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physiology of heart failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146733/effects-of-chronically-increased-vegf-a-on-the-aging-heart
#1
Alexander G Marneros
Whether approaches to chronically increase VEGF-A in the heart may have beneficial effects and prevent the development of heart failure, in part by improving cardiac perfusion, or whether this increase could have detrimental effects on cardiac performance in the aging heart, has not been tested yet. In this study, a genetic mouse model with a chronic increase in VEGF-A in the heart is shown to have increased cardiac angiogenesis and develop cardiac hypertrophy with enhanced basal cardiac performance with age progression...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146613/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-trajectories-of-hospitalization-in-us-men-and-women-with-heart-failure
#2
Matthew E Dupre, Danan Gu, Hanzhang Xu, Janese Willis, Lesley H Curtis, Eric D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalization among patients with heart failure (HF). However, racial/ethnic differences in trajectories of hospitalization following the diagnosis of HF have not been well characterized. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in individual-level trajectories of hospitalization in older adults with diagnosed HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a nationally representative prospective cohort of US men and women aged 45 years and older were used to examine the number of hospitalizations reported every 24 months...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#3
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137484/the-role-of-endogenous-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cardiac-myocyte-autophagy
#4
J-P Wang, R-F Chi, J Liu, Y-Z Deng, X-B Han, F-Z Qin, B Li
Autophagy is implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Autophagy is activated in heart failure, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased. Exogenous ROS have been shown to induce cardiomyocyte autophagy alterations. However, little is known about the influences of physiological levels of endogenous ROS on cardiomyocyte autophagy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous ROS in cardiomyocytes play an important role in inducing autophagy. Cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes or Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or the superoxide dismutase mimic tempol under the basal or nutrient deprivation conditions...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131882/time-course-response-of-the-heart-and-circulatory-system-to-active-postural-changes
#5
Jo P Pauls, Llion Roberts, Tom Burgess, John/F Fraser, Shaun/D Gregory, Geoff Tansley
Rotary blood pumps (RBPs) used for mechanical circulatory support of heart failure patients cannot passively change pump flow sufficiently in response to frequent variations in preload induced by active postural changes. A physiological control system that mimics the response of the healthy heart is needed to adjust pump flow according to patient demand. Thus, baseline data is required on how the healthy heart (i.e. heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO)) and circulatory system (i.e. systemic vascular resistance (SVR)) respond...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128512/the-role-of-%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-cardiac-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Mohamed H Derbala, Aaron S Guo, Peter J Mohler, Sakima A Smith
Spectrins are large, flexible proteins comprised of α-β dimers that are connected head-to-head to form the canonical heterotetrameric spectrin structure. Spectrins were initially believed to be exclusively found in human erythrocytic membrane and are highly conserved among different species. βII spectrin, the most common isoform of non-erythrocytic spectrin, is found in all nucleated cells and forms larger macromolecular complexes with ankyrins and actins. Not only is βII spectrin a central cytoskeletal scaffolding protein involved in preserving cell structure but it has also emerged as a critical protein required for distinct physiologic functions such as posttranslational localization of crucial membrane proteins and signal transduction...
November 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125447/multiple-echocardiography-abnormalities-associated-with-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-failure
#7
Ashish H Shah, George M Ibrahim, Jun Sasaki, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia, Toba N Niazi
OBJECTIVE Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has gained increasing prominence in the management of hydrocephalus caused by intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity, the rates of long-term shunt independence remain low. Furthermore, limited evidence is available to identify infants who might benefit from the procedure. The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated venous pressure that results from comorbid cardiac disease might predispose patients to ETV/CPC failure and shunt dependence...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124022/outcomes-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-children-an-11-year-single-center-experience-in-korea
#8
Hongsun Kim, Ji-Hyuk Yang, Yang Hyun Cho, Tae-Gook Jun, Kiick Sung, Woosik Han
Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an important treatment modality in pediatric patients with cardiopulmonary failure, but few studies have been conducted in Korea. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients younger than 18 years who were placed on ECMO between January 2004 and December 2014 at Samsung Medical Center. Results: We identified 116 children on ECMO support. The overall rate of successful weaning was 51...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122139/role-of-exercise-testing-in-hypertrophic%C3%A2-cardiomyopathy
#9
REVIEW
Ethan J Rowin, Barry J Maron, Iacopo Olivotto, Martin S Maron
Over the last 25 years, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have been studied with a variety of methods employing physiological exercise that have made major contributions to disease management and are performed without increased risk. Previously under-utilized in HCM, exercise (stress) echocardiography has become incorporated into the standard clinical assessment and diagnostic armamentarium of HCM using upright or supine symptom-limited treadmill or bicycle modalities. In patients without outflow gradients at rest, exercise echocardiography is the most appropriate method for provoking obstruction, with the capability of predicting future development of progressive heart failure symptoms, and differentiating patients with provocable obstruction from those without obstruction, with major implications for dictating treatment options, that is, surgical myectomy (alternatively, alcohol septal ablation) versus heart transplant...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120933/an-overview-of-perioperative-considerations-in-elderly-patients-for-thoracic-surgery-demographics-risk-benefit-and-resource-planning
#10
Maria Castillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing numbers of geriatric patients will present for thoracic surgery as the population ages. The changes in physiologic reserve as well as the increase in comorbid conditions among this population must be considered in order to optimize patient care in the perioperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: For elderly patients with cancer, the risk-benefit relationship for thoracic surgery remains favorable. Consideration of comorbidities, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure, is important in the setting of surgical treatment, as they have implications for perioperative care as well as postoperative morbidity and mortality...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116404/review-of-cardiometabolic-effects-of-prescription-omega-3-fatty-acids
#11
REVIEW
Megan F Burke, Frances M Burke, Daniel E Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations with significant dietary fish intake tend to have lower cardiovascular (CV) risk and demonstrable physiologic differences including lower lipid/lipoprotein levels and other direct and indirect effects on the arterial wall and inhibiting factors that promote atherosclerosis. Treatment with high doses of pharmacologic-grade omega-3 fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements achieves significant reductions in triglycerides (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein- (non-HDL-) and TG-rich lipoprotein- (TRL-) cholesterol levels...
November 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114876/translating-carotid-body-function-into-clinical-medicine
#12
Rodrigo Iturriaga
The carotid body (CB) is considered the main O2 chemoreceptor, which contributes to the cardiorespiratory homeostasis and ventilatory acclimatization. In clinical medicine, the most common pathology associated with the CB are tumours. However, a growing body of evidences supports the novel idea that an enhanced CB chemosensory discharge contributes to the autonomic dysfunction and pathological consequences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF) and cardiometabolic diseases...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114106/designing-and-implementation-of-a-heart-failure-telemonitoring-system
#13
Reza Safdari, Maryam Jafarpour, Mehrshad Mokhtaran, Nasim Naderi
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify patients at-risk, enhancing self-care management of HF patients at home and reduce the disease exacerbations and readmissions. Method: In this research according to standard heart failure guidelines and Semi-structured interviews with 10 heart failure Specialists, a draft heart failure rule set for alerts and patient instructions was developed. Eventually, the clinical champion of the project vetted the rule set...
September 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111542/a-call-to-action-to-develop-integrated-curricula-in-cardiorenal-medicine
#14
Claudio Ronco, Federico Ronco, Peter A McCullough
With the adoption of the new definition and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and its relevant subtypes, much attention has been placed on elucidating the mechanisms of heart and kidney interactions. The pathophysiologic pathways are of great interest by which acute heart failure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI; type 1), chronic heart failure accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; type 2), AKI provokes cardiac events (type 3), and CKD increases the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease (type 4)...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105899/left-ventricular-geometry-as-a-major-determinant-of-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-physiological-considerations-and-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Filippos Triposkiadis, Gregory Giamouzis, Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas, Georgios Karagiannis, John Skoularigis, Harisios Boudoulas, John Parissis
The limited myocardial fibre thickening and shortening alone cannot explain the marked left ventricular (LV) volume reduction during LV ejection. This can only be achieved with LV helical (spiral) orientation of myocardial fibres, which is determined by the non-contractile LV myocardial components (intrasarcomeric and extrasarcomeric cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix). Preservation of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF) is due to the presence of normal ellipsoid LV configuration and spiral myocardial fibre orientation...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104545/the-adenosine-hypothesis-revisited-modulation-of-coupling-between-myocardial-perfusion-and-arterial-compliance
#16
Geoffrey P Dobson, Aryadi Arsyad, Hayley L Letson
For over four decades the thoracic aortic ring model has become one of the most widely used methods to study vascular reactivity and electromechanical coupling. A question that is rarely asked, however, is what function does a drug-mediated relaxation (or contraction) in this model serve in the intact system? The physiological significance of adenosine relaxation in rings isolated from large elastic conduit arteries from a wide range of species remains largely unknown. We propose that adenosine relaxation increases aortic compliance in acute stress states and facilitates ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, and thereby links compliance and coronary artery perfusion to myocardial energy metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103857/phenotype-management-and-predictors-of-outcome-in-a-large-cohort-of-adult-congenital-heart-disease-patients-with-heart-failure
#17
Alexander Van De Bruaene, Edward J Hickey, Adrienne H Kovacs, Andrew M Crean, Rachel M Wald, Candice K Silversides, Andrew N Redington, Heather J Ross, Ana Carolina Alba, Filio Billia, Krishnakumar Nair, Lee Benson, Eric Horlick, Mark Osten, Jack Colman, Jane Heggie, Erwin N Oechslin, S Lucy Roche
OBJECTIVE: Although heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of premature death in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), little population-specific data exist. This study reports early experience from a dedicated, sub-specialty adult congenital heart disease-heart failure (ACHD-HF) clinic, aiming to identify risk factors for adverse outcome. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 126 patients (57% male) attended the ACHD-HF clinic. Baseline and follow-up data were analysed and compared across 4 anatomical/physiological subgroups: cyanotic ACHD, Fontan circulation (1V), biventricular circulation with a subaortic right ventricle (2V-RV) and biventricular circulation with a subaortic left ventricle (2V-LV)...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100797/structure-activity-relationships-of-2-substituted-phenyl-n-phenyl-2-oxoacetohydrazonoyl-cyanides-as-novel-antagonists-of-exchange-proteins-directly-activated-by-camp-epacs
#18
Zhiqing Liu, Yingmin Zhu, Haiying Chen, Pingyuan Wang, Fang C Mei, Na Ye, Xiaodong Cheng, Jia Zhou
Exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPACs) are critical cAMP-dependent signaling pathway mediators that play important roles in cancer, diabetes, heart failure, inflammations, infections, neurological disorders and other human diseases. EPAC specific modulators are urgently needed to explore EPAC's physiological function, mechanism of action and therapeutic applications. On the basis of a previously identified EPAC specific inhibitor hit ESI-09, herein we have designed and synthesized a novel series of 2-substituted phenyl-N-phenyl-2-oxoacetohydrazonoyl cyanides as potent EPAC inhibitors...
October 25, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098628/exercise-induced-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-addressing-heart-failure
#19
Jubert Marquez, Jin Han
Mitochondria are complex organelles essential for the production of energy. These dynamic, complex organelles found in every cell and tissues of the body have been well-studied in various physiological models, stressing that mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of pathological states, especially in cardiovascular diseases and heart failure. Since heart failure progresses due to energy deficits brought about by altered mitochondrial bioenergetics and functioning, novel ways of ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction are being studied...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098626/micrornas-mediate-beneficial-effects-of-exercise-in-heart
#20
Yihua Bei, Lichan Tao, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, repress gene expressions at posttranscriptional level in most cases and are involved in cardiovascular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence has proved that miRNAs are potential regulators of exercise induced cardiac growth and mediate the benefits of exercise in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we will review the regulatory effects of miRNAs in cardiac adaptations to exercise, and summarize their cardioprotective effects against myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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