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community-acquired pneumonia AND virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724618/missed-opportunities-in-the-diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-region-of-aragon-late-diagnosis-importance
#1
César Gargallo-Bernad, Francisco Javier Sangrós-González, Piedad Arazo-Garcés, Rosa Martínez-Álvarez, Carmen Malo-Aznar, Alicia Gargallo-Bernad, Alba Ballester-Luna, Luis Eduardo Cabrero-Pascual, Pablo Gil-Orna, Víctor José Abadía-Gallego, Isabel Torres-Peña, Héctor Ordiz-Suárez
INTRODUCTION: Late Diagnosis (LD) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection (CD4 lymphocytes <350/μl at diagnosis of the disease), deteriorates the condition of those affected and increases the probability of transmission. The objective of the present study was to analyse the prevalence of LD, to identify missed diagnostic opportunities (MDO) and to find out which level of the health care delivery system they took place. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study of the population diagnosed with infection of HIV/AIDS in the period 2011-2015 in Aragon...
April 30, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698412/clinical-manifestations-in-infants-and-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#2
Mia Johanna Søndergaard, Martin Barfred Friis, Dennis Schrøder Hansen, Inger Merete Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in older children. Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary symptoms associated with M. pneumoniae infection are reported. M. pneumoniae is mainly epidemic in Denmark with the recurrence every 4-7th year. AIMS: Retrospectively, to describe the epidemiology and clinical features, in infants and children, during the M. pneumoniae epidemic in 2010 and 2011. METHODS: All children under the age of 16 that were tested for M...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680828/viral-pneumonia-etiologies-and-treatment
#3
Dima Dandachi, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas
Viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as a cause of pneumonia, in immunocompetent patients and more commonly among immunocompromised. Viral pneumonia in adults could present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), ranging from mild disease to severe disease requiring hospital admission and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, the role of viruses in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia as causative agents or as co-pathogens and the effect of virus detection on clinical outcome are being investigated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607301/contemporary-situation-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-china-a-systematic-review
#4
Ying-Gang Zhu, Xiao-Dan Tang, Yun-Tao Lu, Jing Zhang, Jie-Ming Qu
The prevalence and microbial pattern reported for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) differ considerably and contemporary situation remains changing over time. We therefore searched both international and domestic databases for relevant references and pooled incidence of CAP and etiological distribution were estimated separately between children and adults groups. The results showed that CAP remained a major public health issue in China, with a relatively higher incidence than that reported in Western countries...
March 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562397/-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-long-term-glucocorticoid-users-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
L J Li, Y M Liu, Y M Wang, F Zhou, H Li, X Q Xing, X D Han, L Chen, C X Zhang, J X Wang, B Liu, L J Suo, G H Yu, G Q Wang, X X Yao, Y Xiao, X L Zhu, C X Xue, X J Cui, B Cao
Objective: To explore the clinical features, etiological features and prognostic risk factors of long-term glucocorticoid users with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: A retrospective study included 100 long-term glucocorticoid users with CAP (G-CAP group) from 11 hospitals of China between January 2014 and December 2014, while 100 non-immunocompromised patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled as controls (nICH-CAP group). Characteristics including age, gender, underlying diseases, corticosteroids, symptoms, disease severity, imaging manifestations, etiology, respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation, whether the application of vasoactive drugs, antibiotics application, hospital mortality rate between the two groups were compared, and the prognostic factors of G-CAP were investigated using Logistic regression...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549211/role-of-viral-and-bacterial-pathogens-in-causing-pneumonia-among-western-australian-children-a-case-control-study-protocol
#6
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540836/genetic-variations-in-the-fusion-protein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-isolated-from-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-china
#7
Xiangpeng Chen, Baoping Xu, Jiayun Guo, Changchong Li, Shuhua An, Yunlian Zhou, Aihuan Chen, Li Deng, Zhou Fu, Yun Zhu, Chunyan Liu, Lili Xu, Wei Wang, Kunling Shen, Zhengde Xie
To identify the variations in fusion (F) protein gene of RSV in China, a molecular epidemiological study was conducted. A total of 553 RSV positive specimens were collected from 2338 pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia during a multi-center study conducted during 2014-2016. A total of 252 samples (183 RSV A, 69 RSV B) were selected for F gene sequencing, and analyzed together with 142 F gene sequences downloaded from GenBank. The result showed that all the Chinese RSV A and RSV B strains could be divided respectively into three branches...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487245/etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-in-india-with-special-reference-to-atypical-pathogens
#8
K Jagadish Kumar, K V Ashok Chowdary, H C Usha, Maduri Kulkarni, V G Manjunath
Objectives: The aim is to identify the etiology of community acquired pneumonia in children with special reference to atypical bacteria and viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 94 pneumonia children were enrolled in the study. Sixty-seven did not have an etiological diagnosis by conventional culture. These children were subjected to immunofluorescence assay by Pneumoslide IgM. Results: Ninety-four children were evaluated for etiology by conventional culture...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487244/microbial-etiology-in-hospitalized-north-indian-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Reyaz A Para, Bashir A Fomda, Rafi A Jan, Sonaullah Shah, Parvaiz A Koul
Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding the microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in India. The current study was aimed to study the microbial etiology of hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods: The study was conducted in a 700-bedded North Indian hospital. Consecutive adults admitted with CAP over a period of 2 years from 2013 to 2015 were recruited for the study, and apart from clinical evaluation underwent various microbiological studies in the form of blood culture, sputum culture, urinary antigen for pneumococcus and Legionella, serology for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for influenza viruses...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479548/incidence-etiology-and-outcomes-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-population-based-study
#10
Agnar Bjarnason, Johan Westin, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Karl G Kristinsson, Arthur Löve, Olafur Baldursson, Magnus Gottfredsson
Background: The microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often unclear in clinical practice, and previous studies have produced variable results. Population-based studies examining etiology and incidence are lacking. This study examined the incidence and etiology of CAP requiring hospitalization in a population-based cohort as well as risk factors and outcomes for specific etiologies. Methods: Consecutive admissions due to CAP in Reykjavik, Iceland were studied...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456727/risk-factors-and-coping-strategies-of-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-chemotherapy-induction-period-of-acute-leukemia
#11
Ning Li, Qingcheng Duan, Weidan Zhang
The risk factors and coping strategies of severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in chemotherapy induction period of acute leukemia were investigated. Eighty-six patients with CAP in chemotherapy induction period of acute leukemia in Dezhou Hospital from March 2014 to February 2017 were selected and divided into observation group (SCAP group, n=45) and control group (non-SCAP group, n=41) according to the acute physiology and chronic health evolution II (APACHE II) score. The blood, sputum, nasopharyngeal secretion and pleural effusion samples were collected from patients in both groups, and the samples were detected for pathogens, followed by the analysis of relevant factors...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447989/aetiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-prospective-study-in-11-european-countries
#12
M Ieven, S Coenen, K Loens, C Lammens, F Coenjaerts, A Vanderstraeten, B Henriques-Normark, D Crook, K Huygen, C C Butler, T J M Verheij, P Little, K Zlateva, A van Loon, E C J Claas, H Goossens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of bacteria (including bacterial resistance), viruses (including those recently described) and mixed bacterial-viral infections in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: In all, 3104 adults with LRTI were enrolled, of whom 141 (4.5%) had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 2985 matched controls in a prospective study in 16 primary care networks in Europe, and followed patients up at 28-35 days...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447204/comparison-of-viral-infection-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-hcap-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eun Sun Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Although viruses are known to be the second most common etiological factor in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the respiratory viral profile of the patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical impact of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with HCAP. METHODS: Patients admitted with HCAP or CAP, between January and December 2016, to a tertiary referral hospital in Korea, were prospectively enrolled, and virus identification was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432047/community-acquired-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states
#14
Karen J Vigil, Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
We conducted a retrospective study of 549 adults admitted with community-acquired meningitis (CAM) to several hospitals in New Orleans, LA and Houston, TX between 1999 and 2014 to characterize the current epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcomes of CAM between HIV-infected and uninfected patients and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in CAM. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A total of 1022 patients with CAM were screened...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409994/infectious-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adults-in-denmark-a-prospective-nationwide-observational-cohort-study-dasgib
#15
J Bodilsen, Merete Storgaard, L Larsen, L Wiese, J Helweg-Larsen, A-M Lebech, C Brandt, C Østergaard, H Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nationwide prospective observational study of all cases of proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all infectious diseases departments in Denmark from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30 days after discharge...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391051/short-course-antimicrobial-therapy-for-paediatric-respiratory-infections-safer-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Jeffrey Pernica, Stuart Harman, April Kam, Jacob Bailey, Redjana Carciumaru, Sarah Khan, Martha Fulford, Lehana Thabane, Robert Slinger, Cheryl Main, Marek Smieja, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is commonly diagnosed in children. The Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP but 5-day "short course" therapy may be just as effective. Randomized trials in adults have already demonstrated non-inferiority of 5-day short-course treatment for adults hospitalized with severe CAP and for adults with mild CAP treated as outpatients. Minimizing exposure to antimicrobials is desirable to avoid harms including diarrhoea, rashes, severe allergic reactions, increased circulating antimicrobial resistance, and microbiome disruption...
February 1, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379004/pneumomediastinum-and-pneumothorax-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-pneumonia
#17
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373381/outpatient-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Filipe Froes, João Gonçalves Pereira, Pedro Póvoa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237789/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-the-challenges-of-microbiological-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
C M C Rodrigues, H Groves
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age globally. To improve the management of CAP, we must distinguish CAP from other common pediatric conditions and develop better diagnostic methods to detect the causative organism, so as to best direct appropriate resources in both industrialized and developing countries. Here, we review the diagnostic modalities available for identifying viruses and bacteria in the upper and lower respiratory tract of children, with a discussion of their utility and limitations in diagnosing CAP in children...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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