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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#1
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034445/dental-prevention-and-disease-awareness-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#2
Steffen Koerdt, Julia Hartz, Stefan Hollatz, Gesche Frohwitter, Marco R Kesting, Peter Ewert, Renate Oberhoffer, Herbert Deppe
OBJECTIVES: The importance of excellent oral health is known to be crucial in children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). Data about dental health and disease awareness is limited. This study aims to assess preventive measures taken to improve dental health in children with CHD and to gain insight into disease awareness and knowledge about the importance of oral health in children with CHD and to propose measures that could be taken. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents of 150 children with CHD were asked to complete a questionnaire containing specific questions about the preventive measures taken by the parents and dental and medical practitioners and their knowledge about underlying disease and the importance of oral health...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034128/antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-of-klebsiella-species-in-burn-wounds-at-bai-jerbai-wadia-hospital-for-children-mumbai-india-a-21-year-study
#3
Shankar Srinivasan, Jovita Saldanha, Suhas Abhyankar, Nikunj Modi, Aakanksha Patil, Arvind M Vartak
In our study, we attempt to look at the sensitivity pattern of the most commonly found microorganism in the wound swab of pediatric burn patients at our hospital, 'Klebsiella', to a number of commonly used antibiotics and to determine whether there has been a change in the sensitivities in the 21 year period between 1994 to 2014. The sensitivity was tested in vitro and antibiotics were administered to patients based on laboratory findings. Klebsiella shows a significant change in sensitivity pattern over last 21 years...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034106/epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-phenotypes-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-responsible-for-infantile-gastroenteritis-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#4
Ali Konaté, René Dembélé, Nathalie K Guessennd, Fernique Konan Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Mohamed Baguy Ouattara, Wendpoulomdé A D Kaboré, Assèta Kagambèga, Haoua Cissé, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Touwendsida Serge Bagré, Alfred S Traoré, Nicolas Barro
The emergence and persistence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) causing acute diarrhea is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of DEC isolated from stool samples collected from children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea living in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso. From August 2013 to October 2015, this study was carried out on 31 DEC strains of our study conducted in "Centre Médical avec Antenne Chirurgicale (CMA)" Paul VI and CMA of Schiphra...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029802/early-life-environmental-exposures-interact-with-genetic-susceptibility-variants-in-pediatric-patients-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#5
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jonathan T Kuhl, Lisa J Martin, Carl D Langefeld, Evan S Dellon, Marc E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: Although eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is associated with certain gene variants, the rapidly increasing incidence of EoE suggests that environmental factors contribute to disease development. OBJECTIVE: We tested for gene-environment interaction between EoE-predisposing polymorphisms (within TSLP, LOC283710/KLF13, CAPN14, CCL26, and TGFB) and implicated early-life factors (antibiotic use in infancy, cesarean delivery, breast-feeding, neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission, and absence of pets in the home)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025281/understanding-treatment-adherence-with-the-health-belief-model-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Nicole R Dempster, Beth G Wildman, Tracy L Masterson, Gregory J Omlor
OBJECTIVE: Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. METHOD: Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens...
October 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#7
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016242/early-predictors-of-abscess-development-after-perforated-pediatric-appendicitis
#8
Catherine M Dickinson, Nathan A Coppersmith, Francois I Luks
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of children with appendicitis present with advanced disease or perforation. Whereas this increases the risk for post-operative complications and re-admission, it is not yet possible to predict early on who will develop an abdominal abscess. We sought to identify specific risk factors for this complication, in an attempt to streamline post-operative care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of all cases of perforated appendicitis over a 12-month period at a tertiary children's hospital...
October 10, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992328/what-parents-think-about-the-risks-and-benefits-of-antibiotics-for-their-child-s-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#9
Julia E Szymczak, Sarah B Klieger, Matthew Miller, Alexander G Fiks, Jeffrey S Gerber
Background: Parental pressure is often cited as a reason for why pediatricians overuse antibiotics for children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). We sought to capture parent perceptions of antibiotics at the time of their child's presentation with an ARTI. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with parents of children who presented with ARTI symptoms to 1 of 4 diverse practices in a large hospital-affiliated network of pediatric primary care practices...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990430/utilization-of-antipyretics-for-nonurgent-fever-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#10
Courtney E Nelson, Svetlana Ostapenko, Joseph J Zorc, Fran Balamuth
This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe antipyretic use among healthy patients in a pediatric emergency department (ED) with nonurgent fever defined as: triage level 4 or 5, chief complaint fever or temperature 38°C to 39°C, and otherwise normal vital signs, and determine if antipyretic administration is associated with increased ED length of stay (LOS). We compared continuous variables using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum testing. We adjusted confounding variables using logistic regression modeling...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988637/-value-of-procalcitonin-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-in-an-emergency-department
#11
M Desmarest, C Aupiais, J Le Gal, L Tourteau, J Le Coz, E de Paepe, L Titomanlio, A Faye
CONTEXT: Very few studies have evaluated the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in infants with bronchiolitis. AIMS: To describe infants who had both a diagnosis of bronchiolitis at the emergency department and a blood test including PCT, and to compare the characteristics of children according to the PCT value. METHODS: Infants admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014 who had a diagnosis of bronchiolitis and a blood test including PCT were included...
October 4, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980166/population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-optimize-cefotaxime-dosing-regimen-in-critically-ill-children
#12
Agathe Béranger, Mehdi Oualha, Saïk Urien, Mathieu Genuini, Sylvain Renolleau, Radia Aboura, Déborah Hirt, Claire Heilbronner, Julie Toubiana, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: During sepsis, optimal plasma antibiotic concentrations are mandatory. Modifications of pharmacokinetic parameters could lead to low drug concentrations and therefore, insufficient therapeutic levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic model for cefotaxime and its metabolite desacetylcefotaxime in order to optimize individual dosing regimens for critically ill children. METHODS: All children aged < 18 years, weighing more than 2...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973124/association-of-acute-kidney-injury-with-concomitant-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-treatment-among-hospitalized-children
#13
Kevin J Downes, Carter Cowden, Benjamin L Laskin, Yuan-Shung Huang, Wu Gong, Matthew Bryan, Brian T Fisher, Stuart L Goldstein, Theoklis E Zaoutis
Importance: β-Lactam antibiotics are often coadministered with intravenous (IV) vancomycin hydrochloride for children with suspected serious infections. For adults, the combination of IV vancomycin plus piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium is associated with a higher risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with vancomycin plus 1 other β-lactam antibiotic. However, few studies have evaluated the safety of this combination for children. Objective: To assess the risk of AKI in children during concomitant therapy with vancomycin and 1 antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic throughout the first week of hospitalization...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971864/risk-factors-for-colonization-or-infection-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#14
Kathleen Chiotos, Pranita D Tamma, Kelly B Flett, Matthew Naumann, Manjiree V Karandikar, Warren B Bilker, Theoklis Zaoutis, Jennifer H Han
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly identified in children in the United States, but data on the epidemiology of CRE in this population are limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize risk factors for colonization or infection with CRE and describe the microbiologic characteristics of pediatric CRE isolates. We performed a multicenter matched case-control study from January 2011 to October 2015 at three tertiary care pediatric centers. Case patients were hospitalized children with CRE isolated from clinical cultures and were matched in a 2:1 ratio to control patients with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CSE)...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971655/-reduction-of-antibiotic-consumption-in-rambam-health-care-campus-the-role-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#15
Roni Bitterman, Ayelet Raz-Pasteur, Zaher S Azzam, Amir Karban, Yishai Levy, Tony Hayek, Eyal Braun, Ilana Oren, Yaron Bar-Lavi, Imad Kassis, Khetam Hussein, Mical Paul
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) are designed to optimize antibiotic use in hospitals. Antibiotic consumption is one of the measures assessing the effects of ASPs. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of an ASP on antibiotic consumption in our hospital and compare it to hospitals in Israel and worldwide. METHODS: Between October 2012 and March 2013 an ASP was implemented in Rambam Hospital. The program included educational activities, publication of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment, structured infectious diseases consultations, pre-authorization antibiotic restrictions and stop orders...
September 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966488/changing-prevalence-and-antibiotic-drug-resistance-pattern-of-pathogens-seen-in-community-acquired-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#16
Vrushali Patwardhan, Dinesh Kumar, Varun Goel, Sarman Singh
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5 years. The baseline data collected were from January to December 2009, and the second period considered for comparison was from January to December 2014...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965960/urinary-tract-infection-in-children-management-in-the-era-of-antibiotic-resistance-a-pediatric-urologist-s-view
#17
REVIEW
Balazs Kutasy, David Coyle, Magdalena Fossum
CONTEXT: Antibiotic resistance to uropathogens has grown significantly worldwide. Today, pediatric urologist experience a situation that needs appropriate action because urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections in children. OBJECTIVE: In this overview we aimed at presenting the clinical aspects of antibiotic usage in pediatric urology. Our intention was to take part of the important debate regarding future management of bacterial resistance against antibiotics...
September 28, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965285/medication-errors-in-pediatric-inpatients-a-study-based-on-a-national-mandatory-reporting-system
#18
Rikke Mie Rishoej, Anna Birna Almarsdóttir, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Jesper Hallas, Lene Juel Kjeldsen
The aim was to describe medication errors (MEs) in hospitalized children reported to the national mandatory reporting and learning system, the Danish Patient Safety Database (DPSD). MEs were extracted from DPSD from the 5-year period of 2010-2014. We included reports from public hospitals on patients aged 0-17 years and categorized by reporters as medication-related. Reports from psychiatric wards and outpatient clinics were excluded. A ME was defined as any medication-related error occurring in the medication process whether harmful or not...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964280/pediatric-neck-abscesses-no-increase-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Avital Fellner, Tal Marom, Limor Muallem-Kalmovich, Nathan Shlamkovitch, Ephraim Eviatar, Tzilia Lazarovitch, Jacob Pitaro
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies from Western countries showed an increased incidence rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from pediatric neck abscesses cultures. We sought to examine the microbiology and antibiotic susceptibility of such samples over a 10-year period, and particularly of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), in order to determine whether a similar trend exists in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children ≤18 years that underwent needle aspiration or surgical drainage of neck abscesses, including suppurative lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal abscesses, and parapharyngeal abscesses was conducted between 1/1/06-31/12/15...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957358/drivers-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-febrile-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#20
Verena Gotta, Philipp Baumann, Nicole Ritz, Aline Fuchs, Gurli Baer, Jessica M Bonhoeffer, Ulrich Heininger, Gabor Szinnai, Jan Bonhoeffer
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of key drivers for antibiotic prescribing in pediatric lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could support rational antibiotic use. Thus, we aimed to determine the impact of clinical and laboratory factors on antibiotic prescribing in children and adolescents with febrile LRTI. METHODS: Pediatric patients from the standard care control group of a randomized controlled trial (ProPAED) investigating procalcitonin guided antibiotic treatment in febrile LRTI were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the impact of laboratory and clinical factors on antibiotic prescribing...
2017: PloS One
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