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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#1
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203409/practice-patterns-in-venous-thromboembolism-vte-prophylaxis-in-thoracic-surgery-a-comprehensive-canadian-delphi-survey
#2
John Agzarian, Lori-Ann Linkins, Laura Schneider, Waël C Hanna, Christian J Finley, Colin Schieman, Marc De Perrot, Mark Crowther, James Douketis, Yaron Shargall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after resection of thoracic malignancies can reach 15%, but prophylaxis guidelines are yet to be established. We aimed to survey Canadian practitioners regarding perioperative risk factors for VTE, impact of those factors on extended prophylaxis selection, type of preferred prophylaxis, and timing of initiation and duration of thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: A modified Delphi survey was undertaken over three rounds with thoracic surgeons, thoracic anesthesiologists and thrombosis experts across Canada...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188009/heart-transplant-and-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure
#3
Cristina Sánchez-Enrique, Ulrich P Jorde, José González-Costello
Patients with advanced heart failure have a poor prognosis and heart transplant is still the best treatment option. However, the scarcity of donors, long waiting times, and an increasing number of unstable patients have favored the development of mechanical circulatory support. This review summarizes the indications for heart transplant, candidate evaluation, current immunosuppression strategies, the evaluation and treatment of rejection, infectious prophylaxis, and short and long-term outcomes. Regarding mechanical circulatory support, we distinguish between short- and long-term support and the distinct strategies that can be used: bridge to decision, recovery, candidacy, transplant, and destination therapy...
February 7, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184368/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-venous-thromboembolism-in-children-a-review-of-published-guidelines
#4
REVIEW
E Vincent S Faustino, Leslie J Raffini
Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169530/intranasal-pretreatment-with-z-ligustilide-the-main-volatile-component-of-rhizoma-chuanxiong-confers-prophylaxis-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-nrf2-and-hsp70-signaling-pathways
#5
Juan Li, Jie Yu, Hui Ma, Na Yang, Li Li, Ding-Ding Zheng, Ming-Xia Wu, Zhi-Long Zhao, Hong-Yi Qi
Z-Ligustilide (Z-LIG) is a major component in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, which has been traditionally used as a health food supplement for the prevention of cerebrovascular disease in China. This study investigates the ability of intranasal Z-LIG pretreatment to enhance protection against neuronal damage in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the role of cellular stress response mechanisms Nrf2 and HSP70. Z-LIG significantly mitigated infarct volume, neurological dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain edema (p < 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166599/scoring-systems-for-estimating-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-surgical-patients
#6
Benjamin Jacobs, Christopher Pannucci
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common and feared complications in surgical patients, and its prevention has been the subject of a Call to Action from the Surgeon General of the United States. Here, we review the literature on the use of risk assessment models for the stratification of surgical patients into risk groups to guide the administration of pharmacoprophylaxis. Despite some disagreement in the literature and among various guidelines, there is good evidence that risk stratification identifies a 7- to 20-fold variation in postoperative VTE risk among the overall surgical population, including patients at both low and high risk...
February 6, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162922/efficacy-and-safety-of-pharmacological-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-following-liver-resection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Minas Baltatzis, Ryan Low, Panagiotis Stathakis, Aali J Sheen, Ajith K Siriwardena, Saurabh Jamdar
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend pharmacological prophylaxis for patients undergoing abdominal surgery for malignancy. Liver resection exposes patients to risk factors for venous thromboembolism, but there is a risk of bleeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evidence base supporting the use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in liver surgery. METHODS: An electronic search was carried out for studies reporting the incidence of VTE following liver resection comparing patients receiving pharmacological prophylaxis with those who did not...
February 2, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159420/efficacy-in-deep-vein-thrombosis-prevention-with-extended-mechanical-compression-device-therapy-and-prophylactic-aspirin-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-control-trial
#8
Mark A Snyder, Alexandra N Sympson, Christina M Scheuerman, Justin L Gregg, Lala R Hussain
BACKGROUND: Aspirin at 325 mg twice daily is now included as a nationally approved venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis protocol for low-risk total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurrence after a limited tourniquet TKA using aspirin-based prophylaxis with or without extended use of mechanical compression device (MCD) therapy. METHODS: One hundred limited tourniquet TKA patients, whose DVT risk was managed with aspirin 325 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, were randomized to either using an MCD during hospitalization only or extended use at home up to 6 weeks postoperatively...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148796/reduced-potency-and-incomplete-neutralization-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-cell-to-cell-transmission-of-hiv-1-with-transmitted-founder-envs
#9
Hongru Li, Chati Zony, Ping Chen, Benjamin K Chen
: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been isolated from HIV-1 patients and can potently block infection of a wide spectrum of HIV-1 subtypes. These antibodies define common epitopes shared by many viral isolates. While bNAbs potently antagonize infection with cell-free virus, inhibition of HIV-1 transmission from infected to uninfected CD4(+) T cells through virological synapses (VS), has been found to require greater amounts of antibody. In this study, we examined two well-studied molecular clones and two transmitted founder (T/F) viruses for their sensitivities to a panel of bNAbs in cell-free and cell-to-cell infection assays...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146188/-vaccination-of-adult-patients-receiving-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-perspective-of-costa-rica
#10
M Del Rosario Espínoza Mora, Gustavo Lazo Páez, M Paz León Bratti, Christian Schauer
In this article the present recommendations for immunization of adult patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation -a common procedure in therapy of many types of hematological diseases and serious inborn defects of the immune system- are reviewed and discussed. Patients that undergo this kind of transplantation procedure exhibit, compared to the general population, an elevated susceptibility of immune-preventable infections, due to loss of the humoral and cellular protective immunity. A revaccination strategy for transplanted patients can result in a significant diminution of morbidity and mortality related to the treatment of these diseases...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137634/association-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-incidence-with-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-in-ambulatory-maxillofacial-surgery
#11
Ayşe Hande Arpaci, Berrin Işik, Eren Ilhan, Erdal Erdem
PURPOSE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) constitutes an important factor in ambulatory surgery. The mechanisms of the antiemetic action of potent anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, which are used extensively for the treatment of PONV, as well as the association between PONV and inflammation, have not been investigated sufficiently. We aimed to establish the association between the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and postoperative antiemetic administration, as well as to investigate whether the NLR would be a biomarker for PONV...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121894/evidence-based-recipes-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-a-practical-safety-guide
#12
Christopher J Pannucci
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article and viewing the videos, the participant should be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of risk stratification for venous thromboembolism in surgical patients. 2. Calculate and interpret a 2005 Caprini score. 3. Give examples of modifiable risk factors for perioperative venous thromboembolism. 4. Propose a venous thromboembolism risk reduction strategy using mechanical and/or chemoprophylaxis and justify the risks and benefits of the proposed strategy...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120018/-surgical-treatment-of-achalasia-endoscopic-or-laparoscopic-proposal-for-a%C3%A2-tailored-approach
#13
B H A von Rahden, J Filser, M Al-Nasser, C-T Germer
Primary idiopathic achalasia is the most common form of the rare esophageal motility disorders. A curative therapy which restores the normal motility does not exist; however, the therapeutic principle of cardiomyotomy according to Ernst Heller leads to excellent symptom control in the majority of cases. The established standard approach is Heller myotomy through the laparoscopic route (LHM), combined with Dor anterior fundoplication for reflux prophylaxis/therapy. At least four meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated superiority of LHM over pneumatic dilation (PD); therefore, LHM should be used as first line therapy (without prior PD) in all operable patients...
January 24, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116634/the-development-and-current-use-of-bcl-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
REVIEW
Benjamin L Lampson, Matthew S Davids
The BCL-2 family of proteins integrates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals within the cell and is responsible for initiation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are particularly dependent on the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 for their survival, making this an attractive therapeutic target in CLL. Several early efforts to create inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic family members faced significant challenges, but eventually, the BCL-2 specific inhibitor venetoclax moved forward in CLL...
January 23, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114736/cromolyn-sodium-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-lung-disease-in-preterm-infants
#15
REVIEW
Geraldine Ng, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review last published by Cochrane in June 2012 entitled "Cromolyn sodium for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants", which included two studies. This 2016 update identified no further studies.Chronic lung disease (CLD) frequently occurs in preterm infants and has a multifactorial aetiology including inflammation. Cromolyn sodium is a mast cell stabiliser that inhibits neutrophil activation and neutrophil chemotaxis and therefore may have a role in the prevention of CLD...
January 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110620/daily-oral-intake-of-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-ameliorates-neuropathic-pain
#16
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Iezaki, Maika Okamoto, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Kanayama, Kakeru Ozaki, Yuki Onishi, Minoru Sugiura, Eiichi Hinoi
β-cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, exerts preventive effects on various lifestyle-related diseases. Here, we found that daily oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin significantly ameliorated the development of tactile allodynia following spinal nerve injury but was ineffective in mechanical allodynia in an inflammatory pain model in mice. Our results suggest that β-cryptoxanthin supplementation would be beneficial for the prophylaxis of neuropathic pain.
January 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110095/prophylaxis-for-stress-ulcers-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#17
Margot E Cohen, Joanne M Hathway, Hojjat Salmasian, Jianfang Liu, Melissa Terry, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with increased risk of infection, likely due to changes in intestinal epithelial permeability and the gastrointestinal microbiome. PPIs are frequently given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent stress ulcers. These patients are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), so we investigated the relationship between PPI use and BSIs among patients in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) admitted to 1 of 14 ICUs within a hospital network of 3 large hospitals from 2008 through 2014...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108300/transforming-growth-factor-beta-inducible-early-gene-1-tieg1-represses-smad7-mediated-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-in-keloid-pathogenesis
#18
Zhi-Cheng Hu, Fen Shi, Peng Liu, Jian Zhang, Dong Guo, Xiao-Ling Cao, Chu-Fen Chen, Shanqiang Qu, Jia-Yuan Zhu, Bing Tang
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling plays a key role in excessive fibrosis and keloid formations. Smad7 is a negative feedback regulator that prevents activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism for Smad7 in the keloid pathogenic process remains elusive. Here, we show that expression of TGF-β inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) is markedly higher in keloid fibroblasts (KFs), while protein, mRNA, and promoter activity levels of Smad7 are decreased. When TIEG1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), both the promoter activity and protein expression of Smad7 were increased, while collagen production and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of KFs were decreased...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106607/individualized-venous-thromboembolism-risk-stratification-using-the-2005-caprini-score-to-identify-the-benefits-and-harms-of-chemoprophylaxis-in-surgical-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Christopher J Pannucci, Lukasz Swistun, John K MacDonald, Peter K Henke, Benjamin S Brooke
OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105582/-control-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-for-cholangiocarcinoma-prevention
#20
Y Buisson
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite...
January 19, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
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