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Wildfire smoke health

Jennifer A Fish, Micah D J Peters, Imogen Ramsey, Greg Sharplin, Nadia Corsini, Marion Eckert
Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Francesca Dominici, Keita Ebisu, Yun Wang, Melissa P Sulprizio, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Ji-Young Son, G Brooke Anderson, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: The health impacts of wildfire smoke, including fine particles (PM2.5), are not well understood and may differ from those of PM2.5 from other sources due to differences in concentrations and chemical composition. METHODS: First, for the entire Western United States (561 counties) for 2004-2009, we estimated daily PM2.5 concentrations directly attributable to wildfires (wildfires-specific PM2.5), using a global chemical transport model. Second, we defined smoke wave as ≥2 consecutive days with daily wildfire-specific PM2...
January 2017: Epidemiology
Nancy Averett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Colleen E Reid, Michael Jerrett, Ira B Tager, Maya L Petersen, Jennifer K Mann, John R Balmes
We investigated health effects associated with fine particulate matter during a long-lived, large wildfire complex in northern California in the summer of 2008. We estimated exposure to PM2.5 for each day using an exposure prediction model created through data-adaptive machine learning methods from a large set of spatiotemporal data sets. We then used Poisson generalized estimating equations to calculate the effect of exposure to 24-hour average PM2.5 on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations and ED visits...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Breanna L Alman, Gabriele Pfister, Hua Hao, Jennifer Stowell, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Colorado experienced one of its worst wildfire seasons of the past decade. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of local PM2.5 levels, modeled using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, with emergency department visits and acute hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes during the 2012 Colorado wildfires. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between both continuous and categorical PM2...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Christopher I Roos, Andrew C Scott, Claire M Belcher, William G Chaloner, Jonathan Aylen, Rebecca Bliege Bird, Michael R Coughlan, Bart R Johnson, Fay H Johnston, Julia McMorrow, Toddi Steelman
Living with fire is a challenge for human communities because they are influenced by socio-economic, political, ecological and climatic processes at various spatial and temporal scales. Over the course of 2 days, the authors discussed how communities could live with fire challenges at local, national and transnational scales. Exploiting our diverse, international and interdisciplinary expertise, we outline generalizable properties of fire-adaptive communities in varied settings where cultural knowledge of fire is rich and diverse...
June 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Stefan H Doerr, Cristina Santín
Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth's surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is less fire in the global landscape today than centuries ago...
June 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Colleen E Reid, Michael Brauer, Fay H Johnston, Michael Jerrett, John R Balmes, Catherine T Elliott
BACKGROUND: Wildfire activity is predicted to increase in many parts of the world due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns from global climate change. Wildfire smoke contains numerous hazardous air pollutants and many studies have documented population health effects from this exposure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the evidence of health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke and to identify susceptible populations. METHODS: We reviewed the scientific literature for studies of wildfire smoke exposure on mortality and on respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal health...
September 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
W J Fisk, W R Chan
Increases in hospital admissions and deaths are associated with increases in outdoor air particles during wildfires. This analysis estimates the health benefits expected if interventions had improved particle filtration in homes in Southern California during a 10-day period of wildfire smoke exposure. Economic benefits and intervention costs are also estimated. The six interventions implemented in all affected houses are projected to prevent 11% to 63% of the hospital admissions and 7% to 39% of the deaths attributable to wildfire particles...
January 2017: Indoor Air
Melissa A Tinling, J Jason West, Wayne E Cascio, Vasu Kilaru, Ana G Rappold
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure from wildfire smoke are neither definitive nor consistent with PM2.5 from other air pollution sources. Non-comparability among wildfire health studies limits research conclusions. METHODS: We examined cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes related to peat wildfire smoke exposure in a population where strong associations were previously reported for the 2008 Evans Road peat wildfire...
January 27, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Esplugues, Carmen Iñíguez, Marisa Estarlich, Ferran Ballester
In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires)...
June 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Anjali Haikerwal, Muhammad Akram, Anthony Del Monaco, Karen Smith, Malcolm R Sim, Mick Meyer, Andrew M Tonkin, Michael J Abramson, Martine Dennekamp
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies investigating the role of fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) in triggering acute coronary events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and ischemic heart disease (IHD), during wildfires have been inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the associations of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, IHD, acute myocardial infarction, and angina (hospital admissions and emergency department attendance) with PM2...
July 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Amy K Huff, Shobha Kondragunta, Hai Zhang, Raymond M Hoff
Increasing development of exo-urban environments and the spread of urbanization into forested areas is making humans and forest ecosystems more susceptible to the risks associated with wildfires. Larger and more damaging wildfires are having a negative impact on forest ecosystem services, and smoke from wildfires adversely affects the public health of people living in exo-urban environments. Satellite aerosol measurements are valuable tools that can track the evolution of wildfires and monitor the transport of smoke plumes...
2015: Environmental Health Insights
Kathleen E McLean, Jiayun Yao, Sarah B Henderson
The British Columbia Asthma Monitoring System (BCAMS) tracks forest fire smoke exposure and asthma-related health outcomes, identifying excursions beyond expected daily counts. Weekly reports during the wildfire season support public health and emergency management decision-making. We evaluated BCAMS by identifying excursions for asthma-related physician visits and dispensations of the reliever medication salbutamol sulfate and examining their corresponding smoke exposures. A disease outbreak detection algorithm identified excursions from 1 July to 31 August 2014...
June 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anjali Haikerwal, Fabienne Reisen, Malcolm R Sim, Michael J Abramson, Carl P Meyer, Fay H Johnston, Martine Dennekamp
UNLABELLED: Given the increase in wildfire intensity and frequency worldwide, prescribed burning is becoming a more common and widespread practice. Prescribed burning is a fire management tool used to reduce fuel loads for wildfire suppression purposes and occurs on an annual basis in many parts of the world. Smoke from prescribed burning can have a substantial impact on air quality and the environment. Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 aerodynamic diameter<2...
May 2015: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Kevin Tse, Lie Chen, Mabel Tse, Bruce Zuraw, Sandra Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Air pollutants from wildfires and obesity independently exacerbate asthma, yet no study has determined the combined effects of these 2 variables on asthma outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 2 catastrophic wildfires affecting the Southern California region (in 2003 and 2007) on several asthma outcomes in a cohort of children. METHODS: To investigate the association between wildfire exposure and asthma outcomes, we stratified our study population by body mass index categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) and zip codes (to distinguish individuals who were closer to the fires vs farther away)...
April 2015: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Annunziata Faustini, Ester R Alessandrini, Jorge Pey, Noemi Perez, Evangelia Samoli, Xavier Querol, Ennio Cadum, Cinzia Perrino, Bart Ostro, Andrea Ranzi, Jordi Sunyer, Massimo Stafoggia, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: An association between occurrence of wildfires and mortality in the exposed population has been observed in several studies with controversial results for cause-specific mortality. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires usually occur during spring-summer, they overlap with Saharan outbreaks, are associated with increased temperature and their health effects are probably due to an increase in particulate matter. AIM AND METHODS: We analysed the effects of wildfires and particulate matter (PM10) on mortality in 10 southern European cities in Spain, France, Italy and Greece (2003-2010), using satellite data for exposure assessment and Poisson regression models, simulating a case-crossover approach...
May 2015: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Adam Resnick, Brian Woods, Heidi Krapfl, Barbara Toth
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between PM2.5 levels and emergency department (ED) visits for selected health outcomes in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during the Wallow fire of 2011. DESIGN: Measurements of 24-hour average concentrations of PM2.5 obtained from the City of Albuquerque were used to calculate wildfire smoke exposure in Albuquerque. Daily ED visits were collected by the New Mexico Department of Health from individual nonfederal licensed facilities in the Albuquerque area...
March 2015: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Jia C Liu, Gavin Pereira, Sarah A Uhl, Mercedes A Bravo, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to increase the threat of wildfires, and little is known about how wildfires affect health in exposed communities. A better understanding of the impacts of the resulting air pollution has important public health implications for the present day and the future. METHOD: We performed a systematic search to identify peer-reviewed scientific studies published since 1986 regarding impacts of wildfire smoke on health in exposed communities...
January 2015: Environmental Research
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