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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453438/altered-immunity-in-crowded-mythimna-separata-is-mediated-by-octopamine-and-dopamine
#1
Hailong Kong, Chuanlei Dong, Zhen Tian, Nian Mao, Cheng Wang, Yunxia Cheng, Lei Zhang, Xingfu Jiang, Lizhi Luo
Similar to pathogenic infection, high population density alters insects' prophylactic immunity. Density-dependent prophylaxis has been reported in many polyphenic insects, but the regulatory mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. The biogenic monoamines are known to play critical roles in mediating insect immune responses. In the current study, the immune capacity and the levels of three biogenic monoamines were investigated in the polyphenic larvae of Mythimna separata, reared at the densities of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 30 larvae per 650-mL jar...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443835/venous-thromboembolism-incidence-after-craniofacial-surgery
#2
Wilson I Omesiete, James A Walker, Jack C Yu
INTRODUCTION: Current protocols for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after craniofacial surgery (CFS) vary widely with substantial disagreements in both indications and managements. An evidence-based approach to this issue requires the following: the incidence of postoperative VTE, comorbidities associated with coagulopathy, risk reduction after VTE prophylaxis, and complications attributable to prophylaxis. This study addresses the first two. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442286/targeted-orexin-and-hypothalamic-neuropeptides-for-migraine
#3
REVIEW
Lauren C Strother, Anan Srikiatkhachorn, Weera Supronsinchai
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of homeostatic mechanisms and migraine-related trigeminal nociception and as such has been hypothesized to play a central role in the migraine syndrome from the earliest stages of the attack. The hypothalamus hosts many key neuropeptide systems that have been postulated to play a role in this pathophysiology. Such neuropeptides include but are not exclusive too orexins, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating protein, which will be the focus of this review...
February 13, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421487/differentially-expressed-genes-in-response-to-cyadox-in-swine-liver-analyzed-by-ddrt-pcr
#4
Rui Yu, Yinfeng Zhang, Qirong Lu, Luqing Cui, Yulian Wang, Xu Wang, Guyue Cheng, Zhenli Liu, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
Cyadox is a good antimicrobial growth-promoter of quinoxalines. However, the molecular mechanism of action remains unclear. A growth performance study and mRNA differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) in combination with Northern dot-blot and reverse Northern dot-blot analysis were conducted to determine the differentially expressed genes in liver tissues of piglets after treatment with cyadox. Transcription levels of the differentially expressed genes were quantificated by realtime RT-PCR in porcine primary hepotocytes...
January 25, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408341/composite-films-for-vaginal-delivery-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-emtricitabine
#5
Mafalda Pereira Cautela, Hen Moshe, Alejandro Sosnik, Bruno Sarmento, José das Neves
Prevention of male-to-female HIV transmission remains a huge challenge and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using microbicides may help overcoming the problem. In this work, different types of films containing the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) were developed. Formulations based in poly(vinyl alcohol) and pectin were produced as single- or double-layered films. Films containing TDF/FTC or TDF/FTC-loaded Eudragit® L 100 nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by nano spray-drying were tested for physicochemical, technological and biological properties relevant to microbicide development...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399441/nk-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-relapse-protection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-hct
#6
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller
Purpose of review: The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still compromised by relapse and complications. NK cells and γδT cells, effectors which both function through MHC-unrestricted mechanisms, can target transformed and infected cells without inducing Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Allo-HCT platforms based on CD34+ selection or αβ-TCR depletion result in low grades of GVHD, early immune reconstitution (IR) of NK and γδT cells and minimal usage of GVHD prophylaxis...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394995/venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-hospitalized-for-lung-transplantation
#7
Jonathan K Aboagye, Jeremiah W A Hayanga, Brandyn D Lau, Errol L Bush, Dauryne L Shaffer, Deborah B Hobson, Peggy S Kraus, Michael B Streiff, Elliott R Haut, Jonathan D'Cuhna
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation. We sought to evaluate any association between VTE and in-hospital death, length of hospitalization, and total hospital charges for patients hospitalized for lung transplantation (LT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify patients hospitalized for LT from 2000 to 2011. We evaluated the incidence of VTE during hospitalization for LT, risk factors for VTE, and the association between VTE and in-hospital death, length of hospitalization, and total hospital charges...
January 29, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393169/hereditary-and-acquired-angioedema-heterogeneity-of-pathogenesis-and-clinical-phenotypes
#8
Maria Bova, Giulia De Feo, Roberta Parente, Tiziana De Pasquale, Carmela Gravante, Stefano Pucci, Eustachio Nettis, Massimo Triggiani
Recurrent angioedema (AE) without wheals is increasingly recognized as a clinical entity and a frequent cause of admission to the emergency room. The Hereditary Angioedema Working Group (HAWK) classification allowed the scientific community to go beyond the semantic confusion that dominated this topic for decades. This classification distinguishes hereditary and acquired forms of AE, either related or unrelated to C1 inhibitor deficiency. Recently, additional mechanisms have been involved in the AE pathogenesis, including the uncontrolled activation of factor XII, generation of vasoactive mediators that induce dysregulation of endothelial functions, and bidirectional interactions between mast cell-derived mediators and the plasma contact system...
January 26, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391334/invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-emergence-of-resistant-pathogens-and-new-antifungal-therapies
#9
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms, are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy result in long term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the non-linear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
February 2, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379004/pneumomediastinum-and-pneumothorax-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-pneumonia
#10
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374489/stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hui-Bin Huang, Wei Jiang, Chun-Yao Wang, Han-Yu Qin, Bin Du
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is recommended in critically ill patients with high risk of stress-related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. However, as to patients receiving enteral feeding, the preventive effect of SUP is not well-known. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of pharmacologic SUP in enterally fed patients on stress-related GI bleeding and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database from inception through 30 Sep 2017...
January 28, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359030/role-of-oral-antibiotics-for-prophylaxis-against-surgical-site-infections-after-elective-colorectal-surgery
#12
REVIEW
Shamir O Cawich, Sachin Teelucksingh, Samara Hassranah, Vijay Naraynsingh
Over the past few decades, surgeons have made many attempts to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) after elective colorectal surgery. Routine faecal diversion is no longer practiced in elective colonic surgery and mechanical bowel preparation is on the verge of being eliminated altogether. Intravenous antibiotics have become the standard of care as prophylaxis against SSI for elective colorectal operations. However, the role of oral antibiotics is still being debated. We review the available data evaluating the role of oral antibiotics as prophylaxis for SSI in colorectal surgery...
December 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358786/-past-and-present-of-monitoring-the-functional-immune-response-developed-against-epstein-barr-and-adenovirus-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
M Vallejo Ruiz, E Soria Saldise, C Mansilla Puerta, A Zabalza San Martín, N Ramírez
Epstein-Barr (EBV) and Adenovirus (AdV) viral infections represent a significant cause of morbi-mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients due to the use of immunomyelosuppressive treatments and the prolonged period of immunodeficiency that they generate. To date, the post-transplant protective role of EBV and AdV specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been demonstrated. However, other factors are increasingly important in regulating the reconstitution and activity of CTLs specific to these viruses such as different cell subpopulations (CD4 + T lymphocytes, regulatory T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, Natural Killer cells, etc...
January 23, 2018: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334497/deep-vein-thrombosis-and-venous-thromboembolism-in-trauma
#14
Keith J Ruskin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus are major causes of hospital-related morbidity and mortality, and are recognized as complications in patients with traumatic injury. Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with DVTs, prophylaxis and treatment are still not well understood and remain the subject of research and debate. RECENT FINDINGS: Elements of the patient's history and physical examination, along with thromboelastography, can be used to predict patients who are at greatest risk of DVT and venous thromboembolism (VTE)...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332026/medicinal-plant-materials-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-neurobiological-aspects
#15
Miłosz Jan Gołyszny, Ewa Obuchowicz
Context • Pathological anxiety, which affects approximately one-third of the world population, is an inadequate, irrational reaction of an organism to the environment and to a potential threat. Despite advancements in pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders, further studies are still necessary to search for new substances possessing the desired anxiolytic effects, with as few unwanted effects as possible. Objective • This study intended to examine the characteristics of medicinal plant materials that exhibit anxiolytic properties, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of their active ingredients on the systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330739/patterns-and-outcomes-of-prescribing-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-hospitalized-older-adults-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Mark Goldin, Jessica Cohen, Alex Makhnevich, Colm Mulvany, Meredith Akerman, Liron Sinvani
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Hospitalized, medically ill older adults have increased risk; despite guidelines, data suggest suboptimal pharmacologic prophylaxis rates. Factors influencing provider prescribing non-compliance are unclear. We aimed to describe VTE prophylaxis practices and identify risk factors for, and outcomes of, prescribing non-compliance. A retrospective study was conducted of hospitalized adults aged ≥ 75 years, admitted to the medicine service of a large academic tertiary center from May 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321371/assessing-drug-efficacy-against-plasmodium-falciparum-liver-stages-in-vivo
#17
Erika L Flannery, Lander Foquet, Vorada Chuenchob, Matthew Fishbaugher, Zachary Billman, Mary Jane Navarro, William Betz, Tayla M Olsen, Joshua Lee, Nelly Camargo, Thao Nguyen, Carola Schafer, Brandon K Sack, Elizabeth M Wilson, Jessica Saunders, John Bial, Brice Campo, Susan A Charman, Sean C Murphy, Margaret A Phillips, Stefan Hi Kappe, Sebastian A Mikolajczak
Malaria eradication necessitates new tools to fight the evolving and complex Plasmodium pathogens. These tools include prophylactic drugs that eliminate Plasmodium liver stages and consequently prevent clinical disease, decrease transmission, and reduce the propensity for resistance development. Currently, the identification of these drugs relies on in vitro P. falciparum liver stage assays or in vivo causal prophylaxis assays using rodent malaria parasites; there is no method to directly test in vivo liver stage activity of candidate antimalarials against the human malaria-causing parasite P...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#18
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316202/anticoagulant-prophylaxis-and-therapy-in-children-current-challenges-and-emerging-issues
#19
F Newall, B Branchford, C Male
This review is aimed at describing the unique challenges of anticoagulant prophylaxis and treatment in children, and highlighting areas for research for improving clinical outcomes of children with thromboembolic disease. The evidence presented demonstrates the challenges of advancing the evidence base informing optimal management of thromboembolic disease in children. Recent observational studies have identified risk factors for venous thromboembolism in children, but there are few interventional studies assessing the benefit-risk balance of using thromboprophylaxis in risk-stratified clinical subgroups...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299477/novel-venous-thromboembolic-disease-vted-prophylaxis-for-total-knee-arthroplasty-aspirin-and-fish-oil
#20
Peter M Bonutti, Nipun Sodhi, Yatindra H Patel, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Morad Chughtai, Frank R Kolisek, Nick Williams, Michael A Mont
Background: Despite the demonstrated success of multiple anticoagulation therapies for post-operative prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease in lower extremity arthroplasties, each modality comes with a unique set of limitations. Thus, the ideal anticoagulation medication which provides adequate therapy with minimal cost, complications, or added patient work is yet to be defined. One promising novel thrombophylactic supplement is fish oil, as many preliminary clinical trials have demonstrated a protective effect of fish oil against thrombosis in multiple clinical settings...
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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