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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925424/evaluation-of-an-institutional-project-to-improve-venous-thromboembolism-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Christina A Minami, Anthony D Yang, Mila Ju, Eckford Culver, Kathryn Seifert, Lindsey Kreutzer, Terri Halverson, Kevin J O'Leary, Karl Y Bilimoria
BACKGROUND: Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923508/surfacing-role-of-probiotics-in-cancer-prophylaxis-and-therapy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Subramanyam Dasari, Chandrasekhar Kathera, Avilala Janardhan, Arthala Praveen Kumar, Buddolla Viswanath
Cancers figure among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer and its associated infections are always complicated even when specific cancer regimens are available. It is well proved that Lactobacillus and other probiotic bacteria can modulate-ameliorate specific mechanisms against various infections including cancers. The present systematic review is intended to focus on the 'cellular and molecular mechanisms' of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of various cancers...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920416/re-evaluating-the-inhibition-of-stress-erosions-revise-a-protocol-for-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Waleed Alhazzani, Gordon Guyatt, John C Marshall, Richard Hall, John Muscedere, Francois Lauzier, Lehana Thabane, Mohammed Alshahrani, Shane W English, Yaseen M Arabi, Adam M Deane, Tim Karachi, Bram Rochwerg, Simon Finfer, Nick Daneman, Nicole Zytaruk, Diane Heel-Ansdell, Deborah Cook, On Behalf Of
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians routinely administer stress ulcer prophylaxis to mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), most commonly prescribing proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from stress ulceration is low and recent observational studies suggest these agents may increase infections. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial (RCT) is needed to inform modern practice. The aim of this multicenter pilot trial is to determine the feasibility of performing a large RCT to investigate the efficacy and safety of withholding intravenous pantoprazole...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919336/tissue-reactions-to-ionizing-radiation-oral-mucosa
#4
Sylvia Gruber, Wolfgang Dörr
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment strategies for solid malignancies, including head-and-neck tumors (HNT). Oral mucositis is the most frequent, often dose-limiting early adverse event of radio(chemo)therapy for HNT. The oral mucosal response is - like that of typical turnover tissues - based on radiation-induced impairment of epithelial proliferation and cell production, in face of ongoing physiological cell differentiation and cell loss, consequently resulting in hypoplasia and eventually mucosal ulceration...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909008/trajectory-of-parvalbumin-cell-impairment-and-loss-of-cortical-inhibition-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Henry Hing Cheong Lee, Mustafa Qadir Hameed, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Takao K Hensch, Alexander Rotenberg
Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906452/primary-prophylaxis-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-ambulatory-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Marcello Di Nisio, Ettore Porreca, Matteo Candeloro, Michele De Tursi, Ilaria Russi, Anne Ws Rutjes
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) often complicates the clinical course of cancer. The risk is further increased by chemotherapy, but the trade-off between safety and efficacy of primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy is uncertain. This is the second update of a review first published in February 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of primary thromboprophylaxis for VTE in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900630/current-delivery-of-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-with-cytoreductive-surgery-cs-hipec-and-perioperative-practices-an-international-survey-of-high-volume-surgeons
#8
Allison H Maciver, Eisar Al-Sukhni, Jesus Esquivel, Joseph J Skitzki, John M Kane, Valerie A Francescutti
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS/HIPEC) is performed for selected indications at a limited number of specialized centers worldwide. Currently there is no standardized approach to the perioperative care process. We sought to capture current practices in the perioperative management of patients who undergo CS/HIPEC at high-volume centers. METHODS: Surgeon members of the American Society of Peritoneal Surface Malignancies working at high-volume CS/HIPEC centers (>10 cases/year) were invited to complete an online survey...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898350/cronkhite-canada-syndrome-complicated-by-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report
#9
Neha L Nemade, Urvi B Shukla, Gajanan D Wagholikar
INTRODUCTION: Cronkhite Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a rare syndrome, described in 1955 by Americans, Leonard Wolsey Cronkhite and Wilma Jeanne Canada in the New England Journal of Medicine [1]. About 450 cases have been reported. Complications, like malignant transformation, unprovoked thromboembolism is known. Since there is wide variability in medical presentation, no definitive diagnostic and treatment protocol s have been set. The mortality remains at 55%. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 50 year old male patient presenting with diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, ectodermal features...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897120/dropless-cataract-surgery-an-overview
#10
Richard L Lindstrom, M Stewart Galloway, Andrzej Grzybowski, Jeffrey T Liegner
Risk reduction and the attainment of good outcomes in contemporary cataract surgery depend in part on patient compliance with a postoperative regimen of topical eye drops. Topical drops are expensive and challenging to instill properly for patients. The consequences of noncompliance or poor compliance can be significant for the patient (in the case of a complication) and for society (in the case of development of antibiotic resistance). For all of these reasons, new approaches that reduce the need for topical therapy are beginning to emerge, including intracameral injection, sustained or slow-release drug delivery mechanisms, and the recently introduced "Dropless cataract surgery," which involves intravitreal injection of single-use, compounded combination of antibiotics and corticosteroids...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890280/prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-gynecologic-oncology-surgery
#12
REVIEW
Emma L Barber, Daniel L Clarke-Pearson
Gynecologic oncology patients are at a high-risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism and these events are a source of major morbidity and mortality. Given the availability of prophylaxis regimens, a structured comprehensive plan for prophylaxis is necessary to care for this population. There are many prophylaxis strategies and pharmacologic agents available to the practicing gynecologic oncologist. Current venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies include mechanical prophylaxis, preoperative pharmacologic prophylaxis, postoperative pharmacologic prophylaxis and extended duration pharmacologic prophylaxis that the patient continues at home after hospital discharge...
November 24, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876128/can-subphysiological-cold-application-be-utilized-in-excessive-dermal-scarring-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-promising-hypothetical-perspective
#13
Çağlayan Yağmur, Murat Sinan Engin, Rei Ogawa
Excessive dermal scarring (EDS) is a wound healing complication, characterized by protruded erythematous and inelastic 'proliferative scar tissue' which is associated with increased and prolonged inflammation process within the wound microenvironment. As inflammation plays a key role in this process, methods to contain or attenuate excessive inflammation hold promise in treatment and prophylaxis of EDS conditions. While cold exposure is notorious as the causative agent a wide array of morbidities and fatalities, its tempered use is exploited in medicine for ablative and therapeutic applications...
December 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874107/the-effect-of-oral-consumption-of-probiotics-in-prevention-of-heart-injury-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarction-model-a-histopathological-hemodynamic-and-biochemical-evaluation
#14
Jafar Sadeghzadeh, Abedin Vakili, Hamid Reza Sameni, Mahdi Shadnoush, Ahmad-Reza Bandegi, Mahdi Zahedi Khorasani
BACKGROUND: Despite the emerging evidence on beneficial effects of probiotics on the cardiovascular system, their impact on the management of ischemic heart diseases and its possible mechanism have not been elucidated. METHODS: Four viable probiotics bacterial strains, including Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus, at the concentrations of 2×106 colony-forming units/ml were orally administered to the rats daily for 14 days before the induction of infarct-like myocardial injury using isoproterenol...
November 22, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855996/impact-of-the-updated-guidance-for-palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-a-single-center-experience
#15
Bavani Rajah, Pablo J Sánchez, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Amy Leber, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in number of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations and outcomes in infants 29(0/7)-34(6/7) weeks' gestational age (wGA) the season before (season 1 [S1]; 2013-2014) and after (season 2 [S2]; 2014-2015) implementation of the 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics revised guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis. STUDY DESIGN: Children <12 months of age hospitalized with RSV infection were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and virology reports...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855627/recent-advances-in-obesity-the-role-of-turmeric-tuber-and-its-metabolites-in-the-prophylaxis-and-therapeutical-strategies
#16
Agata Jarząb, Wirginia Kukula-Koch
This contribution reviews current literature on the application of turmeric tuber - a commonly used spice - as an anti-obesity agent. Following an introduction about the biochemical significance of obesity and characteristics of various groups of natural products applied in the therapy of overweight patients, the authors focus on Curcuma secondary metabolites, their pharmacological applications and present a detailed study on the regulatory properties of turmeric towards various biochemical mechanisms of obesity...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855071/high-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-dihydropteroate-synthase-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-first-episode-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-santiago-chile-and-their-clinical-response-to-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-therapy
#17
Carolina A Ponce, Magali Chabé, Claudio George, Alejandra Cárdenas, Luisa Duran, Julia Guerrero, Rebeca Bustamante, Olga Matos, Laurence Huang, Robert F Miller, Sergio L Vargas
Mutations in the Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii associate with failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs, or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with first-episode of PCP from 2002-2010 in Santiago, Chile...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#18
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851912/identification-of-a-cd4-binding-site-antibody-to-hiv-that-evolved-near-pan-neutralization-breadth
#19
Jinghe Huang, Byong H Kang, Elise Ishida, Tongqing Zhou, Trevor Griesman, Zizhang Sheng, Fan Wu, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Baoshan Zhang, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Aliaksandr Druz, Ivelin S Georgiev, Chaim A Schramm, Anqi Zheng, M Gordon Joyce, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Amy Ransier, Sam Darko, Stephen A Migueles, Robert T Bailer, Mark K Louder, S Munir Alam, Robert Parks, Garnett Kelsoe, Tarra Von Holle, Barton F Haynes, Daniel C Douek, Vanessa Hirsch, Michael S Seaman, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong, Mark Connors
Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837045/pharmacologic-stress-gastropathy-prophylaxis-may-not-be-necessary-in-at-risk-surgical-trauma-icu-patients-tolerating-enteral-nutrition
#20
Nicole M Palm, Brian McKinzie, Pamela L Ferguson, Emily Chapman, Margaret Dorlon, Evert A Eriksson, Brent Jewett, Stuart M Leon, Alicia R Privette, Samir M Fakhry
OBJECTIVE: Stress gastropathy is a rare complication of the intensive care unit stay with high morbidity and mortality. There are data that support the concept that patients tolerating enteral nutrition have sufficient gut blood flow to obviate the need for prophylaxis; however, no robust studies exist. This study assesses the incidence of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding in surgical trauma intensive care unit (STICU) patients at risk of stress gastropathy secondary to mechanical ventilation receiving enteral nutrition without pharmacologic prophylaxis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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