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pediatric experimental study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944292/early-head-start-pediatric-dental-use-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life
#1
J M Burgette, J S Preisser, M Weinberger, R S King, R G Rozier
The objective of the study was to examine the mediating effect of child dental use on the effectiveness of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS) in improving oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In total, 479 parents of children enrolled in EHS and 699 parents of Medicaid-matched children were interviewed at baseline when children were approximately 10 mo old and 24 mo later. In this quasi-experimental study, mediation analysis was performed using the counterfactual framework analysis, which employed 2 logit models with random effects: 1) for the mediator as a function of the treatment and covariates and 2) for the outcome as a function of the treatment, mediator, and covariates...
October 2017: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943825/can-a-short-video-improve-inhaler-use-in-urban-youth
#2
Sara Brown, Victoria Tutag Lehr, Nathan French, Christopher Alan Giuliano
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to determine whether watching a short video in the inpatient setting could produce an immediate improvement in pediatric patients' asthma knowledge and inhaler technique. METHODS: This prospective, quasi-experimental, pre-post study was conducted in a single center, in Detroit, Michigan, which primarily serves an urban, African-American population. Patients were eligible if they were between 8- and 16-years-old, had asthma, and would be discharged with an albuterol metered-dose inhaler...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941633/sustained-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-with-consultation-to-infectious-diseases-reduced-carbapenem-resistance-and-infection-related-mortality
#3
Yuho Horikoshi, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Testuji Kaneko, Mihoko Furuichi, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka, Kaoru Okazaki, Kenta Ito, Takayo Shoji
OBJECTIVE: The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is still scarce. We aimed to evaluate carbapenem's AMR in gram negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after introduction of ASP. METHOD: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921522/extraluminal-biodegradable-splint-to-treat-upper-airway-anterior-malacia-a-preclinical-proof-of-principle
#4
François Gorostidi, Cécile Courbon, Marco Burki, Antoine Reinhard, Kishore Sandu
OBJECTIVE: Upper airway malacia highly complicates the treatment of benign laryngotracheal stenosis, and no ideal option is available to date. We here explore the use of extraluminal biodegradable splints in an animal model of long-segment anterior tracheomalacia (TM). We show the efficacy, as well as the tissue tolerance, of a custom-made biodegradable extraluminal device surgically inserted around the trachea. STUDY DESIGN: Preclinical animal study. METHODS: Anterior TM was induced in rabbits through an anterior neck approach by removing eight consecutive anterior tracheal rings without damaging the underlying mucosa...
September 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916249/diagnostic-errors-impact-of-an-educational-intervention-on-pediatric-primary-care
#5
Julianne Nemes Walsh, Margaret Knight, A James Lee
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study was to determine the impact of an educational program on a provider's knowledge related to diagnostic errors and diagnostic reasoning strategies. METHODS: A quasi-experimental interventional study with a multimedia approach, case study discussion, and trigger-generated medical record review at two time points was conducted. Measurement tools included a test developed by the National Patient Safety Foundation, Reducing Diagnostic Errors: Strategies for Solutions Quiz, additional diagnostic reasoning questions, and a trigger-generated process to analyze medical records...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913729/exome-array-analysis-identifies-etfb-as-a-novel-susceptibility-gene-for-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-cancer-patients
#6
Sara Ruiz-Pinto, Guillermo Pita, Miguel Martín, Teresa Alonso-Gordoa, Daniel R Barnes, María R Alonso, Belén Herraez, Purificación García-Miguel, Javier Alonso, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Antonio J Cartón, Federico Gutiérrez-Larraya, José A García-Sáenz, Javier Benítez, Douglas F Easton, Ana Patiño-García, Anna González-Neira
PURPOSE: Anthracyclines are widely used chemotherapeutic drugs that can cause progressive and irreversible cardiac damage and fatal heart failure. Several genetic variants associated with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) have been identified, but they explain only a small proportion of the interindividual differences in AIC susceptibility. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the association of low-frequency variants with risk of chronic AIC using the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in a discovery cohort of 61 anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with replication in a second independent cohort of 83 anthracycline-treated pediatric cancer patients, using gene-based tests (SKAT-O)...
September 14, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903840/burr-hole-aspiration-of-brain-abscess-in-children-with-cyanotic-heart-disease
#7
Muhammad Ashraf, Shakeel Ahmed, Shafiq Ahmad, Mukhtar Hussain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of burr hole aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease in terms of number of aspirations and residual abscess. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery at The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Multan, from July 2010 to June 2014. METHODOLOGY: Pediatric patients of cyanotic heart disease with brain abscess were admitted...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902846/downregulation-of-microrna-145-may-contribute-to-liver-fibrosis-in-biliary-atresia-by-targeting-add3
#8
Yongqin Ye, Zhihan Li, Qi Feng, Zimin Chen, Zhouguang Wu, Jianyao Wang, Xiaoshuo Ye, Dahao Zhang, Lei Liu, Wei Gao, Lihui Zhang, Bin Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Biliary atresia (BA) is a pediatric liver disease characterized by fibro-obliteration and obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary system, that invariably leads to cirrhosis and even death, if left untreated for extended time. However, its pathology and etiology still remained unknown. In this study, we tested the expression of adducin 3 (ADD3), the gene identified as a susceptibility gene in BA by GWAS, and uncovered its upstream regulatory microRNA in the pathogenesis of BA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898878/development-of-laboratory-investigations-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#9
Laura Audí, Núria Camats, Mónica Fernández-Cancio, María L Granada
Scientific knowledge to understand the biological basis of sex development was prompted by the observation of variants different from the 2 most frequent body types, and this became one of the fields first studied by modern pediatric endocrinology. The clinical observation was supported by professionals working in different areas of laboratory sciences which led to the description of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, the enzymes involved, and the different deficiencies. Steroid hormone measurements evolved from colorimetry to radioimmunoassay (RIA) and automated immunoassays, although gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are now the gold standard techniques for steroid measurements...
September 13, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890612/comparative-evaluation-of-sealing-ability-water-absorption-and-solubility-of-three-temporary-restorative-materials-an-in-vitro-study
#10
A R Prabhakar, N Shantha Rani, Saraswathi V Naik
BACKGROUND: The quality of the coronal seal of root canal filling material is important for periapical health. Absorption of water or saliva by the temporary restorative materials leads to dimensional changes, loss of retention, staining and breaking in margin contours. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the sealing properties, water absorption and solubility of IRM (intermediate restorative material), Cavit G and GC Caviton. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, in vitro intergroup randomized control trial...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890608/coronal-sealing-capacity-of-temporary-restorative-materials-in-pediatric-dentistry-a-comparative-study
#11
Shabnam Milani, Bahman Seraj, Alireza Heidari, Atousa Mirdamadi, Mahdi Shahrabi
AIMS: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the coronal microleakage of three common temporary restorative materials, namely Coltosol, Compoglass, and Zonalin, used in pediatric dentistry after endodontic treatment at different time intervals (1 week, 1, and 2 months) using dye penetration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Access cavities were prepared in 72 intact extracted premolar teeth. The samples were divided into three groups (n = 24) and filled with Coltosol, Compoglass, or Zonalin...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846670/single-immunoglobulin-interleukin-1-related-receptor-sigirr-regulates-vulnerability-to-tlr4-mediated-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Jason Fawley, Alain Cuna, Heather L Menden, Steven McElroy, Shahid Umar, Scott R Welak, David M Gourlay, Xiaoxia Li, Venkatesh Sampath
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying aberrant activation of intestinal Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remain unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Single Immunoglobulin Interleukin-1 Receptor Related Molecule (SIGIRR), an inhibitor of TLR signaling, in modulating experimental NEC vulnerability in mice. METHODS: Experimental NEC was induced in neonatal wild-type and SIGIRR-/- mice using hypoxia, formula feeding, and lipopolysaccharide administration...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820061/renin-angiotensin-system-and-cytokines-in-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#13
Ariadna Andrade Saldanha Silva, Beranardo Bahia Finotti, Amanda Oliveira Lauar, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues Prestes, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. There are many causes of CKD, being the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and the glomerular diseases very common in pediatric patients, while diabetic nephropathy, CKD due to chronic arterial hypertension and glomerular diseases are predominant in adult patients. Many endogenous mediators have been related to the pathophysiology of CKD, being relevant the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811808/prevention-of-anesthesia-induced-injection-pain-of-propofol-in-pediatric-anesthesia
#14
Dabin Cheng, Lu Liu, Zheng Hu
OBJECTIVE: Propofol is a new anesthetic agent in clinical practice, but randomized double-blinded prospective studies on its role in pediatric anesthesia remain limited. We aimed to compare the preventive effects of pre-injected lidocaine or ketamine and its pre-mixture on the anesthesia-induced injection pain of propofol using a randomized double-blinded prospective method, and to compare the outcomes with those of medium-/long-chain propofol (M/LCT). METHODS: A total of 360 pediatric patients (aged 5-12 years old) who received elective surgery were randomly divided into six groups (n= 60) as follows...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801399/a-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-evaluating-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-computer-based-tool-to-identify-and-reduce-harmful-and-hazardous-drinking-among-adolescents-with-alcohol-related-presentations-in-canadian-pediatric-emergency-departments
#15
Amanda S Newton, Nadia Dow, Kathryn Dong, Eleanor Fitzpatrick, T Cameron Wild, David W Johnson, Samina Ali, Ian Colman, Rhonda J Rosychuk
OBJECTIVE: This study piloted procedures and obtained data on intervention acceptability to determine the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the effectiveness of a computer-based brief intervention in the emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Two-arm, multi-site, pilot RCT. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 12-17 years presenting to three Canadian pediatric EDs from July 2010 to January 2013 for an alcohol-related complaint...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793336/a-systematic-review-of-adverse-drug-events-associated-with-administration-of-common-asthma-medications-in-children
#16
James S Leung, David W Johnson, Arissa J Sperou, Jennifer Crotts, Erik Saude, Lisa Hartling, Antonia Stang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and determine frequencies of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with pediatric asthma medications. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched six bibliographic databases between January 1991 and January 2017. Study eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment were independently completed and verified by two reviewers. We included randomized control trials (RCT), case-control, cohort, or quasi-experimental studies where the primary objective was identifying ADE in children 1 month- 18 years old exposed to commercial asthma medications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790133/detection-of-acute-gastroenteritis-etiology-in-hospitalized-young-children-associated-factors-and-outcomes
#17
Jamie M Pinto, Anna Petrova
BACKGROUND: The decision to test for the etiology of diarrhea is a challenging question for practicing pediatricians. METHODS: The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to identify factors associated with testing for and diagnosis of rotavirus, Clostridium difficile, or other bacterial infections, as well as the length of stay (LOS) for children with acute gastroenteritis who were hospitalized at a single institution. Patients aged 6 to 60 months with acute diarrhea (<14 days) and no underlying gastrointestinal conditions were included...
September 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771784/a-qualitative-study-of-decision-making-on-phase-iii-randomized-clinical-trial-participation-in-pediatric-oncology-adolescents-and-parents-perspectives-and-preferences
#18
Marianne Vie Ingersgaard, Morten Tulstrup, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Hanne Baekgaard Larsen
AIM: To explore parents' and adolescents' motives for accepting/declining participation in the ALL2008 trials and adolescents' involvement in the decision-making process. BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL2008 protocol were eligible for two randomizations testing 6-mercaptopurine treatment intensifications to improve efficacy and Asparaginase de-escalation to reduce toxicity...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754820/an-integrative-scoring-system-for-survival-prediction-following-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-in-acute-leukemia
#19
Roni Shouval, Annalisa Ruggeri, Myriam Labopin, Mohamad Mohty, Guillermo Sanz, Gérard Michel, Jurgen Kuball, Patrice Chevallier, Amal Al-Seraihy, Noel-Jean Milpied, Cristina Díaz Heredia, William Arcese, Didier Blaise, Vanderson Rocha, Joshua Fein, Ron Unger, Frederic Baron, Bader Peter, Eliane Gluckman, Arnon Nagler
Purpose: Survival of acute leukemia (AL) patients following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is dependent on an array of individual features. Integrative models for risk assessment are lacking. We sought to develop a scoring system for prediction of overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 2-years following UCBT in AL patients. <p>Experimental design: The study cohort included 3,140 pediatric and adult AL UCBT patients from the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Eurocord registries...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751444/pediatric-phase-1-trial-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-trebananib-in-relapsed-solid-tumors-advl1115-a-children-s-oncology-group-phase-1-consortium-report
#20
Sarah E S Leary, Julie R Park, Joel M Reid, Andrew T Ralya, Sylvain Baruchel, Bing Wu, Timothy P L Roberts, Xiaowei Liu, Charles G Minard, Elizabeth Fox, Brenda J Weigel, Susan Blaney
Trebananib is a first-in-class anti-angiogenic peptibody (peptide-Fc fusion protein) that inhibits Angiopoietin 1 and 2. A pediatric phase 1 trial was performed to define trebananib dose limiting toxicities (DLT), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and pharmacokinetics (PK).<br /><br />Experimental Design: Trebananib was administered by weekly infusion. Three dose levels (10, 15 or 30 mg/kg/dose) were evaluated using a rolling-six design. Part 2 evaluated a cohort of subjects with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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