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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#1
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#2
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336042/acute-hematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-children-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Shawn S Funk, Lawson A B Copley
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children is an ideal condition to study due to its representation of a wide spectrum of disorders that comprise pediatric musculoskeletal infection. Proper care for children with AHO is multidisciplinary and collaborative. AHO continues to present a significant clinical challenge due to evolving epidemiology and complex pathogenesis. A guideline-driven, multidisciplinary approach has been introduced and shown to effectively reduce hospital stay, improve the timing and selection of empirical antibiotic administration, reduce delay to initial MRI, reduce the rate of readmission, and shorten antibiotic duration...
April 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335406/factors-that-negatively-affect-the-prognosis-of-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-district-hospital-in-tanzania
#4
Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullmann, Elisa De Vitis, Marzia Trivelli, Chiara Mariani, Maria Podagrosi, Fabiana Ursitti, Chiara Bertolaso, Carolina Putotto, Marta Unolt, Andrea Pietravalle, Paola Pansa, Kajoro Mphayokulela, Maria Incoronata Lemmo, Michael Mkwambe, Joseph Kazaura, Marzia Duse, Francesco Nieddu, Chiara Azzari, Renato Cutrera
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled. Clinical data were gathered. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial detection were collected in all 100 children included. Twenty-four percent of patients were identified with severe CAP and 11% died...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328742/treatment-of-proximal-humerus-fractures-in-children-with-a-modified-palm-tree-technique
#5
Ayman M Ali, Sallam I Fawzy, Medhat Moaty, Mohamed Abelaziz
Although most pediatric proximal humeral fractures can be successfully treated conservatively with satisfactory results, many operative techniques have been described for the treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous fixation using a modified palm tree technique for proximal humerus fractures in children. Between March 2011 and May 2013, the modified palm tree technique was used for the management of 30 children (20 boys and 10 girls) with displaced proximal humeral fractures...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328692/experience-with-a-care-process-model-in-the-evaluation-of-pediatric-musculoskeletal-infections-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#6
Lina Patel, Jeff Michael, Nancy Allen, Lisa Schroeder, Lisa Berglund, Jason G Newland
OBJECTIVES: Care process models (CPMs) for certain conditions have improved clinical outcomes in children. This study describes the implementation and impact of a CPM for the evaluation of musculoskeletal infections in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective pre-post intervention study was performed to analyze the impact of a musculoskeletal infection CPM. Patients were identified retrospectively through electronic order history for imaging of an extremity or joint and recommended laboratory tests...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315128/rapid-influenza-diagnostic-tests-improve-suitability-of-antiviral-treatment-in-hospitalized-children
#7
Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Ernest Kuchar, Izabela Gołębiak, Krzysztof Kanecki, Patryk Tarka, Lidia Brydak
Influenza may have a complicated course in young children. The aim of the study was to analyze the suitability of influenza treatment among children younger than 5 years hospitalized due to an influenza-like illness. We conducted a comparison of the treatment among children hospitalized in two consecutive years: 2015, when no rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) were in use, and 2016, when RIDT were implemented into a routine practice in the pediatric ward. In both seasons, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and examined with real time qRT-PCR...
March 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302674/urine-culture-follow-up-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-a-pediatric-urgent-care-network
#8
Dipanwita Saha, Jimisha Patel, Don Buckingham, David Thornton, Terry Barber, Joshua R Watson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed urinary tract infection (UTI) leads to unnecessary antibiotic exposure in many children whose urine culture results fail to confirm the diagnosis. The objective of this quality improvement study was to improve follow-up management of negative urine culture results in the off-campus urgent care network of Nationwide Children's Hospital to reduce inappropriate antibiotic exposure in children. METHODS: A multidisciplinary task force developed and implemented a protocol for routine nurse and clinician follow-up of urine culture results, discontinuation of unnecessary antibiotics, and documentation in the electronic medical record...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292873/variation-in-inpatient-croup-management-and-outcomes
#9
Amy Tyler, Lisa McLeod, Brenda Beaty, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Meghan Birkholz, Daniel Hyman, Allison Kempe, James Todd, Amanda F Dempsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Croup is a clinical diagnosis, and the available evidence suggests that, except in rare cases, ancillary testing, such as radiologic imaging, is not helpful. Given the paucity of inpatient-specific evidence for croup care, we hypothesized that there would be marked variability in the use of not routinely indicated resources (NRIRs). Our primary study objective was to describe the variation and predictors of variation in the use of NRIRs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that used the Pediatric Health Information System database of generally healthy inpatients with croup aged 6 months to 15 years who were admitted between January 1, 2012 and September 30, 2014...
March 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289362/study-on-biofilm-formation-in-burn-wound-infection-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-chennai-india
#10
M Ramakrishnan, S Putli Bai, M Babu
Infection is one of the major causes of death in pediatric burns in India. This work was conducted in an exclusive Children's Hospital (KKCTH) with a total of 220 beds, of which ten beds in the burn unit and two isolation beds in the 28-bed PICU are for burns patients (more than 20% TBSA burns) with sepsis. In this study, 30 burn wound swab isolates obtained from 14 pediatric burns patients (admitted to the burns ward and transferred to PICU) from November 2013 to March 2014 were investigated. Cultures were done on the first day for all patients and empirical antibiotic administration was started for those with septic burns (14 in total) with piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin...
December 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289030/antibiotic-prophylaxis-is-associated-with-subsequent-resistant-infections-in-children-with-an-initial-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infection
#11
Sibani Das, Amanda L Adler, Arianna Miles-Jay, Matthew P Kronman, Xuan Qin, Scott J Weissman, C A Burnham, Alexis Elward, Jason G Newland, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Kaede V Sullivan, Theoklis Zaoutis, Danielle M Zerr
The objective of this study was to assess the association between previous antibiotic use, particularly long-term prophylaxis, and occurrence of subsequent resistant infections in children with index infections due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae We also investigated the concordance of index and subsequent isolates. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from normally sterile sites of patients aged <22 years were collected along with associated clinical data from four freestanding pediatric centers...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288290/effect-of-commonly-prescribed-liquid-medications-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Samantha A Clark, LaQuia A Vinson, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the effect of pediatric liquid antibiotic medications on Streptococcus mutans UA159. These suspensions commonly contain sugars such as sucrose to make them more palatable for children. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral liquid antibiotics on Streptococcus mutans growth and biofilm formation. STUDY DESIGN: A 24 hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of liquid medications commonly prescribed to children for odontogenic or fungal infections- amoxicillin, penicillin VK, clindamycin, and nystatin...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288080/management-of-pediatric-type-i-open-fractures-in-the-emergency-department-or-operating-room-a-multicenter-perspective
#13
Jenna Godfrey, Paul D Choi, Lior Shabtai, Sarah B Nossov, Amy Williams, Antoinette W Lindberg, Selina Silva, Michelle S Caird, Mathew D Schur, Alexandre Arkader
BACKGROUND: The management of pediatric type I open fractures remains controversial. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes in type I open fractures managed with superficial wound debridement and antibiotics in the emergency department (ED) (nonoperative management) to patients managed with operative debridement and antibiotics (operative management). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was performed of all pediatric type I open forearm, wrist, and tibia fractures treated at 4 high volume pediatric centers between 2000 and 2015...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285291/pattern-of-pediatric-bacterial-infection-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-new-delhi
#14
Manas Pratim Roy, Rajni Gaind, Kailash Chander Aggarwal, Harish Kumar Chellani, Indu Biswal
The retrospective study analyzed 1025 bacterial isolates from blood cultures collected from pediatric patients admitted in a tertiary-care hospital in New Delhi to find out drug sensitivity patterns. Staphylococcus was isolated from approximate 70% of the cultures, with 63.7% of them being methicillin-resistant. Meropenem resistance among acinetobacter was 38.6%.
February 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282433/the-cause-specific-morbidity-and-mortality-and-referral-patterns-of-all-neonates-admitted-to-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-the-northern-provinces-of-vietnam-over-a-one-year-period
#15
Merinda Miles, Khu Thi Khanh Dung, Le Thi Ha, Nguyen Thanh Liem, Khu Ha, Rod W Hunt, Kim Mulholland, Chris Morgan, Fiona M Russell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cause-specific morbidity and mortality, and referral patterns of all neonates admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the northern provinces of Vietnam. DESIGN: A prospective hospital based observational study. SETTING: The Neonatal Department, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam. PATIENTS: All admissions to the Neonatal Department over a 12 month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cause-specific morbidity and mortality; deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281094/clinical-features-and-inflammatory-markers-in-pediatric-pneumonia-a-prospective-study
#16
Are Stuwitz Berg, Christopher Stephen Inchley, Hans Olav Fjaerli, Truls Michael Leegaard, Morten Lindbaek, Britt Nakstad
In this prospective, observational study on previously healthy children <18 years, we aimed to study the diagnostic ability of clinical features and inflammatory markers to (i) predict pathologic chest radiography in suspected pneumonia and (ii) differentiate etiology in radiological proven pneumonia. In 394 cases of suspected pneumonia, 265 (67%) had radiographs consistent with pneumonia; 34/265 had proof of bacterial etiology. Of the cases, 86.5% had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. In suspected pneumonia, positive chest radiography was significantly associated with increasing C-reactive protein (CRP) values, higher age, and SpO2 ≤92% in multivariate logistic regression, OR 1...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274256/intestinal-dysbiosis-in-preterm-infants-preceding-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Mohan Pammi, Julia Cope, Phillip I Tarr, Barbara B Warner, Ardythe L Morrow, Volker Mai, Katherine E Gregory, J Simon Kroll, Valerie McMurtry, Michael J Ferris, Lars Engstrand, Helene Engstrand Lilja, Emily B Hollister, James Versalovic, Josef Neu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease of preterm infants, and microbial dysbiosis has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies evaluating the microbiome in NEC and preterm infants lack power and have reported inconsistent results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analyses of stool microbiome profiles in preterm infants to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis prior to the onset of NEC and to explore heterogeneity among studies...
March 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271495/utility-of-nasal-swab-and-age-in-detecting-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-pediatric-head-and-neck-abscesses
#18
Benjamin D Bradford, David Macias, Yuan F Liu, Jared C Inman, Robin A Dyleski
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in surgical cultures taken from incision and drainage (I&D) of head and neck abscesses in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All patients under 18 years of age with a head and neck abscess requiring I&D from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed. MRSA nasal swab cultures were taken from all patients upon hospitalization...
March 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270546/variability-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Lori K Handy, Matthew Bryan, Jeffrey S Gerber, Theoklis Zaoutis, Kristen A Feemster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013...
March 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267670/selective-digestive-decontamination-in-critically-ill-children-a-survey-of-canadian-providers
#20
Srinivas Murthy, Nazima Pathan, Brian H Cuthbertson
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination of the digestive tract involves the routine administration of oral, gastric, and intravenous antibiotics to mechanically ventilated children to prevent hospital-acquired infections. It has a strong evidence base in adults, with limited pediatric evidence. Current utilization of this intervention among pediatric physicians in North America is unknown. METHODS: An electronic survey administered to pediatric critical care and pediatric infectious disease providers in Canada...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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