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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760181/corticosterone-signaling-and-a-lateral-habenula-ventral-tegmental-area-circuit-modulate-compulsive-self-injurious-behavior-in-a-rat-model
#1
Yujie Guo, Xun Tang, Jichuan Zhang, Sen Jin, Jinnan Li, Lufeng Ding, Keming Zhang, Chaoyu Yang, Hua Zhou, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Guo-Qiang Bi, Lin Xu, Pak-Ming Lau
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is commonly observed in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as nonclinical populations with stress related mental health problems. However, the exact circuitry mechanisms underlying SIB have remained unclear. Here we established a rat model of SIB with bilateral injection of muscimol into entopeduncular nucleus (EP). Following the muscimol injection, the male rats exhibited stereotypic self-biting behavior that lasted for hours and often resulted in wounds of various severities, in a dose-dependent manner...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752382/a-neural-pathway-controlling-motivation-to-exert-effort
#2
Christophe D Proulx, Sage Aronson, Djordje Milivojevic, Cris Molina, Alan Loi, Bradley Monk, Steven J Shabel, Roberto Malinow
The neural mechanisms conferring reduced motivation, as observed in depressed individuals, is poorly understood. Here, we examine in rodents if reduced motivation to exert effort is controlled by transmission from the lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus overactive in depressed-like states, to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a nucleus that inhibits dopaminergic neurons. In an aversive test wherein immobility indicates loss of effort, LHb→RMTg transmission increased during transitions into immobility, driving LHb→RMTg increased immobility, and inhibiting LHb→RMTg produced the opposite effects...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738717/the-habenula-in-neurosurgery-for-depression-a-convergence-of-functional-neuroanatomy-psychiatry-and-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686649/a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-alters-day-night-per2-gene-expression-in-reward-related-brain-areas-in-rats
#4
Aurea Susana Blancas-Velazquez, Unga A Unmehopa, Leslie Eggels, Laura Koekkoek, Andries Kalsbeek, Jorge Mendoza, Susanne E la Fleur
Under normal light-dark conditions, nocturnal rodents consume most of their food during the dark period. Diets high in fat and sugar, however, may affect the day-night feeding rhythm resulting in a higher light phase intake. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that nutrients affect clock-gene expression. We therefore hypothesized that overconsuming fat and sugar alters clock-gene expression in brain structures important for feeding behavior. We determined the effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet on clock-gene expression in rat brain areas related to feeding and reward and compared them with chow-fed rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684476/the-dorsal-diencephalic-conduction-system-in-reward-processing-spotlight-on-the-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-habenular-complex
#5
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669799/lateral-habenula-instructs-behaviors-using-cues-for-the-lack-of-reward
#6
Le Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660439/activation-of-5-ht-1b-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenula-attenuates-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-cocaine
#7
Adam K Klein, Erin M Purvis, Kathy Ayala, Lisette Collins, Jacob T Krug, Matthew S Mayes, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent work has implicated the Lateral Habenula (LHb) in the production of anxiogenic and aversive states. It is innervated by all the major monoamine neurotransmitter systems and has projections that have been shown to modulate the activity of both dopaminergic and serotonergic brain regions. Cocaine is a stimulant drug of abuse that potentiates neurotransmission in these monoamine systems and recent research suggests that the drug's behavioral effects may be related in part to its actions within the LHb. The present research was therefore devised to test the hypothesis that alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function within the LHb can affect the behavioral response to cocaine...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582505/reproducibility-of-myelin-content-based-human-habenula-segmentation-at-3-tesla
#8
Joo-Won Kim, Thomas P Naidich, Joshmi Joseph, Divya Nair, Matthew F Glasser, Rafael O'halloran, Gaelle E Doucet, Won Hee Lee, Hannah Krinsky, Alejandro Paulino, David C Glahn, Alan Anticevic, Sophia Frangou, Junqian Xu
In vivo morphological study of the human habenula, a pair of small epithalamic nuclei adjacent to the dorsomedial thalamus, has recently gained significant interest for its role in reward and aversion processing. However, segmenting the habenula from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is challenging due to the habenula's small size and low anatomical contrast. Although manual and semi-automated habenula segmentation methods have been reported, the test-retest reproducibility of the segmented habenula volume and the consistency of the boundaries of habenula segmentation have not been investigated...
March 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581421/lateral-habenula-perturbation-reduces-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#9
Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Philipp Lebhardt, Namasivayam Ravi, Urs Braun, Natalia Gass, Robert Becker, Markus Sack, Alejandro Cosa Linan, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Jonathan Rochus Reinwald, Lars-Lennart Oettl, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Barbara Vollmayr, Wolfgang Kelsch, Alexander Sartorius
Hyperconnectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) is one of the most widely replicated neuroimaging findings in major depressive disorder (MDD). Further, there is growing evidence for a central role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in the pathophysiology of MDD. There is preliminary neuroimaging evidence linking LHb and the DMN, but no causal relationship has been shown to date. We combined optogenetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to establish a causal relationship, using an animal model of treatment-resistant depression, namely Negative Cognitive State rats...
March 27, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576475/comprehensive-identification-and-spatial-mapping-of-habenular-neuronal-types-using-single-cell-rna-seq
#10
Shristi Pandey, Karthik Shekhar, Aviv Regev, Alexander F Schier
The identification of cell types and marker genes is critical for dissecting neural development and function, but the size and complexity of the brain has hindered the comprehensive discovery of cell types. We combined single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) with anatomical brain registration to create a comprehensive map of the zebrafish habenula, a conserved forebrain hub involved in pain processing and learning. Single-cell transcriptomes of ∼13,000 habenular cells with 4× cellular coverage identified 18 neuronal types and dozens of marker genes...
March 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575771/the-habenula-as-a-novel-link-between-the-homeostatic-and-hedonic-pathways-in-cancer-associated-weight-loss-a-pilot-study
#11
Maria Maldonado, David L Molfese, Humsini Viswanath, Kaylah Curtis, Ashley Jones, Teresa G Hayes, Marco Marcelli, Sanjay Mediwala, Philip Baldwin, Jose M Garcia, Ramiro Salas
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the brain mechanisms underlying cancer-associated weight loss (C-WL) in humans despite this condition negatively affecting their quality of life and survival. We tested the hypothesis that patients with C-WL have abnormal connectivity in homeostatic and hedonic brain pathways together with altered brain activity during food reward. METHODS: In 12 patients with cancer and 12 healthy controls, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC, resting brain activity observed through changes in blood flow in the brain which creates a blood oxygen level-dependent signal that can be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to compare three brain regions hypothesized to play a role in C-WL: the hypothalamus (homeostatic), the nucleus accumbens (hedonic), and the habenula (an important regulator of reward)...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545638/neurogenetic-asymmetries-in-the-catshark-developing-habenulae-mechanistic-and-evolutionary-implications
#12
Ronan Lagadec, Maxence Lanoizelet, Nuria Sánchez-Farías, Fanny Hérard, Arnaud Menuet, Hélène Mayeur, Bernard Billoud, Isabel Rodriguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan
Analysis of the establishment of epithalamic asymmetry in two non-conventional model organisms, a cartilaginous fish and a lamprey, has suggested that an essential role of Nodal signalling, likely to be ancestral in vertebrates, may have been largely lost in zebrafish. In order to decipher the cellular mechanisms underlying this divergence, we have characterised neurogenetic asymmetries during habenular development in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and addressed the mechanism involved in this process. As in zebrafish, neuronal differentiation starts earlier on the left side in the catshark habenulae, suggesting the conservation of a temporal regulation of neurogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540863/impaired-reward-prediction-error-encoding-and-striatal-midbrain-connectivity-in-depression
#13
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535004/distribution-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-2-in-zebrafish-brain
#14
Tomoya Nakamachi, Eri Kamata, Ayano Tanigawa, Norifumi Konno, Seiji Shioda, Kouhei Matsuda
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multipotent neuropeptide with an amino acid sequence that is well conserved among vertebrates. In teleosts, including zebrafish, the PACAP gene (adcyap1) has been duplicated to yield adcyap1a (coding PACAP1) and adcyap1b (coding PACAP2). This study aims to determine the distribution of these PACAPs and their mRNAs in zebrafish. We generated a zebrafish PACAP2-specific antibody. Using real-time PCR, we observed that adcyap1b mRNA was primarily localized in the brain, with the highest level in the telencephalon, followed by the diencephalon...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532791/mechanisms-of-ketamine-action-as-an-antidepressant
#15
P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine's widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine's antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526789/lateral-habenular-norepinephrine-contributes-to-states-of-arousal-and-anxiety-in-male-rats
#16
Erin M Purvis, Adam K Klein, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent research has identified the lateral habenula (LHb) as a brain region playing an important role in the production of stressful and anxiogenic states. Additionally, norepinephrine (NE) has long been known to be involved in arousal, stress and anxiety, and NE projections to the LHb have been identified emanating from the locus coeruleus (LC). The current research was devised to test the hypothesis that NE release within the LHb contributes to the occurrence of anxiogenic behaviors. Male rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannula aimed at the LHb and subsequently treated with intracranial (IC) infusions of the selective α2 adrenergic autoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine (DEX) (0, 0...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526788/on-the-central-noradrenergic-mechanism-underlying-the-social-play-suppressant-effect-of-methylphenidate-in-rats
#17
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526773/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-and-behaviour-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-alcohol-binge-drinking
#18
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524214/localization-of-nectin-2%C3%AE-at-the-boundary-between-the-adjacent-somata-of-the-clustered-cholinergic-neurons-and-its-regulatory-role-in-the-subcellular-localization-of-the-voltage-gated-a-type-k-channel-kv4-2-in-the-medial-habenula
#19
Hajime Shiotani, Muneaki Miyata, Yu Itoh, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Akira Mizoguchi, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
The medial habenula (MHb), implicated in stress, depression, memory, and nicotine withdrawal syndromes, receives septal inputs and sends efferents to the interpeduncular nucleus. We previously showed that the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) nectin-2α and nectin-2δ are expressed in astrocytes in the brain, but their expression in neurons remains unknown. We showed here by immunofluorescence microscopy that nectin-2α, but not nectin-2δ, was prominently expressed in the cholinergic neurons in the developing and adult MHbs and localized at the boundary between the adjacent somata of the clustered cholinergic neurons where the voltage-gated A-type K+ channel Kv4...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518334/neuropeptidomics-of-the-rat-habenular-nuclei
#20
Ning Yang, Krishna D B Anapindi, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Pingli Wei, Qing Yu, Lingjun Li, Paul J Kenny, Jonathan V Sweedler
Conserved across vertebrates, the habenular nuclei are a pair of small symmetrical structures in the epithalamus. The nuclei functionally link the forebrain and midbrain by receiving input from and projecting to several brain regions. Each habenular nucleus comprises two major asymmetrical subnuclei, the medial and lateral habenula. These subnuclei are associated with different physiological processes and disorders, such as depression, nicotine addiction, and encoding aversive stimuli or omitting expected rewarding stimuli...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
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