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pediatric experimental study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775814/composite-self-expanding-bioresorbable-prototype-stents-with-reinforced-compression-performance-for-congenital-heart-disease-application-computational-and-experimental-investigation
#1
Fan Zhao, Wen Xue, Fujun Wang, Laijun Liu, Haoqin Shi, Lu Wang
Stents are vital devices to treat vascular stenosis in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Bioresorbable stents (BRSs) have been applied to reduce challenging complications caused by permanent metal stents. However, it remains almost a total lack of BRSs with satisfactory compression performance specifically for children with congenital heart disease, leading to importantly suboptimal effects. In this work, composite bioresorbable prototype stents with superior compression resistance were designed by braiding and annealing technology, incorporating poly (p-dioxanone) (PPDO) monofilaments and polycaprolactone (PCL) multifilament...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774098/establishment-of-primary-cell-culture-and-an-intracranial-xenograft-model-of-pediatric-ependymoma-a-prospect-for-therapy-development-and-understanding-of-tumor-biology
#2
Lorena Favaro Pavon, Tatiana Tais Sibov, Silvia Regina Caminada de Toledo, Daniela Mara de Oliveira, Francisco Romero Cabral, Jean Gabriel de Souza, Pamela Boufleur, Luciana C Marti, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Edgar Ferreira da Cruz, Fernando F Paiva, Suzana M F Malheiros, Manoel A de Paiva Neto, Alberto Tannús, Sérgio Mascarenhas de Oliveira, Nasjla Saba Silva, Andrea Maria Cappellano, Antonio Sérgio Petrilli, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi, Sérgio Cavalheiro
Background: Ependymoma (EPN), the third most common pediatric brain tumor, is a central nervous system (CNS) malignancy originating from the walls of the ventricular system. Surgical resection followed by radiation therapy has been the primary treatment for most pediatric intracranial EPNs. Despite numerous studies into the prognostic value of histological classification, the extent of surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy, there have been relatively few studies into the molecular and cellular biology of EPNs...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773954/pain-catastrophizing-is-associated-with-poorer-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Nitya Bakshi, Ines Lukombo, Inna Belfer, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder of the red blood cells and is associated with chronic multisystem involvement. While SCD has been associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), there is a paucity of data on the relationship of psychological covariates other than anxiety and depression and quality of life (QoL) in children with SCD. Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of psychological factors, HRQoL, and pain-related outcomes in participants with SCD and race-matched controls as part of a larger study of experimental pain phenotyping...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771864/cold-pressor-pain-response-in-children-with-cancer
#4
Brooke N Jenkins, Ryan J Roemer, Ariana Martinez, Tara K Torres, Michelle A Fortier
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine pain responses in pediatric patients with cancer. METHOD: Children (ages 6 to 18) undergoing treatment for cancer (N=68) completed the cold pressor task. RESULTS: Average pain tolerance was 118.22 seconds (SD=101.18) and 40% of the children kept their hand in the water the entire 4-minute ceiling. On a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale, children reported a pain severity of 5.07 (SD=3.47) at their first report of pain, a pain severity of 5...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768601/improving-patient-care-trajectories-an-innovative-quasi-experimental-research-method-for-health-services
#5
Eneida Rached Campos, Djalma de Carvalho Moreira-Filho, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da Silva
Scores to predict treatment outcomes have earned a well-deserved place in healthcare practice. However, when used to help achieve excellence in the care of a given disease, scores should also take into account organizational and social aspects. This article aims to create scores to obtain key variables and its application in the management of care of a given disease. We present a method called Epidemiological Planning for Patient Care Trajectory (PELC) and its application in a research of HIV pediatric patients...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768292/impact-of-peripheral-venous-catheter-placement-with-vein-visualization-device-support-on-success-rate-and-pain-levels-in-pediatric-patients-aged-0-to-3-years
#6
Sevil Inal, Duygu Demir
BACKGROUND: Pediatric nurses should be able to use techniques that increase the success rate or shorten the procedural duration of peripheral intravenous catheterization (PIVC). OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to define the effect of the infrared vein visualization device support on the success of PIVC in pediatric patients aged 0 to 3 years. Success was determined based on the number of attempts per patient, the duration of the procedure, the success rate of first attempts, and the pain levels of the children...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764000/the-effect-of-therapeutic-clowning-on-handwashing-technique-and-microbial-colonization-in-preschool-children
#7
Duygu Arıkan, Nazan Gürarslan Baş, Fatma Kurudirek, Ayşe Baştopcu, Hakan Uslu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic clowning on handwashing technique and microbial colonization in preschool children. DESIGN: This randomized controlled trial was conducted using pre-test and post-test experimental and control groups. METHODS: The study was conducted between March and June 2016 in two kindergartens in eastern Turkey. The study was completed with a total of 195 students, including 90 students in the experimental group and 105 students in the control group...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763644/immunomodulatory-effect-of-celecoxib-on-hmgb1-tlr4-pathway-in-a-recurrent-seizures-model-in-immature-rats
#8
Mariana Morales-Sosa, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, AngélicaVega-García, Sara Caballero-Chacón, Iris A Feria-Romero
Epileptic seizures constitute an important problem in pediatric neurology during the developmental period. The frequency and nosological significance of seizures, as well as their association with epileptogenesis, may be related to underlying mechanisms such as neuroinflammation. Those mechanisms of response activate inflammatory molecules induced in the neurons, activated glial cells and endothelial cells via the key HMGB1/TLR4 pathway. In this study, the drug celecoxib (CCX) was used as a blocker of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and HMGB1/TLR-4 pathways...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750765/ideal-and-actual-impact-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-and-antibiotic-stewardship-on-antibiotic-prescribing-and-clinical-outcomes-in-children-with-positive-blood-cultures
#9
Caroline H Reuter, Hannah L Palac, Larry K Kociolek, Xiaotian T Zheng, Yusuf Y Chao, Rupal Patel, Sameer J Patel
BACKGROUND: Implementing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and multiplex PCR (mPCR) has been associated with decreased mortality and hospital length of stay in adults, but the impact in pediatrics is less understood. METHODS: This pre-post quasi-experimental study compared antibiotic prescribing for positive blood cultures in patients ≤21 years collected in 2012 (pre-intervention) and in 2015 (after MALDI-TOF/mPCR). Time to effective and optimal antimicrobial therapy were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741917/a-systematic-review-of-pharmacologic-treatments-for-school-refusal-behavior
#10
Amalia Londono Tobon, Margot O Reed, Jerome H Taylor, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: School refusal is an important pediatric problem with significant negative short- and long-term outcomes. Specific psychosocial treatments appear effective in reducing school refusal, but many children do not respond to these treatments. Although systematic reviews have examined the efficacy of psychological interventions for school refusal, no systematic reviews on pharmacological interventions exist. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental pharmacologic trials in children and adolescents with school refusal reported in English or Spanish until July 1, 2017...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740348/could-sodium-chloride-be-an-environmental-trigger-for-immune-mediated-diseases-an-overview-of-the-experimental-and-clinical-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Eric Toussirot, Matthieu Béreau, Charline Vauchy, Philippe Saas
Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705573/the-long-term-outcomes-of-sport-related-concussion-in-pediatric-populations
#12
R Davis Moore, Jacob J Kay, Dave Ellemberg
Although the field of concussion research is rapidly growing, the majority of research has focused on injured adults, with children being an often-neglected population (Kirkwood et al., 2006). Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children (Langlois et al., 2003), with over 1.5 million cases being treated in North America annually (Yeates et al., 1999). Approximately 75% of these injuries are classified as a concussion (Faul et al., 2010). Further, children are disproportionately affected by sports-related injuries, with 65% of all pediatric concussions occurring during sport and recreation (CDC, 2007)...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698292/does-the-watson-jones-or-modified-smith-petersen-approach-provide-superior-exposure-for-femoral-neck-fracture-fixation
#13
Paul M Lichstein, John P Kleimeyer, Michael Githens, John S Vorhies, Michael J Gardner, Michael Bellino, Julius Bishop
BACKGROUND: A well-reduced femoral neck fracture is more likely to heal than a poorly reduced one, and increasing the quality of the surgical exposure makes it easier to achieve anatomic fracture reduction. Two open approaches are in common use for femoral neck fractures, the modified Smith-Petersen and Watson-Jones; however, to our knowledge, the quality of exposure of the femoral neck exposure provided by each approach has not been investigated. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the respective area of exposed femoral neck afforded by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches? (2) Is there a difference in the ability to visualize and/or palpate important anatomic landmarks provided by the Watson-Jones and modified Smith-Petersen approaches? METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen human pelvi underwent both modified Smith-Petersen (utilizing the caudal extent of the standard Smith-Petersen interval distal to the anterosuperior iliac spine and parallel to the palpable interval between the tensor fascia lata and the sartorius) and Watson-Jones approaches...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698145/pre-fabricated-myofunctional-appliance-for-the-treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-preliminary-report
#14
Luca Levrini, Giuseppa Sara Salone, German O Ramirez-Yanez
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the Myobrace/MyOSA myofunctional appliance for the treatment of mild to moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children, by means of the Apnea/Hypopnea Index (AHI). STUDY DESIGN: Nine children with a diagnosis of mild to moderate OSA were included in the study. The subjects wore the Myobrace/MyOSA myofunctional appliance for a period of 90 days. The initial AHI, determined by means of a sleep test, was used as baseline (To), and a second AHI, computed at the end of the experimental period, was used as final data (T1 )...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676680/midline-central-fluid-percussion-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-rats
#15
Rachel K Rowe, Jordan L Harrison, Timothy W Ellis, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
OBJECTIVE Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) models hold significant validity to the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. TBI is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and teenagers; thus, it is critical to develop preclinical models of these ages to test emerging treatments. Midline fluid percussion injury (FPI) might best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670611/advances-in-biomarker-guided-therapy-for-pediatric-and-adult-onset-neuroinflammatory-disorders-targeting-chemokines-cytokines
#16
REVIEW
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650205/chewing-gum-is-more-effective-than-saline-solution-gargling-for-reducing-oral-mucositis
#17
Kadek Cahya Utami, Happy Hayati, Allenidekania
OBJECTIVE: This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of chewing gum and gargling with a saline solution as two types of intervention to reduce oral mucositis scores. METHOD: The sample consisted of 44 children who were divided into two groups, one of which chewed gum, and the other gargled with a saline solution. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) in post-intervention oral-mucositis scores...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615086/comparison-of-lateral-entry-with-crossed-entry-pinning-for-pediatric-supracondylar-humeral-fractures-a-meta-analysis
#18
Yuyan Na, Rui Bai, Zhenqun Zhao, Changxu Han, Lingyue Kong, Yizhong Ren, Wanlin Liu
BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for severe displaced pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) is closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation. However, controversy persists concerning the optimal pin fixation technique. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy on the configuration of lateral entry only with crossed entry pin fixation for SCHF, including Gartland type II and type III fractures in children. METHODS: Published literatures, including retrospective studies, prospective studies, and randomized controlled trials, presenting the probability of poor functional consequence of elbow and/or loss of reduction and/or iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury and/or superficial infection and/or cubitus varus were included...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597234/new-concepts-in-vitamin-d-requirements-for-children-and-adolescents-a-controversy-revisited
#19
Emma M Laing, Richard D Lewis
North American and European authorities have identified thresholds up to 50 nmol/L serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) as optimal for pediatric vitamin D status. These recommendations are relative to skeletal endpoints, as vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone mineral content (BMC) accretion. Suboptimal vitamin D consumption during youth may therefore hinder BMC acquisition, and contribute to an increased fracture risk. Though vitamin D requirements range between 400 and 800 IU/day, not all children achieve this...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594090/assessing-exposures-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-s-complex-mixture-of-magnetic-fields-for-in-vivo-in-vitro-and-epidemiologic-studies-of-health-effects-for-staff-and-patients
#20
Jennifer Frankel, Jonna Wilén, Kjell Hansson Mild
A complex mixture of electromagnetic fields is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): static, low-frequency, and radio frequency magnetic fields. Commonly, the static magnetic field ranges from one to three Tesla. The low-frequency field can reach several millitesla and with a time derivative of the order of some Tesla per second. The radiofrequency (RF) field has a magnitude in the microtesla range giving rise to specific absorption rate values of a few Watts per kilogram. Very little attention has been paid to the case where there is a combined exposure to several different fields at the same time...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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