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Jay Adam Lieberman, Jie Zhang, John Whitworth, Cary Cavender
BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective, non-steroid pharmacologic therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Cromolyn sodium offers an option as mast cells have been implicated in the symptomatology of EoE and cromolyn has also been shown to have some anti-eosinophilic properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of cromolyn in reducing esophageal eosinophilia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Secondary outcomes included symptom improvement and adverse effects...
March 12, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Joaquin Escribano, Natalia Ferré, Mariona Gispert-Llaurado, Veronica Luque, Carmen Rubio-Torrents, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Isabel Polanco, Francisco M Codoñer, Empar Chenoll, Mireia Morera, Jose Antonio Moreno Muñoz, Montserrat Rivero, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is plenty of beneficial bifidobacteria. We aimed to determine whether an infant formula supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT7210 (B. infantis IM1®) is effective at reducing diarrhoea incidence in healthy term infants. METHODS: Double-blinded, randomized, multicentre, controlled clinical trial, where formula-fed infants (<3 months) received an infant formula supplemented (Probiotic) or not (Control) with 107 cfu/g of B...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Maja I Hug, Hitendu Dave, Oskar Baenziger, Christoph Buerki, Dominique Bettex, Vincenzo Cannizzaro, Christian Balmer
OBJECTIVES: Dobutamine and milrinone are commonly used after open-heart surgery to prevent or treat low cardiac output syndrome. We sought to compare efficacy and safety of these drugs in pediatric patients. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, double-blinded, randomized clinical pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university children's hospital postoperative pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: After written consent, 50 consecutive patients (age, 0...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Carlyn Patterson-Gentile, Christina L Szperka
Importance: Migraine is a disabling and prevalent condition that affects the pediatric and adolescent population. This review describes current acute and preventive migraine pharmacologic therapies for the pediatric and adolescent population. Observations: Multiple pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of acute headache and prevention in pediatric migraine are reviewed. There have been recent advances in the management of migraines among pediatric and adolescent patients, including US Food and Drug Administration approval of triptans for acute management in children as young as 6 years, and the first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparative study of preventive pharmacotherapy in pediatric migraine...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Elisabetta Grillo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of pediatric epilepsy, there is a critical demand for effective and safe therapeutic options to address patients' unmet clinical needs. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug and a third-generation single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on treatment for focal-onset seizures in pediatric patients using meta-analytical techniques...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
Manuel Föcker, Jochen Antel, Corinna Grasemann, Dagmar Führer, Nina Timmesfeld, Dana Öztürk, Triinu Peters, Anke Hinney, Johannes Hebebrand, Lars Libuda
BACKGROUND: Depression is a significant health and economic burden worldwide affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents. Current treatment options for this group are scarce and show moderate effect sizes. There is emerging evidence that dietary patterns and specific nutritional components might play a role in the risk for developing depression. This study protocol focusses on the role of vitamin D which is for long known to be relevant for calcium and phosphorous homeostasis and bone health but might also impact on mental health...
March 1, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Taylor Olmsted Kim, Jenny Despotovic, Michele P Lambert
Eltrombopag is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. This oral, once-per-day therapy has shown favorable efficacy and adverse effect profiles in children. Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trials (PETIT [Efficacy and Safety Study of Eltrombopag in Pediatric Patients With Thrombocytopenia From Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)] and PETIT2 [Study of a New Medication for Childhood Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP), a Blood Disorder of Low Platelet Counts That Can Lead to Bruising Easily, Bleeding Gums, and/or Bleeding Inside the Body]) demonstrated efficacy in raising platelet counts, reducing bleeding, and reducing the need for concomitant ITP therapies with relatively few adverse effects...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Concepció Teixidó, Olga Díez, Josep R Marsal, Maria Giner-Soriano, Helena Pera, Mireia Martinez, Gisela Galindo-Ortego, Joan A Schoenenberger, Jordi Real, Ines Cruz, Rosa Morros
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molluscum contagiosum is the most common skin infection in children. One topical treatment used for Molluscum contagiosum is potassium hydroxide. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of potassium hydroxide topical treatment at different concentrations with that of placebo in terms of complete clearing of Molluscum contagiosum lesions and to assess the safety and tolerance of potassium hydroxide topical treatment. METHODS: This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial of three treatments (potassium hydroxide 10%, potassium hydroxide 15%, placebo) applied once daily up to complete clearing of lesions (maximum duration 60 days) in 53 children aged 2-6 years in primary health care pediatric offices in Catalonia, Spain...
February 26, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Sergiusz Jóźwiak, P Veggiotti, J Moreira, H Gama, F Rocha, P Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: This was a phase-II, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate neurocognitive effects of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients with refractory focal-onset seizures (FOS). METHODS: Children (6-16years old) with FOS were randomized (2:1) to ESL or placebo. Treatment started at 10mg/kg/day, was up-titrated up to 30mg/kg/day (target dose), and maintained for 8weeks, followed by one-year open-label follow-up...
February 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Shikha Jain, Sameer Sethi, Babita Ghai, Jagat Ram
Background: In this study, we compared effectiveness of two doses of dexmedetomidine (0.15 μg/kg and 0.3 μg/kg) in preventing desflurane-induced emergence agitation (EA) in pediatric patients undergoing elective cataract surgery. Methods: It is a prospective double-blinded randomized study conducted on 65 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 children (2-10 years) who underwent elective cataract surgery at our institute. They were randomized into two equal groups, who received either dexmedetomidine 0...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
John C Hutchinson, Xin Kang, Susan Cheng Shelmerdine, Valerie Segers, Claudio M Lombardi, Mieke M Cannie, Neil J Sebire, Jacques C Jani, Owen J Arthurs
BACKGROUND: Perinatal autopsy provides useful clinical information in up to 40% of cases. However, there is a substantial unmet clinical need with regards to post mortem investigation of early gestation fetal loss for parents for whom standard autopsy is either not available or not acceptable. Parents dislike the invasive nature of autopsy, but current clinical imaging techniques do not provide high-enough imaging resolution in small fetuses. We hypothesized that microfocus computed tomography, a rapid, high resolution imaging technique, could give accurate diagnostic imaging following early gestation fetal loss...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Karin B Fieten, Joan E E Totté, Evgeni Levin, Marta Reyman, Yolanda Meijer, André Knulst, Frank Schuren, Suzanne G M A Pasmans
BACKGROUND: Exposure to microbes may be important in the development of atopic disease. Atopic diseases have been associated with specific characteristics of the intestinal microbiome. The link between intestinal microbiota and food allergy has rarely been studied, and the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy (double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge [DBPCFC]) has seldom been used. We aimed to distinguish fecal microbial signatures for food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
January 25, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
R Francavilla, F Cristofori, L Verzillo, A Gentile, S Castellaneta, C Polloni, V Giorgio, E Verduci, E D'Angelo, S Dellatte, F Indrio
OBJECTIVES: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms that are related to the ingestion of gluten in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). In this multicenter study, we aim for the first time to evaluate the prevalence of NCGS in pediatric subjects with chronic functional gastrointestinal symptoms associated with gluten ingestion using a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) gluten challenge with crossover...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
I J N Koppen, M Saps, J V Lavigne, S Nurko, J A J M Taminiau, C Di Lorenzo, M A Benninga
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the efficacy of commonly used drugs in the treatment of childhood functional constipation (FC) is scarce, studies are often of low quality and study designs are heterogeneous. Thus, recommendations for the design of clinical trials in childhood FC are needed. PURPOSE: Members of the Rome Foundation and a member of the Pediatric Committee of the European Medicines Agency formed a committee to create recommendations for the design of clinical trials in children with FC...
January 30, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Giorgio Veneziano, David P Martin, Ralph Beltran, NʼDiris Barry, Dmitry Tumin, Candice Burrier, Kevin Klingele, Tarun Bhalla, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perineural dexamethasone has been demonstrated to extend postsurgical analgesia after peripheral nerve blockade in adults. The mechanism of action of dexamethasone as a regional anesthetic adjuvant is unclear as intravenous dexamethasone has been shown to have similar analgesic efficacy as perineural dexamethasone. The efficacy of perineural dexamethasone has not been previously explored in the pediatric population. METHODS: After obtaining informed consent, children (aged 10-18 years) presenting for arthroscopic knee surgery with a femoral nerve block were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: ropivacaine 0...
January 26, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Achim Schmitz, Markus Weiss, Christian Kellenberger, Ruth O Gorman Tuura, Richard Klaghofer, Ianina Scheer, Malek Makki, Carola Sabandal, Philipp Karl Buehler
INTRODUCTION: Deep sedation using propofol has become a standard technique in children. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to compare the clinical effects of propofol-mono-sedation vs a combination of propofol and ketamine at induction and a reduced propofol infusion rate for maintenance in children undergoing diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Children aged from 3 months to 10 years scheduled as outpatients for elective magnetic resonance imaging with deep sedation were included...
January 27, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Paul Bangirana, Andrea L Conroy, Robert O Opoka, Michael T Hawkes, Laura Hermann, Christopher Miller, Sophie Namasopo, W Conrad Liles, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a leading cause of acquired neurodisability in Africa and is associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A neuroprotective role for inhaled NO has been reported in animal studies, and administration of inhaled NO in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a 47% reduced risk of cognitive impairment at two years of age. METHODS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of inhaled NO versus placebo as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria was conducted in Uganda between 2011 and 2013...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Wirth, Sherif G S Emil, Arnis Engelis, Valeri Digtyar, Margarita Criollo, Carl DiCasoli, Heino Stass, Stefan Willmann, Richard Nkulikiyinka, Ulrike Grossmann
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate primarily the safety and also the efficacy of moxifloxacin (MXF) in children with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, 451 pediatric patients aged 3 months to 17 years with cIAIs were treated with intravenous/oral MXF (N = 301) or comparator (COMP, intravenous ertapenem followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate; N = 150) for 5 to 14 days...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mengjie Yu, Tianxin Xiang, Xiaoping Wu, Shouhua Zhang, Wenlong Yang, Yu Zhang, Qiang Chen, Shuilin Sun, Baogang Xie
BACKGROUND: The discovery of new metabolic markers may be helpful for early diagnosis of acute pediatric appendicitis (APA). However, no studies have been reported regarding identification of potential metabolic markers for the APA diagnosis by metabonomics. METHODS: Serum samples of APA (n=32), non-appendicitis inflammation (NAI, n=32) and healthy children (HS, n=65) were analyzed by the 1H NMR-based metabonomics. A logistic regression model was established to screen the most efficient markers combinations for classification...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ayse Cigdem Tutuncu, Pinar Kendigelen, Gulruh Ashyyeralyeva, Fatis Altintas, Senol Emre, Rahsan Ozcan, Guner Kaya
PURPOSE: Penile nerve block is the most popular nerve block for the circumcision in pediatric patients. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficiency of penile nerve block and the pudendal nerve block on postoperative pain and additional analgesic requirements in children undergoing circumcision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective randomized double-blind study enrolled 85 children, aged 1 to10 years, undergoing circumcision. The patients were randomly divided into two groups either receiving dorsal penile block group (PNB-Group) or pudendal nerve block (PDB-Group)...
January 3, 2018: Urology Journal
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