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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451940/patient-factors-associated-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-septic-arthritis-in-children
#1
Derek T Bernstein, Lee S Haruno, Shiva Daram, John R Dawson, Wei Zhang, Scott B Rosenfeld
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative organism in pediatric septic arthritis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being responsible for a significant portion of these infections. Early identification and initiation of proper treatment may improve outcomes by minimizing potential morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify variables obtained on initial patient presentation associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Sixteen factors were retrospectively evaluated in 109 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed septic arthritis...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451394/clinical-application-of-microsampling-versus-conventional-sampling-techniques-in-the-quantitative-bioanalysis-of-antibiotics-a-systematic-review
#2
Yarmarly C Guerra Valero, Steven C Wallis, Jeffrey Lipman, Christophe Stove, Jason A Roberts, Suzanne L Parker
Conventional sampling techniques for clinical pharmacokinetic studies often require the removal of large blood volumes from patients. This can result in a physiological or emotional burden, particularly for neonates or pediatric patients. Antibiotic pharmacokinetic studies are typically performed on healthy adults or general ward patients. These may not account for alterations to a patient's pathophysiology and can lead to suboptimal treatment. Microsampling offers an important opportunity for clinical pharmacokinetic studies in vulnerable patient populations, where smaller sample volumes can be collected...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449049/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-national-study-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#3
M Lagree, S Bontemps, R Dessein, F Angoulvant, F Madhi, A Martinot, R Cohen, F Dubos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical practices for ESBL-producing urinary tract infection (UTI) in France. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in 22 pediatric departments of university or secondary care hospitals. We collected data of the last five patients presenting with ESBL-producing UTI in 2012 and the physicians' therapeutic approach to two case vignettes of acute non-septic ESBL-producing pyelonephritis (7-month-old girl) and cystitis (30-month-old girl)...
February 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447900/microbiology-and-antibiotic-therapy-of-subperiosteal-orbital-abscess-in-children-with-acute-ethmoiditis
#4
A Coudert, S Ayari-Khalfallah, P Suy, E Truy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological cultures and the management of acute ethmoiditis complicated by subperiosteal orbital abscess (SPOA) in a pediatric population. METHODS: The medical records of children under 18 years old was performed in a tertiary referral pediatric center from January 2009 to April 2017. Clinical examination, computed tomography scans, medical and surgical treatments were reviewed and compared to other studies in literature...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447888/pathogenesis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-patients-affected-by-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-and-sickle-cell-anaemia-post-allogenic-bone-marrow-transplant
#5
F Martino, R Di Mauro, K Paciaroni, J Gaziev, C Alfieri, L Greco, R Floris, S Di Girolamo, M Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440952/antibiotic-treatment-in-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-clinical-practice-versus-guidelines-results-from-two-university-hospitals
#6
Sorin Claudiu Man, Valentina Sas, Cristina Schnell, Camelia Florea, Adelina Ţuţu, Ariana Szilágyi, Sergiu Belenes, Amalia Hebriştean, Anca Bonaţ, Claudia Cladovan, Cornel Aldea
Background and aims: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a both common and serious childhood infection. Antibiotic treatment guidelines help to reduce inadequate antibiotics prescriptions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinical Emergency Hospital for Children, 3rd Pediatric Clinic, Cluj-Napoca and Dr. Gavril Curteanu Clinical City Hospital, in Oradea. All patients discharged with a diagnosis of CAP between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015, were included in the study...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438743/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-enteric-viruses-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-northern-italy
#7
Valeria Biscaro, Giorgio Piccinelli, Franco Gargiulo, Giovanni Ianiro, Arnaldo Caruso, Francesca Caccuri, Maria Antonia De Francesco
Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different enteric viruses detected in a pediatric population with acute gastroenteritis symptoms, and to characterize the strains detected. Stools were collected from children, aged from 2 months to 15 years old, admitted to one of the main hospitals of Northern Italy, between November 2015 and October 2016...
February 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438527/effects-of-hospital-practice-patterns-for-antibiotic-administration-for-pneumonia-on-hospital-lengths-of-stay-and-costs
#8
Eric W Christensen, Alicen Burns Spaulding, William F Pomputius, Steven P Grapentine
Background: Hospital practice patterns vary for switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, but it is unknown how these practice patterns affect hospital lengths of stay and costs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 78673 pediatric patients (aged 3 months to 17 years) hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Analyses were performed with data from the Pediatric Health Information System between 2007 and 2016, including discharge data from 48 freestanding children's hospitals...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429556/infection-with-gram-negative-bacteria-among-children-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital-in-egypt
#9
John Rene Labib, Sally K Ibrahim, Marwa Rashad Salem, Meray Rene L Youssef, Basant Meligy
BACKGROUND: Patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are susceptible to infections with gram-negative bacteria (GNB). METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 2 PICUs at Cairo University Hospitals to determine the incidence and outcome of GNB infections over 1 year. Variables of interest included age, gender, isolated organism, susceptibility to antibiotics, and final outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 1420 patients were admitted to the PICU; of these, 291 developed GNB infections...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428362/changes-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-demographics-of-utis-in-pediatric-patients-in-a-single-institution-over-a-6-year-period
#10
B Erol, M Culpan, H Caskurlu, U Sari, Y Cag, H Vahaboglu, S H Özumut, M I Karaman, T Caskurlu
PURPOSE: To determine changes in antimicrobial resistance and demographics of UTIs in pediatric patients in a single institution over a 6-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study examined outpatient urinary isolates from patients aged <18 years. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of bacteria isolated from children with UTI was performed between 2009 and 2014. The most common bacterial pathogens were determined in the following four age groups: <2 years; 2-5 years; 6-12 years; and 13-17 years...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426305/adherence-to-guidelines-for-testing-and-treatment-of-children-with-pharyngitis-a-retrospective-study
#11
Thea Brennan-Krohn, Al Ozonoff, Thomas J Sandora
BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients ages 3-18 who had a rapid streptococcal test and/or throat culture performed in an outpatient setting...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425903/efficacy-and-safety-of-five-day-challenge-for-the-evaluation-of-non-severe-amoxicillin-allergy-in-children
#12
Roxane Labrosse, Louis Paradis, Jonathan Lacombe, Kathryn Samaan, François Graham, Jean Paradis, Philipps Bégin, Anne Des Roches
BACKGROUND: Penicillin allergy is the most frequent drug allergy, among which aminopenicillins are reputed for causing delayed rashes in children, particularly in the context of viral infections. Despite a negative allergy evaluation, a significant proportion of individuals continue to avoid penicillin antibiotics for fear of an allergic reaction. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a five-day challenge to amoxicillin and the proportion of subsequent use of amoxicillin...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422058/an-evaluation-of-e-coli-in-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-department-at-kamc-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia-retrospective-study
#13
Menyfah Q Alanazi, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Fadilah S Aleanizy
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417077/ciprofloxacin-use-in-hospitalized-children-approved-or-off-label
#14
Toktam Faghihi, Leila Yavari Tekmehdash, Mania Radfar, Kheirollah Gholami
Objective: Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. Methods: In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406468/impact-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-multiplex-assay-on-diagnosis-and-outcomes-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-children-a-before-and-after-cohort-study
#15
Matthew P O'Brien, Joshua R Francis, Ian M Marr, Robert W Baird
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) multiplex assay in the diagnosis of pediatric CNS infection, and assessed for the effect on clinical management. STUDY DESIGN: A 15-month prospective cohort of pediatric patients with confirmed CNS infection was compared with a 15-month retrospective cohort from the Top End region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The study characterized all the CNS infections over the 30-month period and compared the time to organism identification and antibiotic management before and after the introduction of the multiplex assay...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406376/blood-cultures-drawn-from-arterial-catheters-are-reliable-for-the-detection-of-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-children
#16
Itay Berger, Merav Gil Margolis, Elhanan Nahum, Ovdi Dagan, Itzhak Levy, Eytan Kaplan, Eran Shostak, Esther Shmuelov, Ofer Schiller, Gili Kadmon
OBJECTIVES: Arterial catheters may serve as an additional source for blood cultures in children when peripheral venipuncture is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of cultures obtained through indwelling arterial catheters for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections in critically ill pediatric patients. DESIGN: Observational and comparative. SETTING: General and cardiac ICUs of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#17
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395751/early-stroke-post-heart-transplant-is-associated-with-decreased-survival-in-children
#18
Cheryl Cammock, Swati Choudhry, Chesney M Castleberry, Noor Al-Hammadi, Pirooz Eghtesady, Charles E Canter, Kathleen E Simpson
BACKGROUND: Major neurologic events (MNEs) after heart transplantation (HTx) and their effect on survival have not been well described in children. In this study we aimed to characterize early MNEs (stroke, isolated seizures not from stroke and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy [PRES] within 1 year after primary pediatric HTx) and evaluate their impact on 1-year post-HTx survival. We hypothesized that early an MNE after HTx is associated with decreased 1-year patient survival. METHODS: We performed a pediatric, single-center, retrospective analysis of 345 consecutive patients aged 0 to 22 years who underwent primary HTx during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 2015...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395509/exploring-the-nurses-role-in-antibiotic-stewardship-a-multisite-qualitative-study-of-nurses-and-infection-preventionists
#19
Eileen J Carter, William G Greendyke, E Yoko Furuya, Arjun Srinivasan, Alexa N Shelley, Aditi Bothra, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the need to partner with nurses to promote effective antibiotic stewardship. In this study, we explored the attitudes of nurses and infection preventionists toward 5 nurse-driven antibiotic stewardship practices: 1) questioning the need for urine cultures; 2) ensuring proper culturing technique; 3) recording an accurate penicillin drug allergy history; 4) encouraging the prompt transition from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics; and 5) initiating an antibiotic timeout...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394522/etiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-pediatrics-with-urinary-tract-infections
#20
Jun Wang, Lijiao He, Jintong Sha, Haobo Zhu, Liqu Huang, Xiaojiang Zhu, Juan Dong, Guogen Li, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Geng Ma, Yaqi Shi, Yunfei Guo
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of hospitalized children in our center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTIs from January 1, 2013 to November 31, 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined from midstream urine culture...
February 2, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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