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physiology of heart failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738087/exercise-physiology-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device-analysis-of-heart-pump-interaction-with-a-computational-simulator
#1
Libera Fresiello, Frank Rademakers, Piet Claus, Gianfranco Ferrari, Arianna Di Molfetta, Bart Meyns
Patients with a Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) are hemodynamically stable but show an impaired exercise capacity. Aim of this work is to identify and to describe the limiting factors of exercise physiology with a VAD. We searched for data concerning exercise in heart failure condition and after VAD implantation from the literature. Data were analyzed by using a cardiorespiratory simulator that worked as a collector of inputs coming from different papers. As a preliminary step the simulator was used to reproduce the evolution of hemodynamics from rest to peak exercise (ergometer cycling) in heart failure condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737621/baroreflex-activation-therapy-a-new-approach-to-the-management-of-advanced-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#2
Edoardo Gronda, Darrel Francis, Faiez Zannad, Christian Hamm, Josep Brugada, Emilio Vanoli
: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition characterized by persistent excessive sympathetic nervous system activation. The derangement of the sympathetic activity has relevant implications for disease progression and patient survival. Aiming to positively impact patient outcome, autonomic nervous system modulatory therapies have been developed and tested in animal and clinical studies. As a general gross assumption, direct vagal stimulation and baroreflex activation are considered equivalent. This assumption does not take into account the fact that direct cervical vagal nerve stimulation involves activation of both afferent and efferent fibers innervating not only the heart, but the entire visceral system, leading to undesired responses to and from this compartment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733849/novel-pacing-strategies-for-heart-failure-management
#3
REVIEW
Jordan S Leyton-Mange, Theofanie Mela
Cardiac resynchronization therapy has emerged as the gold standard for heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and electrical dyssynchrony from an intrinsic intraventricular conduction delay or right ventricular pacing. However, the limits imposed by the coronary sinus venous anatomy restrict the applicability of the technology for many potential recipients. Furthermore, conventional resynchronization, by virtue of utilizing a single site of epicardial origin for left ventricular activation, is non-physiological...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728933/predictors-of-mortality-in-pulmonary-sarcoidosis
#4
Gamze Kirkil, Elyse E Lower, Robert P Baughman
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic strength of factors in predicting respiratory death in a large cohort of sarcoidosis patients with at least eight years' follow-up. METHODS: We collected age, sex, self-declared race, time of death, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, chest x-ray stage, extent of fibrosis on high resolution computer tomography (HRCT), and presence of pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). The gender, age, physiology (GAP) index and Walsh's criteria for high versus low risk were calculated...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726495/use-of-adeno-associated-virus-vector-for-cardiac-gene-delivery-in-large-animal-surgical-models-of-heart-failure
#5
Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Thomas Weber, Roger Hajjar, Charles Bridges
The advancement of gene-therapy-based approaches to treat heart disease represents a need for clinically-relevant animal models with characteristics equivalent to human pathologies. Rodent models of cardiac disease do not precisely reproduce heart failure phenotype and molecular defects. This has motivated researchers to use large animals whose heart size and physiological processes more similar and comparable to those of humans. Today, adeno-associated viruses (AAV)-based vectors are undoubtedly among the most promising DNA delivery vehicles...
July 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716687/measures-of-ventricular-arterial-coupling-and-incident-heart-failure-preserved-ejection-fraction-hfpef-a-matched-case-control-analysis
#6
Carolyn L Lekavich, Debra J Barksdale, Jia-Rong Wu, Virginia Neelon, Jamie Crandell, Eric J Velazquez
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to detect differences in markers associated with incident heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) when comparing matched case-control groups. BACKGROUND: Evidence continues to demonstrate increasing prevalence, cost and mortality implications of HFpEF, but clearly defined parameters that distinguish between controls and HFpEF have not been established. METHODS: A study cohort of case (incident patients with HFpEF, n=155) and matched control (patients with no prior HF, n=155) groups was retrospectively identified...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714070/a-reduction-in-sk-channels-contributes-to-increased-activity-of-hypothalamic-magnocellular-neurons-during-heart-failure
#8
H C Ferreira-Neto, V Biancardi, J E Stern
Small conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (SK) play an important role in regulating MNCs activity and hormone release from the posterior pituitary. Moreover, an enhanced SK activity contributes to MNCs' adaptive responses to a physiological challenge, such as lactation. Still, whether changes in SK function/expression contribute to exacerbated MNCs activity during diseases like heart failure (HF), remains unknown. Here, we used a combination of patch-clamp electrophysiology, confocal Ca(2+) imaging and molecular biology in a rat model of ischemic HF...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702857/protein-kinase-c-and-cardiac-dysfunction-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Raphael M Singh, Emanuel Cummings, Constantinos Pantos, Jaipaul Singh
Heart failure (HF) is a physiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by impaired ability of the left ventricle to either fill or eject blood efficiently. HF is a disease of multiple aetiologies leading to progressive cardiac dysfunction and it is the leading cause of deaths in both developed and developing countries. HF is responsible for about 73,000 deaths in the UK each year. In the USA, HF affects 5.8 million people and 550,000 new cases are diagnosed annually...
July 12, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698526/altered-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-mechanosensation-in-the-failing-heart-focus-on-intracellular-calcium-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Aderville Cabassi, Michele Miragoli
The heart consists of millions of cells, namely cardiomyocytes, which are highly organized in terms of structure and function, at both macroscale and microscale levels. Such meticulous organization is imperative for assuring the physiological pump-function of the heart. One of the key players for the electrical and mechanical synchronization and contraction is the calcium ion via the well-known calcium-induced calcium release process. In cardiovascular diseases, the structural organization is lost, resulting in morphological, electrical, and metabolic remodeling owing the imbalance of the calcium handling and promoting heart failure and arrhythmias...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689178/sacubitril-valsartan-beyond-natriuretic-peptides
#11
REVIEW
Jagdeep S S Singh, Louise M Burrell, Myriam Cherif, Iain B Squire, Andrew L Clark, Chim C Lang
Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have primarily been regarded as biomarkers in heart failure (HF). However, they are also possible therapeutic agents due to their potentially beneficial physiological effects. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, simultaneously augments the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) by inhibiting the enzyme neprilysin (NEP) and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by blocking the angiotensin II receptor...
July 8, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685472/potential-erythropoiesis-in-the-primo-vascular-system-in-heart-failure
#12
Chae Jeong Lim, Yiming Shen, So Yeong Lee, Pan Dong Ryu
The primo-vascular system (PVS), composed of primo-nodes (PNs) and primo-vessels (PVs), has been identified in various animal models. However, little is known about its function. Here, we investigated the changes in gross morphology and cellular composition of the organ-surface PVS (osPVS) in rats with heart failure (HF) induced by myocardial infarction. The size of the PNs in rats with HF was larger than in sham rats (1.87 vs. 0.80 mm(2); P < 0.01) and the density of osPVS per rat was greater for the HF rats (28 of 6 rats vs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684095/atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure-cause-or-effect
#13
REVIEW
Sandeep Prabhu, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, David M Kaye, Peter M Kistler
There are emerging epidemics of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure in most developed countries, with a significant health burden. Due to many shared pathophysiological mechanisms, which facilitate the maintenance of each condition, AF and heart failure co-exist in up to 30% of patients. In the circumstance where known structural causes of heart failure (such as myocardial infarction) are absent, patients presenting with both conditions present a unique challenge, particularly as the temporal relationship of each condition can often remain elusive from the clinical history...
May 22, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679072/long-term-associations-of-morbidity-with-air-pollution-a-catalogue-and-synthesis
#14
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677661/a-novel-therapeutic-approach-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-allium-ursinum-liophylisate-alleviates-symptoms-comparably-to-sildenafil
#15
Mariann Bombicz, Daniel Priksz, Balazs Varga, Andrea Kurucz, Attila Kertész, Akos Takacs, Aniko Posa, Rita Kiss, Zoltan Szilvassy, Bela Juhasz
Right-sided heart failure-often caused by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure-is a chronic and progressive condition with particularly high mortality rates. Recent studies and our current findings suggest that components of Wild garlic (Allium ursinum, AU) may play a role in reducing blood pressure, inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), as well as improving right ventricle function in rabbit models with heart failure. We hypothesize that AU may mitigate cardiovascular damage caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and has value in the supplementary treatment of the complications of the disease...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674911/the-basic-metabolic-profile-in-heart-failure-marker-and-modifier
#16
REVIEW
Ahmed Elfar, Kamalanathan K Sambandam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The physiologic determinants of each of the components of the basic metabolic profile in patients with heart failure will be explored. Additionally, the review will discuss the prognostic value of alterations in the basic metabolic profile as well as their effects on management. RECENT FINDINGS: Abnormalities in the basic metabolic profile have significant correlation with clinical outcomes and can modify treatment in heart failure. Hypochloremia has recently received increased attention for these reasons...
July 3, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674684/effect-of-fetal-sex-on-maternal-and-obstetric-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Mohammed Al-Qaraghouli, Yu Ming Victor Fang
Fetal sex plays an important role in modifying the course and complications related to pregnancy and may also have an impact on maternal health and well-being both during and after pregnancy. The goal of this article is to review and summarize the findings from published research on physiologic and pathologic changes that may be affected by fetal sex and the effect of these changes on the maternal and obstetrical outcomes. This will help create awareness that fetal sex is not just a random chance event but an interactive process between the mother, the placenta, and the fetus...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670961/rationales-and-choices-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-nyha-class-ii-heart-failure
#18
Edward M Gilbert, Weining David Xu
Heart failure (HF) in the United States represents a significant burden for patients and a tremendous strain on the healthcare system. Patients receiving a diagnosis of HF can be placed into 1 of 4 New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classifications; the greatest proportion of patients are in the NYHA class II category, which is defined as patients having a slight limitation of physical activity but who are comfortable at rest, and for whom ordinary physical activity results in symptoms of HF. Because the severity of NYHA class II HF may be perceived as mild or unalarming by this definition, the urgency to treat this type of HF may be overlooked...
July 3, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668721/pde2-at-the-crossway-between-camp-and-cgmp-signalling-in-the-heart
#19
REVIEW
Silvio Weber, Miriam Zeller, Kaomei Guan, Frank Wunder, Michael Wagner, Ali El-Armouche
The cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are central second messengers in cardiac cells and critical regulators of cardiac physiology as well as pathophysiology. Consequently, subcellular compartmentalization allows for spatiotemporal control of cAMP/cGMP metabolism and subsequent regulation of their respective effector kinases PKA or PKG is most important for cardiac function in health and disease. While acute cAMP-mediated signalling is a mandatory prerequisite for the physiological fight-or-flight response, sustained activation of this pathway may lead to the progression of heart failure...
June 28, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662936/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibition%C3%A2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved%C3%A2-ejection-fraction-rationale-and-design-of-the-paragon-hf-trial
#20
REVIEW
Scott D Solomon, Adel R Rizkala, Jianjian Gong, Wenyan Wang, Inder S Anand, Junbo Ge, Carolyn S P Lam, Aldo P Maggioni, Felipe Martinez, Milton Packer, Marc A Pfeffer, Burkert Pieske, Margaret M Redfield, Jean L Rouleau, Dirk J Van Veldhuisen, Faiez Zannad, Michael R Zile, Akshay S Desai, Victor C Shi, Martin P Lefkowitz, John J V McMurray
OBJECTIVES: The PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction) trial is designed to determine the efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: HFpEF is highly prevalent, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and in need of effective therapies that improve outcomes...
July 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
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