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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232923/an-oldie-but-goodie-lithium-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-through-neuroprotective-and-neurotrophic-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Eunsoo Won, Yong-Ku Kim
Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for the last sixty or more years, and recent studies with more reliable designs and updated guidelines have recommended lithium to be the treatment of choice for acute manic, mixed and depressive episodes of BD, along with long-term prophylaxis. Lithium's specific mechanism of action in mood regulation is progressively being clarified, such as the direct inhibition on glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and its various effects on neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, oxidative metabolism, apoptosis, second messenger systems, and biological systems are also being revealed...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228158/percutaneous-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-with-a-contraindication-to-oral-anticoagulation-a-focused-review
#2
Marin Nishimura, Shiv Sab, Ryan R Reeves, Jonathan C Hsu
Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although oral anticoagulation with non-vitamin K antagonist and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been established to significantly reduce risk of stroke, real-world use of these agents are often suboptimal due to concerns for adverse events including bleeding from both patients and clinicians. Particularly in patients with previous serious bleeding, oral anticoagulation may be contraindicated. Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), mechanically targeting the source of most of the thrombi in AF, holds an immense potential as an alternative to OAC in management of stroke prophylaxis...
December 8, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227440/what-is-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-chemical-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-following-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery
#3
Geoffrey C Casazza, Christian A Bowers, Joel D MacDonald, William T Couldwell, Clough Shelton, Richard K Gurgel
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of routine chemical prophylaxis use for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in skull base surgery is controversial. Chemical prophylaxis can prevent undue morbidity and mortality, however there are risks for hemorrhagic complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgery for vestibular schwannoma from 2011 to 2016 was performed. Patients were divided by receipt of chemical VTE prophylaxis...
December 7, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226883/deep-vein-thrombosis-prophylaxis-are-we-overdoing-an-asian-survey-on-trends-in-bariatric-surgery-with-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#4
Siddhartha Bhattacharya, S Saravana Kumar, Parimala Devi Kumara Swamy, C Palanivelu, P Praveen Raj
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is the most common cause of mortality in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. There is considerable variation in practice regarding methods, dosages and duration of prophylaxis in this patient population. Most of the literature is based on Western patients and specific guidelines for Asians do not exist. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey amongst 11 surgeons from high-volume centres in Asia regarding their DVT prophylaxis measures in patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225815/hypercalcaemia-preceding-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#5
Jonathan Ling, Tara Anderson, Sanchia Warren, Geoffrey Kirkland, Matthew Jose, Richard Yu, Steven Yew, Samantha Mcfadyen, Alison Graver, William Johnson, Lisa Jeffs
Background: The overall incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in solid organ transplant recipients is 5-15%. A timely diagnosis of PJP is difficult and relies on imaging and detection of the organism. Methods: We present a case series of four patients displaying hypercalcaemia with an eventual diagnosis of PJP and document the management of the outbreak with a multidisciplinary team approach. We discuss the underlying pathophysiology and previous reports of hypercalcaemia preceding a diagnosis of PJP...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222310/novel-alternate-hemostatic-agents-for-patients-with-inhibitors-beyond-bypass-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Margaret V Ragni
Inhibitor formation is among the most severe complications of hemophilia treatment. With a cumulative incidence of ∼30% in those with severe hemophilia A and ∼3% in those with severe hemophilia B, inhibitors are caused by a T-cell response directed against infused coagulation factor; these inhibitors neutralize factor VIII or IX activity and disrupt normal hemostasis. Inhibitor patients become unresponsive to standard factor treatment and, as an alternative, use bypass treatment (eg, recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity)...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221971/preventive-treatment-with-lomerizine-increases-cerebral-blood-flows-during-the-interictal-phase-of-migraine
#7
Ken Ikeda, Joe Aoyagi, Sayori Hanashiro, Masahiro Sawada, Maya Kyuzen, Harumi Morioka, Junya Ebina, Junpei Nagasawa, Masaru Yanagihashi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Ken Miura, Kiyoko Murata, Takanori Takazawa, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Yasuo Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were reported in migraineurs. However, little is known how preventive medications of migraine can influence rCBF. Lomerizine, a calcium channel blocker, has been used for migraine prophylaxis in Japan. We examined rCBF after lomerizine treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Migraine was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition beta. Migraine subtype was classified into migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210030/pharmacologic-prevention-of-variceal-bleeding-and-rebleeding
#8
REVIEW
Anna Baiges, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaime Bosch
BACKGROUND: Variceal bleeding is a major complication of portal hypertension, which is associated with significant mortality. Moreover, patients surviving a variceal bleeding episode have very high risk of rebleeding, which is associated with mortality as high as that of the first bleed. Because of this, prevention of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices has been one of the main therapeutic goals since the advent of the first effective therapies for portal hypertension. AIM: This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art pharmacological prevention of variceal bleeding in primary and secondary prophylaxis...
December 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208813/decision-making-and-management-of-uveitic-cataract
#9
REVIEW
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Seng-Ei Ti, Soon-Phaik Chee
The visual outcome of uveitic cataract surgery depends on the underlying uveitic diagnosis, the presence of vision-limiting pathology and perioperative optimization of disease control. A comprehensive preoperative ophthalmic assessment for the presence of concomitant ocular pathology, with particular emphasis on macula and optic nerve involvement, is essential to determine which patients will benefit from improved vision after cataract surgery. Meticulous examination in conjunction with adjunct investigations can help in preoperative surgical planning and in determining the need for combined or staged procedures...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192859/chemical-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-neurosurgical-patients-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Nickalus R Khan, Prayash G Patel, John P Sharpe, Siang Liao Lee, Jeffrey Sorenson
OBJECTIVE Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication. The risk of serious hemorrhagic complications when starting chemical prophylaxis for VTE prevention is a substantial concern for neurosurgeons. The objective of this study was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if the rates of VTE and bleeding complications are different in patients undergoing chemoprophylaxis compared with placebo or mechanical prophylaxis alone following cranial or spinal procedures...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183814/sulfur-mustard-resistant-keratinocytes-obtained-elevated-glutathione-levels-and-other-changes-in-the-antioxidative-defense-mechanism
#11
Simone Rothmiller, Sarah Schröder, Romano Strobelt, Markus Wolf, Jin Wang, Xiqian Jiang, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz, Horst Thiermann, Annette Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. METHODS: The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180170/money-well-spent-a-cost-and-utilization-analysis-of-prophylactic-inferior-vena-cava-filter-placement-in-high-risk-trauma-patients
#12
Margo Nicole Carlin, Alireza Daneshpajouh, Joseph Catino, Marko Bukur
BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) for venous thromboembolic prophylaxis in high-risk trauma patients is a controversial practice. Utilization of IVCF prophylaxis was evaluated at a level 1 trauma center. Daily cost of IVCF prophylaxis, time to IVCF, duration between IVCF and chemoprophylaxis, and number of patients needed to treat (NNT) to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) was calculated. METHODS: A retrospective review of prophylactic IVCF over a 5-year period (2010-2014)...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178309/antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement-as-prophylaxis-in-total-joint-replacement
#13
REVIEW
Javier Martínez-Moreno, Virginia Merino, Amparo Nácher, José Luis Rodrigo, Mónica Climente, Matilde Merino-Sanjuán
One of its most serious complications associated with arthroplasty is the development of infections. Although its prevalence is only between 0.5% and 3%, in some cases it can lead to death. Therefore, an important challenge in joint surgery is the prevention of infections when an arthroplasty is performed. The use of antibiotic-loaded cements could be a suitable tool due to numerous advantages. The main advantage of the use of antibiotic loading into bone cement derives directly from antibiotic release in the effect site, allowing achievement of high concentrations at the site of action, and minimal or no systemic toxicity...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173793/antiviral-drugs-in-newborn-and-children
#14
REVIEW
Claudette L Poole, David W Kimberlin
This article focuses on the clinically relevant approved antiviral medications available for the treatment of infants and children. A brief overview of drug categories, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, and side effects is provided for the more commonly prescribed antivirals. The patient categories addressed are treatment and prophylaxis of influenza, neonatal herpes simplex virus and congenital cytomegalovirus, treatment and prophylaxis of viral disease in the immunocompromised host, and a brief introduction to the antivirals available to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis C in children...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164036/a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury-introduction-rationale-and-scope
#15
Michael G Fehlings, Lindsay A Tetreault, Jefferson R Wilson, Brian K Kwon, Anthony S Burns, Allan R Martin, Gregory Hawryluk, James S Harrop
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event that results in disturbances to normal sensory, motor, or autonomic function and ultimately affects a patient's physical, psychological, and social well-being. The management of patients with SCI has drastically evolved over the past century as a result of increasing knowledge on injury mechanisms, disease pathophysiology, and the role of surgery. There still, however, remain controversial areas surrounding available management strategies for the treatment of SCI, including the use of corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone sodium succinate, the optimal timing of surgical intervention, the type and timing of anticoagulation prophylaxis, the role of magnetic resonance imaging, and the type and timing of rehabilitation...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164021/efficacy-safety-and-timing-of-anticoagulant-thromboprophylaxis-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Paul M Arnold, James S Harrop, Geno Merli, Lindsay G Tetreault, Brian K Kwon, Steve Casha, Katherine Palmieri, Jefferson R Wilson, Michael G Fehlings, Haley K Holmer, Daniel C Norvell
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: The objective of this study was to answer 5 key questions: What is the comparative effectiveness and safety of (1a) anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis compared to no prophylaxis, placebo, or another anticoagulant strategy for preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) after acute spinal cord injury (SCI)? (1b) Mechanical prophylaxis strategies alone or in combination with other strategies for preventing DVT and PE after acute SCI? (1c) Prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion alone or in combination with other strategies for preventing DVT and PE after acute SCI? (2) What is the optimal timing to initiate and/or discontinue anticoagulant, mechanical, and/or prophylactic inferior vena cava filter following acute SCI? (3) What is the cost-effectiveness of these treatment options? Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies published through February 28, 2015...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162893/intrinsic-short-tailed-azole-resistance-in-mucormycetes-is-due-to-an-evolutionary-conserved-aminoacid-substitution-of-the-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase
#17
Rita Caramalho, Joel D A Tyndall, Brian C Monk, Thomas Larentis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Mucormycoses are emerging and potentially lethal infections. An increase of breakthrough infections has been found in cohorts receiving short-tailed azoles prophylaxis (e.g. voriconazole (VCZ)). Although VCZ is ineffective in vitro and in vivo, long-tailed triazoles such as posaconazole remain active against mucormycetes. Our goal was to validate the molecular mechanism of resistance to short-tailed triazoles in Mucorales. The paralogous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP51 F1 and CYP51 F5) of Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, and Mucor circinelloides were amplified and sequenced...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161465/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism
#18
REVIEW
Shahab Hajibandeh, Shahin Hajibandeh, George A Antoniou, James Rh Scurr, Francesco Torella
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems (NMES) for the prevention of VTE may be beneficial for patients in whom pharmacological or standard mechanical prophylaxis methods are contraindicated or are regarded as unsafe or impractical. Although findings of experimental studies suggest that NMES reduce venous stasis, the clinical utility and effectiveness of NMES in VTE prevention remain controversial...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159600/early-seizure-prophylaxis-in-traumatic-brain-injuries-revisited-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Desmond Khor, Jinglan Wu, Quanqiu Hong, Elizabeth Benjamin, Shuiming Xiao, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological prophylaxis for early seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a recommendation in the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines. However, several studies have challenged the efficacy and safety of this practice, resulting in varied practice across centers around the world. The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of early clinical seizures following TBI, between two large centers, a US Center that practises routine seizure prophylaxis and a Chinese Center that does not use seizure prophylaxis following TBI...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153584/the-effect-of-selected-molecules-influencing-the-detrimental-host-immune-response-on-a-course-of-rabies-virus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#20
Marcin Smreczak, Anna Marzec, Anna Orłowska, Paweł Trębas, Michał Reichert, Anna Kycko, Penelopa Koraka, Ab Osterhaus, Jan Franciszek Żmudziński
Rabies is invariably fatal, when post-exposure prophylaxis is administered after the onset of clinical symptoms. In many countries, rabies awareness is very low and the availability of post-exposure prophylaxis, as recommended by WHO guidelines, is very limited or non-existent, probably as a consequence of high cost. Therefore, new concepts for rabies therapy are needed. Innate immune mechanisms involving the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activated after rabies infection, are thought to be involved in the neuropathogenesis of rabies...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
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