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Smoking in multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027843/the-impact-of-vascular-risk-factors-on-brain-volume-and-lesion-load-in-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Alexander Pichler, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Daniela Pinter, Stefan Ropele, Siegrid Fuchs, Gerhard Bachmaier, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors (VRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been associated with lower brain volumes. It is currently unknown if this association already exists in early MS and how it develops over time. METHODS: We identified 82 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ( n = 61) or with early relapsing-remitting MS ( n = 21) and assessed their VRF including arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking. We analysed T2-lesion load, normalized brain volume (NBV), cortical grey (cGMV) and white matter volumes (WMV), thalamic and basal ganglia volumes at baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC) using SIENA...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#2
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933265/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-multiple-sclerosis-biology-biochemistry-epidemiology-and-potential-roles-in-treatment
#3
Steve Simpson, Ingrid van der Mei, Bruce Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system, manifesting in loss or alterations in function of sensory, motor and cognitive function. Of the various environmental and behavioural risk factors identified as playing a role in MS onset and progression, perhaps none has been as consistent as vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we will endeavour to present a general background on the role of vitamin D in human health and particularly in MS, as well as the substantial epidemiological evidence in support of vitamin D's role in MS...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928713/pain-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-associations-with-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-fatigue-depression-anxiety-and-mental-health-quality-of-life
#4
Claudia H Marck, Alysha M De Livera, Tracey J Weiland, Pia L Jelinek, Sandra L Neate, Chelsea R Brown, Keryn L Taylor, Fary Khan, George A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience pain, which can interfere with mobility, employment, and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: This cross-sectional study explored associations between pain, demographic, disease, and modifiable lifestyle factors in an international sample of people with MS recruited online. RESULTS: Substantial pain, of moderate/severe intensity and interfering at least moderately with work/household or enjoyment of life in the past 4 weeks, was reported by 682/2,362 (28...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860328/vascular-pathology-in-multiple-sclerosis-reframing-pathogenesis-around-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan I Spencer, Jack S Bell, Gabriele C DeLuca
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has long been recognised as an important early feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Traditionally, this has been seen as a by-product of the myelin-specific immune response. Here, we consider whether vascular changes instead play a central role in disease pathogenesis, rather than representing a secondary effect of neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration. Importantly, this is not necessarily mutually exclusive from current hypotheses. Vascular pathology in a genetically predisposed individual, influenced by environmental factors such as pathogens, hypovitaminosis D and smoking, may be a critical initiator of a series of events including hypoxia, protein deposition and immune cell egress that allows the development of a CNS-specific immune response and the classical pathological and clinical hallmarks of disease...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855411/epstein-barr-virus-cytomegalovirus-and-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility-a-multiethnic-study
#6
Annette Langer-Gould, Jun Wu, Robyn Lucas, Jessica Smith, Edlin Gonzales, Lilyana Amezcua, Samantha Haraszti, Lie Hong Chen, Hong Quach, Judith A James, Lisa F Barcellos, Anny H Xiang
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in blacks and Hispanics and to what extent measures of the hygiene hypothesis or breastfeeding could explain these findings. EBV and CMV have been associated with MS risk in whites, and the timing and frequency of both viruses vary by factors implicated in the hygiene hypothesis. METHODS: Incident cases of MS or its precursor, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and matched controls (blacks, 111 cases/128 controls; Hispanics, 173/187; whites, 235/256) were recruited from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California...
September 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843454/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-genes-environment-and-a-comprehensive-therapeutic-approach
#7
REVIEW
Ryan Cappa, Liana Theroux, J Nicholas Brenton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842447/no-association-between-dietary-sodium-intake-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Marianna Cortese, Changzheng Yuan, Tanuja Chitnis, Alberto Ascherio, Kassandra L Munger
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. METHODS: In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up...
September 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766461/hypermethylation-of-mir21-in-cd4-t-cells-from-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-associates-with-lower-mirna-21-levels-and-concomitant-up-regulation-of-its-target-genes
#9
Sabrina Ruhrmann, Ewoud Ewing, Eliane Piket, Lara Kular, Julio Cesar Cetrulo Lorenzi, Sunjay Jude Fernandes, Hiromasa Morikawa, Shahin Aeinehband, Sergi Sayols-Baixeras, Stella Aslibekyan, Devin M Absher, Donna K Arnett, Jesper Tegner, David Gomez-Cabrero, Fredrik Piehl, Maja Jagodic
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by genetic and environmental factors. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that controls genome activity, may provide a link between genetic and environmental risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify DNA methylation changes in CD4+ T cells in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR-MS) and secondary-progressive (SP-MS) disease and healthy controls (HC)...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754822/epigenetic-research-in-multiple-sclerosis-progress-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Galina Zheleznyakova, Eliane Piket, Francesco Marabita, Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Ewoud Ewing, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Maria Needhamsen, Maja Jagodic, Lara Kular
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS likely results from a complex interplay between predisposing causal gene variants (the strongest influence coming from HLA class II locus) and environmental risk factors such as smoking, infectious mononucleosis and lack of sun exposure/vitamin D. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying MS development and progression. Moreover, the clinical heterogeneity and variable response to treatment represent additional challenges to a comprehensive understanding and efficient treatment of disease...
July 28, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717432/multiple-sclerosis-a-disease-on-a-dramatically-rising-trend-in-iran-review-of-possible-reasons
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mohammad Sahebkar, Rouhullah Dehghani, Milad Derakhshan-Jazari, Vahid Kazami-Moghaddam, Ebrahim Kouchaki
There has been a global rising trend in recent years in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite being an MS low-risk region, this disease has also been recently on the rise in the Middle East. As part of the Middle East, Iran has not been spared either; however, the cause of this dramatic increase remains to be discovered. This study reviews possible reasons for this increase in Iran. Although many factors such as the increased rate of smoking, lifestyle changes, modernization, and contact with toxic solvents can be proposed as reasons for this sudden rise in the prevalence of MS in Iran, these factors cannot be taken as definite causes and further studies are required to prove their impact...
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#12
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633629/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-cognitive-and-sleep-symptoms-in-me-cfs-and-ms
#13
Vageesh Jain, Amit Arunkumar, Caroline Kingdon, Eliana Lacerda, Luis Nacul
BACKGROUND: There are considerable phenotypic and neuroimmune overlaps between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While the precise aetiologies of both MS and ME/CFS are unclear, evidence suggests that deterioration in cognitive function is widely prevalent in patients with either condition. Little is known about differing risk factors or exposures, which may lead to severe cognitive or sleep symptoms. This study aims to gauge the extent of cognitive and sleep symptoms in ME/CFS and MS patients participating in the UK ME/CFS Biobank and identify the characteristics of those experiencing severe symptoms...
June 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619429/vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Jean-Claude Souberbielle
The most recent findings linking exposure to sun and vitamin D insufficiency to multiple sclerosis (MS) are reviewed. Due to insufficient sunshine and changing lifestyles, hypovitaminosis D is widespread in temperate countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that sunshine and vitamin D insufficiency contributes to MS risk in these countries. Moreover, several large genetic studies in MS patients have recently stated unequivocally that diverse abnormalities involving vitamin D metabolism are related to the risk of the disease...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597127/the-interaction-between-smoking-and-hla-genes-in-multiple-sclerosis-replication-and-refinement
#15
Anna Karin Hedström, Michail Katsoulis, Ola Hössjer, Izaura L Bomfim, Annette Oturai, Helle Bach Sondergaard, Finn Sellebjerg, Henrik Ullum, Lise Wegner Thørner, Marte Wendel Gustavsen, Hanne F Harbo, Dragana Obradovic, Milena A Gianfrancesco, Lisa F Barcellos, Catherine A Schaefer, Jan Hillert, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson, Lars Alfredsson
Interactions between environment and genetics may contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) development. We investigated whether the previously observed interaction between smoking and HLA genotype in the Swedish population could be replicated, refined and extended to include other populations. We used six independent case-control studies from five different countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Serbia, United States). A pooled analysis was performed for replication of previous observations (7190 cases, 8876 controls)...
June 8, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577864/cigarette-smoking-alcohol-consumption-and-overweight-in-multiple-sclerosis-disability-progression
#16
Wayra Citlali Paz-Ballesteros, Eric Alejandro Monterrubio-Flores, José de Jesús Flores-Rivera, Teresa Corona-Vázquez, Carlos Hernández-Girón
BACKGROUND: The rate at which disability progresses in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its severity, have been associated with modifiable lifestyle habits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of disability progression in MS patients according to tobacco and alcohol consumption and to the presence of overweight. METHODS: This was a follow-up of MS cases from a concluded case-control study (National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico 2010-2013)...
January 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562303/maternal-and-perinatal-exposures-are-associated-with-risk-for-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Jennifer S Graves, Tanuja Chitnis, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Jennifer Rubin, Aaron S Zelikovitch, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Timothy Simmons, Michael Waltz, T Charles Casper, Emmanuelle Waubant
OBJECTIVE: To determine if prenatal, pregnancy, or postpartum-related environmental factors are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in children. METHODS: This is a case-control study of children with MS or clinically isolated syndrome and healthy controls enrolled at 16 clinics participating in the US Network of Pediatric MS Centers. Parents completed a comprehensive environmental questionnaire, including the capture of pregnancy and perinatal factors. Case status was confirmed by a panel of 3 pediatric MS specialists...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558143/parsing-disease-relevant-protein-modifications-from-epiphenomena-perspective-on-the-structural-basis-of-sod1-mediated-als
#18
N D Schmitt, J N Agar
Conformational change and modification of proteins are involved in many cellular functions. However, they can also have adverse effects that are implicated in numerous diseases. How structural change promotes disease is generally not well-understood. This perspective illustrates how mass spectrometry (MS), followed by toxicological and epidemiological validation, can discover disease-relevant structural changes and therapeutic strategies. We (with our collaborators) set out to characterize the structural and toxic consequences of disease-associated mutations and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the cytosolic antioxidant protein Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1)...
July 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432518/correlation-between-heavy-metal-exposure-and-gstm1-polymorphism-in-iranian-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#19
Mehdi Aliomrani, Mohammad A Sahraian, Hamid Shirkhanloo, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad R Khoshayand, Mohammad H Ghahremani
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Various exposures to heavy metals can lead to toxicity and oxidative stress. While glutathione-S-transferases are known as oxidative stress-related genes and involved in metal biotransformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the correlation of GSTM1 polymorphism in MS patients and the possible association with blood concentration of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) as major heavy metal pollutants...
July 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427711/maternal-and-perinatal-characteristics-of-infants-who-later-in-life-developed-multiple-sclerosis-record-linkage-study
#20
Alexander Goldacre, Julia Pakpoor, Michael Goldacre
BACKGROUND: Pre-natal and early life factors may have a role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis in some people. However, the reporting of any influence of maternal and perinatal factors on MS risk has been limited. We aimed to study maternal and perinatal characteristics of babies who went on to develop MS. METHODS: Data were analysed from the historical Oxford Record Linkage Study dataset 1970-1989, which incorporated a specialised maternity dataset with record linkage between mother and baby, covering a population of 850,000...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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