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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930870/pediatric-infratentorial-subdural-empyema-a-case-report
#1
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Evangelos Drosos, Ioannis Nikas, Alexios Blionas, George Sfakianos, Marios S Themistocleous
Background: Infratentorial subdural empyemas in children are extremely rare and potentially lethal intracranial infections. Delay in diagnosis and therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Case Description: A 4-year-old boy presented with cerebellar signs following a failed treatment of otitis media. Imaging studies revealed a subdural empyema and left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis. The empyema was evacuated operatively and antibiotic treatment was initiated and administered for 6 weeks...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928269/molecular-characteristics-of-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-between-2012-and-2017-in-shanghai-china
#2
Xing Wang, Qian Liu, He Zhang, Xia Li, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is known as an invasive human pathogen, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, information on community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in children in China remains scarce. This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of 78 CA-SA isolates recovered from pediatric patients with BSI between 2012 and 2017 in Shanghai. All isolates including 51 (65.4%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 27 (34.6%) methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925574/improving-guideline-based-streptococcal-pharyngitis-testing-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#3
Laura E Norton, Brian R Lee, Lory Harte, Keith Mann, Jason G Newland, R Alan Grimes, Angela L Myers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute pharyngitis is a common diagnosis in ambulatory pediatrics. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guideline for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis recommends strict criteria for GAS testing to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment of children who are colonized with group A Streptococcus . We sought to improve adherence to the IDSA guideline for testing and treatment of GAS pharyngitis in a large community pediatrics practice...
June 20, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914542/acute-mastoiditis-in-an-italian-pediatric-tertiary-medical-center-a-15-year-retrospective-study
#4
Claudia Balsamo, Carlotta Biagi, Margherita Mancini, Ilaria Corsini, Rosalba Bergamaschi, Marcello Lanari
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis is the main suppurative complication of acute otitis media. Its incidence ranges from 1.2 to 4.2/100.000 children/year and a rise has been reported in the last years. There are controversial data regarding risk factors for mastoiditis and its complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: to evaluate demographics and clinical characteristics of children with acute mastoiditis and to identify possible risk factors for complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all the children aged 1 month-14 years admitted to our Paediatric Emergency Department from January 2002 to December 2016...
June 18, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912272/evaluating-statistical-approaches-to-leverage-large-clinical-datasets-for-uncovering-therapeutic-and-adverse-medication-effects
#5
Leena Choi, Robert J Carroll, Cole Beck, Jonathan D Mosley, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, Sara L Van Driest
Motivation: Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been used to discover many genotype-phenotype relationships and have the potential to identify therapeutic and adverse drug outcomes using longitudinal data within electronic health records (EHRs). However, the statistical methods for PheWAS applied to longitudinal EHR medication data have not been established. Results: In this study, we developed methods to address two challenges faced with reuse of EHR for this purpose: confounding by indication, and low exposure and event rates...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909503/prophylactic-antibiotics-in-pediatric-neurological-surgery
#6
Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Martina Messing-Jünger
PURPOSE: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) in pediatric neurosurgery has poorly been characterized until now. This review gives an overview on the current literature extracting recommendations and guidelines. METHODS: The current literature on SAP with special forcus on pediatric neurosurgerical procedures was reviewed. Further, available recommendations in online databases were checked. Clean neurosurgical, shunt, and implant surgeries are considered separately...
June 16, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907534/significant-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients-undergoing-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiography-are-few-and-unaffected-by-prophylactic-antibiotics
#7
Divyanshoo R Kohli, Tilak U Shah, Doumit S BouHaidar, Ravi Vachhani, M Shadab Siddiqui
INTRODUCTION: Current practice guidelines recommend prophylactic antibiotics prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in liver transplant recipients (LTR). This study evaluated the risk of clinically significant infections after ERCP in LTR who received antibiotic prophylaxis compared to those who did not. METHODS: This retrospective case-cohort study evaluated all LTR who underwent elective, outpatient ERCP from 2008 to 2015. Hospitalized patients, pediatric allograft recipients and patients with cholangitis or incomplete biliary drainage were excluded...
May 28, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895051/bacterial-etiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-pediatric-bloodstream-infections-a-multicenter-based-study-in-tehran-iran
#8
S Maham, F Fallah, Z Gholinejad, A Seifi, S M Hoseini-Alfatemi
BACKGROUND: Due to the diverse nature of bloodstream infections etiology and to the antibiotic resistance patterns in periodic intervals, rational and accurate use of antibiotics requires an understanding of common causative agents of septicemia and their susceptibility patterns. The present study aimed to determine the bacterial etiology of the neonate and pediatric septicemia, and their antibiotic resistance pattern in Tehran, North of Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted along two years, from October 2014 to November 2016 among children with suspected bloodstream infection...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893951/course-of-illness-after-viral-infection-in-indian-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Krishna Mohan Gulla, Arvind Balaji, Aparna Mukherjee, Kana Ram Jat, Jhuma Sankar, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
Objective: To study the clinical impact of respiratory viral infection in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care referral centre for CF in India. Participants/patients: Children with CF attending a pediatric chest clinic. Methods: Case records of the children with CF who had a pulmonary exacerbation with documented acute respiratory viral infection between October 2013 and December 2014 (Group I) and an equal number of controls (Group II) with pulmonary exacerbation in absence of acute respiratory viral infection were reviewed...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891609/population-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-solithromycin-following-intravenous-and-oral-administration-in-infants-children-and-adolescents
#10
Daniel Gonzalez, Laura P James, Amira Al-Uzri, Miroslava Bosheva, Felice C Adler-Shohet, Susan R Mendley, John S Bradley, Claudia Espinosa, Eva Tsonkova, Kathryn Moffett, Lucila Marquez, Kari A Simonsen, Stefan Stoilov, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Theresa Jasion, Christoph P Hornik, Robert Hernandez, Daniel K Benjamin, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide antibiotic, which was under investigation for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). A phase 1 study was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of solithromycin in children. Eighty-four subjects (median age 6 years [range 4 days - 17 years]) were administered intravenous (IV) or oral (capsules or suspension) solithromycin (IV 6-8 mg/kg; capsules/suspension 14-16 mg/kg on Day 1 and 7-15 mg/kg on Days 2-5). PK samples were collected after first and multi-dose administration...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882304/primary-hyperoxaluria-orthodontic-management-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report
#11
A P Cazzolla, K Zhurakivska, D Ciavarella, M G Lacaita, G Favia, N F Testa, G Marzo, V La Carbonara, G Troiano, L Lo Muzio
AIMS: The aim of this study is to report the case of the orthodontic treatment in a patient affected by primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and subjected to a combinate liver-kidney transplant. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 9-year patient was admitted to our department for the presence of facial dysmorphism. The patient was affected by primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and has undergone a combined liver-kidney transplantation. At the time of the visit, he was in treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and received a corticosteroid and an antibiotic therapy monthly...
June 8, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879425/impact-of-a-h1n1-influenza-in-children-at-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#12
Gabriela Fontanella Biondo, João Carlos Santana, Patrícia M Lago, Jefferson Piva, Paulo Ricardo A Souza, Joana Genz Gaulke, Juliana M Sebben
BACKGROUND: A/H1N1 influenza is a viral disease that affects a significant part of the population mainly in winter, leading to increased number of medical consultations, hospitalizations and consequently care spending in emergency. METHODS: This is a case-series retrospective study, involving patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil in 2016 with a clinical diagnosis of acute respiratory infection of the influenza type and laboratory confirmation of influenza A/H1N1...
June 4, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877714/culture-independent-analysis-of-pediatric-broncho-alveolar-lavage-bal-specimens
#13
Philip Zachariah, Chanelle Ryan, Sruti Nadimpalli, Gina Coscia, Michelle Kolb, Hannah Smith, Marc Foca, Lisa Saiman, Paul J Planet
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of culture-independent testing of pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens is unknown. Additionally, the variability of the pediatric pulmonary microbiome with patient characteristics is not well understood. METHODS: Study subjects were ≤22 years old and underwent BAL from May 2013 - July 2015 as part of clinical care. DNA extracted from BAL specimens was used for 16S rRNA gene-based (16S-based) microbiome analysis, and results compared to routine cultures from the same samples...
June 7, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872326/mecillinam-for-the-treatment-of-acute-pyelonephritis-and-bacteremia-caused-by-enterobacteriaceae-a-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Filip Jansåker, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Thomas L Benfield, Jenny Dahl Knudsen
Purpose: The pharmacokinetic properties of mecillinam (MEC) for urinary tract infections are excellent, and the resistance rate in Enterobacteriaceae is low compared to other recommended antibiotics. The oral prodrug pivmecillinam (P-MEC) has been used successfully as first choice for cystitis in the Nordic countries for many years. Norwegian and Danish guidelines also recommend P-MEC for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) and intravenous (IV) MEC for suspected urosepsis (only in Denmark)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868136/prevalence-of-family-history-of-autoimmune-disorders-in-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Parisa Ashournia, Payman Sadeghi, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad-Hassan Moradinejad, Vahid Ziaee
One of the causes of infants' hospitalizations is bronchiolitis, while different viral agents could be causative agents. As there is little information regarding the common agents of bronchiolitis in Iranian infants, we designed this study to determine which agents were responsible for hospitalization due to bronchiolitis among infants in an Iranian tertiary center. Two hundred and three infants with bronchiolitis who were hospitalized in Bahrami hospital were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, duration of hospitalization, exposure to smoking, previous antibiotic usage and fever were collected for all enrolled cases...
March 2018: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864523/management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-children-balancing-admission-with-the-risk-of-emergency-department-revisits
#16
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVE: Oral antibiotics effectively treat most pediatric urinary tract infections (UTI), however children with UTI are frequently admitted. We examined variation and trends in admission for children with UTI plus investigated the relationship between admission and emergency department (ED) revisits for those initially managed outpatient. We hypothesized that hospitals would have similar three-day revisit rates regardless of admission rate at index visit. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 36 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System...
June 1, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861729/investigation-of-clinical-characteristics-and-etiological-factors-in-children-with-molar-incisor-hypomineralization
#17
Maria Rita Giuca, Maria Cappè, Elisabetta Carli, Lisa Lardani, Marco Pasini
Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical defects and etiological factors potentially involved in the onset of MIH in a pediatric sample. Methods: 120 children, selected from the university dental clinic, were included: 60 children (25 boys and 35 girls; average age: 9.8 ± 1.8 years) with MIH formed the test group and 60 children (27 boys and 33 girls; average age: 10.1 ± 2 years) without MIH constituted the control group. Distribution and severity of MIH defects were evaluated, and a questionnaire was used to investigate the etiological variables; chi-square, univariate, and multivariate statistical tests were performed (significance level set at p < 0...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859569/tympanostomy-tube-placement-and-ear-drops-evidence-based-cost-saving-models
#18
Gabriel Gomez, Philip G Chen
OBJECTIVES/INTRODUCTION: Tympanostomy tube placement is the most common surgical procedure in the pediatric population with important financial implications to our healthcare institutions. The purpose of this study is to apply various cost models in different clinical environments to determine the most cost effective way to prescribe ear drops after tympanostomy tube insertion. METHODS: Two distinct practice models were designed: a Uniform Treatment Model and a Disease Specific Model...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859332/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-management-and-outcomes-of-children-hospitalized-with-stevens-johnson-syndrome-or-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#19
James W Antoon, Jennifer L Goldman, Samir S Shah, Brian Lee
BACKGROUND: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions are rare yet life threatening conditions. The current management and outcomes of these conditions in U.S. children is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the current management and outcomes of Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) across U.S. children's hospitals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children less than 18 years of age hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of SJS or TEN at 47 U...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858763/a-systematic-scoping-literature-review-of-publications-supporting-treatment-guidelines-for-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis-in-contrast-to-clinical-practice-patterns
#20
REVIEW
Elaine C Siegfried, Jennifer C Jaworski, Paola Mina-Osorio
INTRODUCTION: Treatment guidelines endorse a variety of strategies for atopic dermatitis (AD) which may vary from published data and clinical practice patterns. The objective of this review was to quantify the volume of available medical literature supporting pediatric AD treatments and compare these patterns to those recommended by published guidelines and/or clinical practice patterns. METHODS: Searches of Embase (2005-2016) and abstracts from selected meetings (2014-2016) related to AD treatment in patients younger than 17 years of age yielded references that were assessed by study design, primary treatment, age groups, and AD severity...
June 1, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
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