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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534876/alpine-soil-carbon-is-vulnerable-to-rapid-microbial-decomposition-under-climate-cooling
#1
Linwei Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Shiping Wang, Haowei Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Yigang Hu, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Lauren Hale, Xiangzhen Li, Jack A Gilbert, Jizhong Zhou
As climate cooling is increasingly regarded as important natural variability of long-term global warming trends, there is a resurging interest in understanding its impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we report a soil transplant experiment from lower to higher elevations in a Tibetan alpine grassland to simulate the impact of cooling on ecosystem community structure and function. Three years of cooling resulted in reduced plant productivity and microbial functional potential (for example, carbon respiration and nutrient cycling)...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#2
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#3
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to -36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498940/contribution-of-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacteria-to-total-organic-carbon-pool-in-aquatic-system-of-subtropical-karst-catchments-southwest-china-evidence-from-hydrochemical-and-microbiological-study
#4
Qiang Li, Ang Song, Wenjie Peng, Zhenjiang Jin, Werner E G Müller, Xiaohong Wang
Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria may play a particular role in carbon cycling of aquatic systems. However, little is known about the interaction between aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and hydrochemistry in groundwater-surface water exchange systems of subtropical karst catchments. We carried out a detailed study on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and bacterioplankton, hydrochemistry and taxonomy of bacterioplankton in the Maocun watershed, Southwest China, an area with karst geological background...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480014/maximum-thermal-tolerance-trades-off-with-chronic-tolerance-of-high-temperature-in-contrasting-thermal-populations-of-radix-balthica
#5
Magnus P Johansson, Anssi Laurila
Thermal adaptation theory predicts that thermal specialists evolve in environments with low temporal and high spatial thermal variation, whereas thermal generalists are favored in environments with high temporal and low spatial variation. The thermal environment of many organisms is predicted to change with globally increasing temperatures and thermal specialists are presumably at higher risk than thermal generalists. Here we investigated critical thermal maximum (CT max) and preferred temperature (Tp) in populations of the common pond snail (Radix balthica) originating from a small-scale system of geothermal springs in northern Iceland, where stable cold (ca...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474480/differential-responses-of-marine-mesohaline-and-oligohaline-bacterial-communities-to-the-addition-of-terrigenous-carbon
#6
Dpr Herlemann, M Manecki, T Dittmar, K Jürgens
In response to global warming, increasing quantities of tDOM are transported through estuaries from land to the sea. In this study we investigated microbial responses to increased tDOM concentrations in three salinity regimes (salinity: 32, 7 and 3) characteristic of the Baltic Sea. Mesocosm experiments performed in May and November revealed low (0-6%) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization. Molecular DOM analyses using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry identified the terrigenous signal in the tDOM manipulation, but the molecular changes in DOM levels over the course of the experiment were subtle...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464547/conventional-tillage-decreases-the-abundance-and-biomass-of-earthworms-and-alters-their-community-structure-in-a-global-meta-analysis
#7
Maria J I Briones, Olaf Schmidt
The adoption of less intensive soil cultivation practices is expected to increase earthworm populations and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. However, conflicting results have been reported on the effects of tillage intensity on earthworm populations, attributed in narrative reviews to site-dependent differences in soil properties, climatic conditions, and agronomic operations (e.g., fertilization, residue management and chemical crop protection). We present a quantitative review based on a global meta-analysis, using paired observations from 215 studies performed over 65 years (1950-2016) across 40 countries on five continents, to elucidate this long-standing unresolved issue...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464113/breeding-and-genetics-symposium-climate-change-and-selective-breeding-in-aquaculture
#8
P Sae-Lim, A Kause, H A Mulder, I Olesen
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460041/warming-alters-prey-density-and-biological-control-in-conventional-and-organic-agricultural-systems
#9
Ebony G Murrell, Brandon T Barton
: Studies have shown that organically farmed fields promote natural predator populations and often have lower pest populations than conventional fields, due to a combination of increased predation pressure and greater plant resistance to pest damage. It is unknown how pest populations and predator efficacy may respond in these farming systems as global temperatures increase. To test these questions, we placed enclosures in eight alfalfa fields farmed using conventional (n = 4) or organic (n = 4) practices for 25 years...
April 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458681/elevation-shift-in-abies-mill-pinaceae-of-subtropical-and-temperate-china-and-vietnam-corroborative-evidence-from-cytoplasmic-dna-and-ecological-niche-modeling
#10
Yi-Zhen Shao, Xian-Chun Zhang, Loc Ke Phan, Qiao-Ping Xiang
The "elevational shift" scenario has been proposed as a model to explain the response of cold-adapted organisms to Quaternary climatic fluctuations in Europe and North America. However, the elevational shift model has not been well-explored in eastern Asia, which is more topographically complex than the other Northern Hemisphere biogeographic regions. Here, we evaluated the role of elevational shift in the closely related firs, or Abies Mill., of subtropical and temperate China. These firs are typical alpine trees with sensitivity to climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458674/impact-of-combined-abiotic-and-biotic-stresses-on-plant-growth-and-avenues-for-crop-improvement-by-exploiting-physio-morphological-traits
#11
REVIEW
Prachi Pandey, Vadivelmurugan Irulappan, Muthukumar V Bagavathiannan, Muthappa Senthil-Kumar
Global warming leads to the concurrence of a number of abiotic and biotic stresses, thus affecting agricultural productivity. Occurrence of abiotic stresses can alter plant-pest interactions by enhancing host plant susceptibility to pathogenic organisms, insects, and by reducing competitive ability with weeds. On the contrary, some pests may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Therefore, systematic studies are pivotal to understand the effect of concurrent abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop productivity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455440/sperm-in-hot-water-direct-and-indirect-thermal-challenges-interact-to-impact-on-brown-trout-sperm-quality
#12
Miriam Fenkes, John L Fitzpatrick, Karlina Ozolina, Holly A Shiels, Robert L Nudds
Recent and future climate change alters the thermal habitat of aquatic species on a global scale, generating novel environmental challenges during all life stages, including reproduction. Changes in water temperature profoundly influence the performance of ectothermic aquatic organisms. This is an especially crucial issue for migratory fish, because they traverse multiple environments in order to reproduce. In externally fertilizing migratory fish, gametes are affected by water temperature indirectly, within the reproductive organ in which they are produced during migration, as well as directly upon release into the surrounding medium upon arrival at their spawning grounds...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451962/estimation-of-green-house-gas-emissions-from-koteshwar-hydropower-reservoir-india
#13
Amit Kumar, M P Sharma
The emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from soils are of significant importance for global warming. The biological and physico-chemical characteristics of soil affect the GHG emissions from soils of different land use types. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) production rates from six forest and agricultural soil types in the Koteshwar hydropower reservoir catchments located in the Uttarakhand, India, were estimated and their relations with physico-chemical characteristics of soils were examined...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447639/frequency-of-extreme-sahelian-storms-tripled-since-1982-in-satellite-observations
#14
Christopher M Taylor, Danijel Belušić, Françoise Guichard, Douglas J Parker, Théo Vischel, Olivier Bock, Phil P Harris, Serge Janicot, Cornelia Klein, Gérémy Panthou
The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify under global warming, with studies reporting more frequent extreme rain events in many regions of the world, and predicting increases in future flood frequency. Such early, predominantly mid-latitude observations are essential because of shortcomings within climate models in their depiction of convective rainfall. A globally important group of intense storms-mesoscale convective systems (MCSs)-poses a particular challenge, because they organize dynamically on spatial scales that cannot be resolved by conventional climate models...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441781/dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-5
#15
REVIEW
Abbas El Sahili, Julien Lescar
The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441613/atmospheric-degradation-of-2-chloroethyl-vinyl-ether-allyl-ether-and-allyl-ethyl-ether-kinetics-with-oh-radicals-and-uv-photochemistry
#16
M Antiñolo, A J Ocaña, J P Aranguren, S I Lane, J Albaladejo, E Jiménez
Unsaturated ethers are oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted by anthropogenic sources. Potential removal processes in the troposphere are initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photochemistry. In this work, we report for the first time the rate coefficients of the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals (kOH) of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (2ClEVE), allyl ether (AE), and allyl ethyl ether (AEE) as a function of temperature in the 263-358 K range, measured by the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique...
April 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441489/comparison-of-gasoline-direct-injection-gdi-and-port-fuel-injection-pfi-vehicle-emissions-emission-certification-standards-cold-start-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-potential-and-potential-climate-impacts
#17
Georges Saliba, Rawad Saleh, Yunliang Zhao, Albert A Presto, Andrew T Lambe, Bruce Frodin, Satya Sardar, Hector Maldonado, Christine Maddox, Andrew A May, Greg T Drozd, Allen H Goldstein, Lynn M Russell, Fabian Hagen, Allen L Robinson
Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV)...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440800/the-trichodesmium-consortium-conserved-heterotrophic-co-occurrence-and-genomic-signatures-of-potential-interactions
#18
Michael D Lee, Nathan G Walworth, Erin L McParland, Fei-Xue Fu, Tracy J Mincer, Naomi M Levine, David A Hutchins, Eric A Webb
The nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is globally distributed in warm, oligotrophic oceans, where it contributes a substantial proportion of new N and fuels primary production. These photoautotrophs form macroscopic colonies that serve as relatively nutrient-rich substrates that are colonized by many other organisms. The nature of these associations may modulate ocean N and carbon (C) cycling, and can offer insights into marine co-evolutionary mechanisms. Here we integrate multiple omics-based and experimental approaches to investigate Trichodesmium-associated bacterial consortia in both laboratory cultures and natural environmental samples...
April 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423463/temperature-regulation-of-marine-heterotrophic-prokaryotes-increases-latitudinally-as-a-breach-between-bottom-up-and-top-down-controls
#19
Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Josep M Gasol, Massimo C Pernice, Jean-François Mangot, Ramon Massana, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Carlos M Duarte
Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth)...
April 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414883/temperature-and-rainfall-interact-to-control-carbon-cycling-in-tropical-forests
#20
REVIEW
Philip G Taylor, Cory C Cleveland, William R Wieder, Benjamin W Sullivan, Christopher E Doughty, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Alan R Townsend
Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally...
April 17, 2017: Ecology Letters
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