighted risk-stratification tool has been developed. This article reviews the incidence, diagnosis, and management of thromboembolic events in patients with burns. The article particularly focuses on identifying those patients who are at highest risk for VTE and provides recommendations on mechanical and chemical prophylaxis...
July 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566368/caspofungin-increases-fungal-chitin-and-eosinophil-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-dependent-pathology-in-invasive-aspergillosis
#19
Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Ethan M Sands, Anand Shah, Ali Abdolrasouli, Anna Reed, James E Slaven, Darius Armstrong-James, Steven P Templeton
The polysaccharide-rich fungal cell wall provides pathogen-specific targets for antifungal therapy and distinct molecular patterns that stimulate protective or detrimental host immunity. The echinocandin antifungal caspofungin inhibits synthesis of cell wall β-1,3-glucan and is used for prophylactic therapy in immune-suppressed individuals. However, breakthrough infections with fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are associated with caspofungin prophylaxis. In this study, we report in vitro and in vivo increases in fungal surface chitin in A...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561960/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-septic-shock-in-a-cat-with-disseminated-toxoplasmosis
#20
Natashia A Evans, Julie M Walker, Alison C Manchester, Jonathan F Bach
OBJECTIVE: To describe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock in a cat with disseminated toxoplasmosis. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute respiratory distress. At the time of presentation it had been receiving cyclosporine for treatment of eosinophilic dermatitis. Thoracic radiographs revealed severe mixed nodular interstitial and alveolar patterns. An endotracheal wash was performed, which confirmed a diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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