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pediatric experimental study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350481/emotion-regulation-and-positive-affect-in-the-context-of-salivary-alpha-amylase-response-to-pain-in-children-with-cancer
#1
Brooke N Jenkins, Douglas A Granger, Ryan J Roemer, Ariana Martinez, Tara K Torres, Michelle A Fortier
BACKGROUND: Children with cancer routinely undergo painful medical procedures invoking strong physiological stress responses. Resilience to this pain may be conferred through resources such as emotion regulation strategies and positive affect. PROCEDURE: This study measured dispositional positive affect in children with cancer (N = 73) and randomly assigned participants to one of three emotion regulation strategy conditions (distraction, reappraisal, or reassurance)...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346225/validating-lung-models-using-the-asl-5000-breathing-simulator
#2
Amanda Dexter, Neil McNinch, Destiny Kaznoch, Teresa A Volsko
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to validate pediatric models with normal and altered pulmonary mechanics. METHODS: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for studies directly measuring pulmonary mechanics of healthy infants and children, infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neuromuscular disease. The ASL 5000 was used to construct models using tidal volume (VT), inspiratory time (TI), respiratory rate, resistance, compliance, and esophageal pressure gleaned from literature...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338744/new-insights-in-the-relative-radiobiological-effectiveness-of-proton-irradiation
#3
REVIEW
K Ilicic, S E Combs, T E Schmid
BACKGROUND: Proton radiotherapy is a form of charged particle therapy that is preferentially applied for the treatment of tumors positioned near to critical structures due to their physical characteristics, showing an inverted depth-dose profile. The sparing of normal tissue has additional advantages in the treatment of pediatric patients, in whom the risk of secondary cancers and late morbidity is significantly higher. Up to date, a fixed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1...
January 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329438/patient-perspectives-on-how-physicians-communicate-diagnostic-uncertainty-an-experimental-vignette-study
#4
Viraj Bhise, Ashley N D Meyer, Shailaja Menon, Geeta Singhal, Richard L Street, Traber D Giardina, Hardeep Singh
Objective: We evaluated the effects of three different strategies for communicating diagnostic uncertainty on patient perceptions of physician competence and visit satisfaction. Design/Setting: Experimental vignette-based study design involving pediatric cases presented to a convenience sample of parents living in a large US city. Participants/Intervention(s): Three vignettes were developed, each describing one of three different ways physicians communicated diagnostic uncertainty to parents-(i) explicit expression of uncertainty ('not sure' about diagnosis), (ii) implicit expression of uncertainty using broad differential diagnoses and (iii) implicit expression of uncertainty using 'most likely' diagnoses...
January 10, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323409/in-vitro-comparison-of-two-neonatal-ecmo-circuits-using-a-roller-or-centrifugal-pump-with-three-different-in-line-hemoconcentrators-for-maintaining-hemodynamic-energy-delivery-to-the-patient
#5
Madison Force, Morgan Moroi, Shigang Wang, David A Palanzo, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to compare three different hemoconcentrators (Hemocor HPH 400, Mini, and Junior) with two different neonatal ECMO circuits using a roller or a centrifugal pump at different pseudo-patient pressures and flow rates in terms of hemodynamic properties. This evidence-based research is necessary to optimize the ECMO circuitry for neonates. The circuits used a 300-mL soft-shell reservoir as a pseudo-patient approximating the blood volume of a 3 kg neonate, two blood pumps, and a Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator with three different in-line hemoconcentrators (Hemocor HPH 400, Mini, and Junior)...
January 11, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298246/improving-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-and-urgent-care-settings
#6
Nicole M Poole, Matthew P Kronman, Lori Rutman, Scott J Weissman, Russell T Migita, Derya Caglar, Danielle M Zerr
OBJECTIVES: Children with urinary tract infection (UTI) are often diagnosed in emergency and urgent care settings and increasingly are unnecessarily treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of a quality improvement intervention on empiric antibiotic prescribing for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI in children. METHODS: A local clinical pathway for uncomplicated UTI, introduced in June 2010, recommended empiric treatment with cephalexin, a narrow-spectrum (first-generation) cephalosporin antibiotic...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290750/an-update-on-anti-ige-therapy-in-pediatric-respiratory-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Amelia Licari, Riccardo Castagnoli, Elisa Panfili, Alessia Marseglia, Ilaria Brambilla, Gian Luigi Marseglia
Anti-IgE treatment represents a major breakthrough in the therapeutic management of severe allergic asthma. Omalizumab is the unique biologic treatment registered for asthma therapy in children. The clinical efficacy and safety of omalizumab treatment in the pediatric population has been extensively documented in specific trials and consistently expanded from real-life studies. In addition, new experimental evidence suggests that omalizumab may also interfere with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying airway remodeling...
March 2017: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279839/limited-approach-in-endoscopic-dacryocystorhinostomy-of-pediatrics
#8
Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi, Afrooz Eshaghian
Background: Limited spatial nasal cavity in children, make pediatric dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) a difficult surgical procedure. We apply a limited approach to pediatric DCR and follow them for their consequences. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was done in pediatric DCR with limited approach (age < 14-year-old). After written consent, with general anesthesia, with nasal endoscopic surgery, lacrimal bone is exposed and extruded. In contrast with routine procedure, ascending process of maxillary sinus reserve; and marsupialization and wide exposure to lacrimal sac was done only by lacrimal bone defect; and cannulation preserve with temporary silicone tube...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260752/-safety-of-the-russian-antiviral-drug-kagocel
#9
T G Borovskaya
The review gives summarized information on the preclinical data and clinical trials evaluating the safety of the antiviral drug Kagocel. It notes that the manufacturer of the drug pay special attention to the control of its impurity content. There is information on the development and validation of highly sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography procedures, the application of which can guarantee that free gossypol impurities are absent in the drug. The results of preclinical toxicity study of Kagocel in experiments on laboratory animals are briefly reviewed; particular attention is paid to the investigation of the drug's safety for the reproductive system of immature animals...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248202/clonidine-administration-during-intraoperative-monitoring-for-pediatric-scoliosis-surgery-effects-on-central-and-peripheral-motor-responses
#10
Pedro Calderón, Paul Deltenre, Ida Stany, Jean-Paul Kaleeta Maalu, Magali Stevens, Jean Lamoureux, Michel Bellemans, Sylvie Dujardin, Philippe Van der Linden, Bernard Dachy
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of clonidine administrated as a co-analgesic during scoliosis surgery, on the neuromonitoring of spinal motor pathways. METHODS: Using standardized intraoperative monitoring, we compared the time course of peripherally and transcranially electrically evoked motor potentials (TcEMEPs) before and after injection of a single bolus of clonidine in children under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). MEP data were obtained from 9 patients and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were obtained from 2 patients...
December 13, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240025/hypovitamininosis-d-in-childhood-cancer-survivors-importance-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-and-measurement-over-different-points-of-time
#11
Ashraf Fouda, Shaimaa Kandil, Khadijah Boujettif, Najwa Fayea
This observational retrospective cross-sectional and case-controlled study measures levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-VD) in pediatric cancer survivors at different intervals and assesses the effect of 2 supplementation regimens over a period of 12 months. Sixty-eight patients were included in this quasi-experimental study, of which 32 were boys and 36 were girls. A control group of 30 healthy children were included. It was found that initial 25-OH-VD levels were insufficient (<30 ng/mL) in 61 patients (89...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229139/comparison-of-the-lund-and-browder-table-to-computed-tomography-scan-three-dimensional-surface-area-measurement-for-a-pediatric-cohort
#12
R Wolfgang Rumpf, William C L Stewart, Stephen K Martinez, Chandra Y Gerrard, Natalie L Adolphi, Rajan Thakkar, Alan Coleman, Adrian Rajab, William C Ray, Renata Fabia
BACKGROUND: Treating burns effectively requires accurately assessing the percentage of the total body surface area (%TBSA) affected by burns. Current methods for estimating %TBSA, such as Lund and Browder (L&B) tables, rely on historic body statistics. An increasingly obese population has been blamed for increasing errors in %TBSA estimates. However, this assumption has not been experimentally validated. We hypothesized that errors in %TBSA estimates using L&B were due to differences in the physical proportions of today's children compared with children in the early 1940s when the chart was developed and that these differences would appear as body mass index (BMI)-associated systematic errors in the L&B values versus actual body surface areas...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218773/illness-and-end-of-life-experiences-of-children-with-cancer-who-receive-palliative-care
#13
Erica C Kaye, Courtney A Gushue, Samantha DeMarsh, Jonathan Jerkins, April Sykes, Zhaohua Lu, Jennifer M Snaman, Lindsay Blazin, Liza-Marie Johnson, Deena R Levine, R Ray Morrison, Justin N Baker
BACKGROUND: The field of pediatric palliative oncology is newly emerging. Little is known about the characteristics and illness experiences of children with cancer who receive palliative care (PC). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 321 pediatric oncology patients enrolled in PC who died between 2011 and 2015 was conducted at a large academic pediatric cancer center using a comprehensive standardized data extraction tool. RESULTS: The majority of pediatric palliative oncology patients received experimental therapy (79...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216702/-sonographic-evaluation-of-achilles-tendon-healing-in-tenotomies-for-congenital-clubfoot-and-ponsetis-treatment-a-12-week-follow-up
#14
J G Ríos-Ruiz, D M González-Torres, L A Valdez-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the healing time of Achilles tendon in pediatric patients treated with Achilles tenotomy with the Ponseti method in Shriners Childrens Hospital of Mexico, AC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental, analytical, prospective, longitudinal study of patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic congenital clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method with serial static and dynamic evaluation by ultrasound in real time with a Siemens Diagnostic Ultrasound System Sonoline 650, linear transducer 10...
May 2017: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207503/detection-of-nuclear-protein-profile-changes-by-human-metapneumovirus-m2-2-protein-using-quantitative-differential-proteomics
#15
Yuping Ren, Eunjin Choi, Ke Zhang, Yu Chen, Sha Ye, Xiaoling Deng, Kangling Zhang, Xiaoyong Bao
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s) in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are involved in the interruption of antiviral signaling, namely the interaction between the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS) proteins. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the overall and novel impact of M2-2 motifs on cellular responses via an unbiased comparison...
December 3, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207249/preschoolers-health-related-quality-of-life-following-the-implementation-of-a-childcare-physical-activity-intervention
#16
Stephanie Truelove, Andrew M Johnson, Leigh M Vanderloo, Molly Driediger, Shauna M Burke, Jennifer D Irwin, Brian W Timmons, Anca Gaston, Patricia Tucker
BACKGROUND: Being active offers many physical and emotional benefits contributing to a higher health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, this relationship remains unexplored among preschoolers (2.5-5 years). This study examined the impact of the Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment (SPACE); an intervention implemented using a cluster randomized controlled trial on preschoolers' HRQoL. METHODS: Childcare centres were randomly allocated to the experimental (n = 11) or control (n = 11) condition, and preschoolers' HRQoL was measured using the parent-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4...
December 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196979/changes-in-arterial-pressure-and-markers-of-nitric-oxide-homeostasis-and-oxidative-stress-following-surgical-correction-of-hydronephrosis-in-children
#17
Ammar Al-Mashhadi, Antonio Checa, Nils Wåhlin, Tryggve Neveus, Magdalena Fossum, Craig E Wheelock, Birgitta Karanikas, Arne Stenberg, A Erik G Persson, Mattias Carlstrom
OBJECTIVE: Recent clinical studies have suggested an increased risk of elevated arterial pressure in patients with hydronephrosis. Animals with experimentally induced hydronephrosis develop hypertension, which is correlated to the degree of obstruction and increased oxidative stress. In this prospective study we investigated changes in arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis following correction of hydronephrosis. METHODS: Ambulatory arterial pressure (24 h) was monitored in pediatric patients with hydronephrosis (n = 15) before and after surgical correction, and the measurements were compared with arterial pressure measurements in two control groups, i...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196632/automated-vss-based-burn-scar-assessment-using-combined-texture-and-color-features-of-digital-images-in-error-correcting-output-coding
#18
Tuan D Pham, Matilda Karlsson, Caroline M Andersson, Robin Mirdell, Folke Sjoberg
Assessment of burn scars is an important study in both medical research and clinical settings because it can help determine response to burn treatment and plan optimal surgical procedures. Scar rating has been performed using both subjective observations and objective measuring devices. However, there is still a lack of consensus with respect to the accuracy, reproducibility, and feasibility of the current methods. Computerized scar assessment appears to have potential for meeting such requirements but has been rarely found in literature...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194591/a-mutational-comparison-of-adult-and-adolescent-and-young-adult-aya-colon-cancer
#19
James V Tricoli, Lisa A Boardman, Rajesh Patidar, Sivasish Sindiri, Jin S Jang, William D Walsh, Paul M McGregor, Corinne E Camalier, Michele G Mehaffey, Wayne L Furman, Armita Bahrami, P Mickey Williams, Chih-Jian Lih, Barbara A Conley, Javed Khan
BACKGROUND: It is possible that the relative lack of progress in treatment outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer is caused by a difference in disease biology compared with the corresponding diseases in younger and older individuals. There is evidence that colon cancer is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis in AYA patients than in older adult patients. METHODS: To further understand the molecular basis for this difference, whole-exome sequencing was conducted on a cohort of 30 adult, 30 AYA, and 2 pediatric colon cancers...
November 30, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190801/comparison-between-manual-and-mechanical-chest-compressions-during-resuscitation-in-a-pediatric-animal-model-of-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jorge López, Sarah N Fernández, Rafael González, María J Solana, Javier Urbano, Blanca Toledo, Jesús López-Herce
AIMS: Chest compressions (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are not sufficiently effective in many circumstances. Mechanical CC could be more effective than manual CC, but there are no studies comparing both techniques in children. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of manual and mechanical chest compressions with Thumper device in a pediatric cardiac arrest animal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An experimental model of asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) in 50 piglets (mean weight 9...
2017: PloS One
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