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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#1
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072664/clinical-pathway-effectiveness-febrile-young-infant-clinical-pathway-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
Ashlee Lynn Murray, Elizabeth Alpern, Jane Lavelle, Cynthia Mollen
OBJECTIVE: Young infants are often treated in emergency departments (EDs) for febrile illnesses. Any delay in care or ineffective management could lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. A standardized ED clinical pathway may improve care for these patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a febrile young infant clinical pathway implemented in a large, urban children's hospital ED on the timeliness and consistency of care. METHODS: This study used a before-and-after retrospective observational study design comparing 2 separate periods: prepathway from September 2007 through August 2008 and postpathway from September 2009 through August 2010...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063721/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-of-children-with-acute-asthma-exacerbations-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#3
Samantha Dankoff, Patricia Li, Adam J Shapiro, Terry Varshney, Alexander S Dubrovsky
OBJECTIVES: Primary objective was to characterize lung ultrasound findings in children with asthma presenting with respiratory distress to the emergency department (ED). Secondary objectives included correlating these findings with patients' clinical course in the ED. METHODS: Eligible patients 2-17years of age, underwent a lung ultrasound by the study sonographer between November 2014 to December 2015. Positive lung ultrasound was defined as the presence of ≥1 of the following findings: ≥3 B-lines per intercostal space, consolidation and/or pleural abnormalities...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060045/dalbavancin-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-in-children-3-months-to-11-years-of-age
#4
Daniel Gonzalez, John S Bradley, Jeffrey Blumer, Ram Yogev, Kevin M Watt, Laura P James, Debra L Palazzi, Varsha Bhatt-Mehta, Janice E Sullivan, Li Zhang, Jennifer Murphy, Xilla T Ussery, Sailaja Puttagunta, Michael W Dunne, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
BACKGROUND: Dalbavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that has potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. METHODS: We performed a phase 1, open-label, multi-center study to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of a single-dose of intravenous dalbavancin in hospitalized pediatric subjects 3 months to 11 years of age. We combined these data with previously collected adolescent PK data and performed a population PK analysis...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058484/hoverboards-spectrum-of-injury-and-association-with-an-uncommon-fracture
#5
Andrew H Schapiro, Neil U Lall, Christopher G Anton, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: Self-balancing electric scooters, commonly known as hoverboards, are a new and popular consumer item with recognized fall hazards. The spectrum of injuries associated with hoverboard use has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of radiologically apparent injuries associated with hoverboard use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all imaging studies interpreted at our institution for hoverboard-related injuries during an 8-month period...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050392/paediatric-prescription-analysis-in-a-primary-health-care-institution
#6
Jinish Jose, Denny Devassykutty
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric prescription analysis was done by vari-ous studies in tertiary care centers but not much published data, at primary care level. The Medical Council of India introduced new prescription format and also antibiotic stewardship program was launched by Government of Kerala in the year 2015. So in these contexts this study was conducted. AIM: To analyse the patterns of prescriptions and drug dis-pensing in pediatric patients using WHO core drug use indicators and parameters in the prescription format prescribed by Medical Council of India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044426/children-after-renal-transplantation-hospitalized-for-fever-is-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-always-justified
#7
Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Miriam Davidovits, Efraim Bilavsky, Reem Yassin, Eran Rom, Jacob Amir
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. However, data focusing on children are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of bacterial infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients in a specific setting of hospitalization due to fever. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected for all pediatric renal transplant recipients hospitalized for fever in a national renal transplantation center from 2004 to 2012...
January 2, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#8
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030425/features-of-hepatitis-in-hepatitis-associated-aplastic-anemia-clinical-and-histopathologic-study
#9
Kalyani R Patel, Alison Bertuch, Ghadir S Sasa, Ryan W Himes, Hao Wu
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. METHODS: Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012533/a-review-of-acute-postoperative-sialadenitis-in-children
#10
Michael T Yim, Yi-Chun C Liu, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Acute postoperative sialadenitis is a previously described rare entity that has occurred following general anesthesia and has also been associated with prolonged neurosurgical procedures. We aim to better characterize this entity while performing a literature review regarding potential etiologies, diagnosis, airway management and treatment options. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed at a pediatric tertiary care center from 2000 to 2014...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012531/improvement-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-youth-following-resolution-of-sinusitis
#11
Talia Mahony, Douglas Sidell, Hayley Gans, Kayla Brown, Bahare Farhadian, Melissa Gustafson, Janell Sherr, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006761/lemierre-syndrome-a-retrospective-study-of-the-role-of-anticoagulation-and-thrombosis-outcomes
#12
Margaret C Cupit-Link, Amulya Nageswara Rao, Deepti M Warad, Vilmarie Rodriguez
Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a multisystemic infection beginning in the oropharynx and leading to thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with septic emboli and potential thrombotic extension to the central nervous system. Although patient outcomes have improved with early initiation of antimicrobial therapies, there is no consensus regarding the role of anticoagulation in LS. To better define the role of anticoagulation therapy in LS and determine whether anticoagulation improves thrombosis outcomes, we conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric and adult patients diagnosed with LS and managed at our institution from January 1998 to December 2014...
December 23, 2016: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003592/antibiotic-susceptibilities-and-genetic-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-stools-of-pediatric-diarrhea-patients-in-surabaya-indonesia
#13
Eddy Bagus Wasito, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Alpha Fardah, Akiho Kanaida, Dadik Raharjo, K Kuntaman, Usman Hadi, Sugeng Harijono, Subijanto Marto Sudarmo, Tatsuya Nakamura, Keigo Shibayama, Masato Fujisawa, Toshiro Shirakawa
The purpose of this study was to investigate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from pediatric (0-3 year old) diarrhea patients, as well as bacterial antibiotic susceptibilities, ESBL typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) typing and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)-typing in Surabaya, Indonesia, where this kind of survey is rarely done. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in 18.8 % of strains. Many ESBL-producing E. coli had significantly less susceptibility to gentamicin (p<0...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002689/design-and-implementation-of-a-telepediatric-primary-level-and-low-cost-system-to-reduce-unnecessary-patient-transfers
#14
Christian Cifuentes, Eduardo Romero, Javier Godoy
BACKGROUND: Most inhabitants in Latin America are concentrated in large urban foci with different access to facilities. Although the main hospitals offer specialized services, economically vulnerable populations cannot easily afford these services, the pediatric population being most affected. This article presents the design and implementation of a low cost telepediatric system, applied to primary care hospitals through a study in Bogotá, Colombia, mainly aimed to reduce the number of unnecessary transfers commonly sent to specialized medical services...
December 21, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999477/detection-ribotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-the-cases-of-diarrhea
#15
Samaneh Kouzegaran, Mahmood Ganjifard, Amir Saber Tanha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics hospitalized due to the diseases other than diarrhea...
October 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998905/care-variations-and-outcomes-for-children-hospitalized-with-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-infections
#16
Christopher J Russell, Wendy J Mack, Sheree M Schrager, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: Identify hospital-level care variations and association with length of stay (LOS) and hospital revisit in children with tracheostomies hospitalized for bacterial respiratory tract infections (bRTIs). METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study that used the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients with tracheostomies aged ≤18 years with a primary diagnosis of bRTI (eg, tracheitis) or a primary diagnosis of a bRTI symptom (eg, cough) and a secondary diagnosis of bRTI...
January 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994915/intravenous-colistin-use-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#17
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993359/perioperative-management-and-outcomes-of-esophageal-atresia-and-tracheoesophageal-fistula
#18
Dave R Lal, Samir K Gadepalli, Cynthia D Downard, Daniel J Ostlie, Peter C Minneci, Ruth M Swedler, Thomas Chelius, Laura Cassidy, Cooper T Rapp, Katherine J Deans, Mary E Fallat, S Maria E Finnell, Michael A Helmrath, Ronald B Hirschl, Rashmi S Kabre, Charles M Leys, Grace Mak, Jessica Raque, Frederick J Rescorla, Jacqueline M Saito, Shawn D St Peter, Daniel von Allmen, Brad W Warner, Thomas T Sato
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a rare congenital anomaly lacking contemporary data detailing patient demographics, medical/surgical management and outcomes. Substantial variation in the care of infants with EA/TEF may affect both short- and long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the demographics, management strategies and outcomes in a contemporary multi-institutional cohort of infants diagnosed with EA/TEF to identify potential areas for standardization of care...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989273/beyond-test-and-treat-malaria-diagnosis-for-improved-pediatric-fever-management-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Emily White Johansson
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977506/management-of-pediatric-acute-mastoiditis-in-israel-nationwide-survey-among-otorhinolaryngologists-and-emergency-pediatricians
#20
Sharon Tamir Ovnat, Tal Marom, David Rekhtman, Michal Luntz
INTRODUCTION: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a medical emergency that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, its management often differs between otorhinolaryngologists (ORLs) and pediatricians (PEDs) working in emergency departments. We sought to characterize the similarities and differences between management protocols of these 2 disciplines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary electronic questionnaire, including 17 items pertaining to pediatric AM management, was sent to all the 20 otorhinolaryngology and their corresponding pediatric emergency departments nationwide...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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