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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423463/temperature-regulation-of-marine-heterotrophic-prokaryotes-increases-latitudinally-as-a-breach-between-bottom-up-and-top-down-controls
#1
Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Josep M Gasol, Massimo C Pernice, Jean-François Mangot, Ramon Massana, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Carlos M Duarte
Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth)...
April 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414883/temperature-and-rainfall-interact-to-control-carbon-cycling-in-tropical-forests
#2
REVIEW
Philip G Taylor, Cory C Cleveland, William R Wieder, Benjamin W Sullivan, Christopher E Doughty, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Alan R Townsend
Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally...
April 17, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401394/revisiting-inland-hypoxia-diverse-exceedances-of-dissolved-oxygen-thresholds-for-freshwater-aquatic-life
#3
Gavin N Saari, Zhen Wang, Bryan W Brooks
Water resources in many regions are stressed by impairments resulting from climate change, population growth and urbanization. In the United States (US), water quality criteria (WQC) and standards (WQS) were established to protect surface waters and associated designated uses, including aquatic life. In inland waters of the south central US, for example, depressed dissolved oxygen (DO) consistently results in impaired aquatic systems due to noncompliance with DO WQC and WQS. In the present study, we systematically examined currently available DO threshold data for freshwater fish and invertebrates and performed probabilistic aquatic hazard assessments with low DO toxicity data that were used to derive the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for DO and newly published information...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397187/synthesis-of-ureas-from-co2
#4
REVIEW
Hua Wang, Zhuo Xin, Yuehui Li
Ureas are an important class of bioactive organic compounds in organic chemistry and exist widely in natural products, agricultural pesticides, uron herbicides, pharmaceuticals. Even though urea itself has been synthesized from CO2 and ammonia for a long time, the selective and efficient synthesis of substituted ureas is still challenging due to the difficulty of dehydration processes. Efficient and economic fixation of CO2 is of great importance in solving the problems of resource shortages, environmental issues, global warming, etc...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390314/trade-off-between-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotations-implications-of-a-25-year-fertilization-experiment-in-northwestern-china
#5
Jiangxin Gu, Mengxuan Yuan, Jixuan Liu, Yaoxu Hao, Yingtian Zhou, Dong Qu, Xueyun Yang
The primary aims of this study were to (i) quantify the variations in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates under winter wheat-summer maize cropping systems in Guanzhong Plain and (ii) evaluate the impact of organic amendments on greenhouse gas mitigation over a long-term period. We measured N2O fluxes during the maize season in 2015 under four fertilizer regimes in a long-term fertilization experiment. Soil was treated with only synthetic fertilizers in the maize season and with synthetic fertilizers, synthetic fertilizers plus crop residues and synthetic fertilizers plus low and high levels of dairy manure in the winter wheat season from 1990...
April 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387042/circumpolar-dynamics-of-a-marine-top-predator-track-ocean-warming-rates
#6
S Descamps, T Anker-Nilssen, R T Barrett, D B Irons, F Merkel, G J Robertson, N G Yoccoz, M L Mallory, W A Montevecchi, D Boertmann, Y Artukhin, S Christensen-Dalsgaard, K E Erikstad, H G Gilchrist, A L Labansen, S-H Lorentsen, A Mosbech, B Olsen, A Petersen, J-F Rail, H M Renner, H Strøm, G H Systad, S I Wilhelm, L Zelenskaya
Global warming is a non-linear process and temperature may increase in a stepwise manner. Periods of abrupt warming can trigger persistent changes in the state of ecosystems, also called regime shifts. The responses of organisms to abrupt warming and associated regime shifts can be unlike responses to periods of slow or moderate change. Understanding of non-linearity in the biological responses to climate warming is needed to assess the consequences of ongoing climate change. Here we demonstrate that the population dynamics of a long-lived, wide-ranging marine predator are associated with changes in the rate of ocean warming...
April 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378792/degradation-potentials-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-doc-from-thawed-permafrost-peat
#7
Balathandayuthabani Panneer Selvam, Jean-François Lapierre, Francois Guillemette, Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Christina Biasi, Torben R Christensen, Pertti J Martikainen, Martin Berggren
Global warming can substantially affect the export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat-permafrost to aquatic systems. The direct degradability of such peat-derived DOC, however, is poorly constrained because previous permafrost thaw studies have mainly addressed mineral soil catchments or DOC pools that have already been processed in surface waters. We incubated peat cores from a palsa mire to compare an active layer and an experimentally thawed permafrost layer with regard to DOC composition and degradation potentials of pore water DOC...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341676/anaerobic-methane-oxidation-driven-by-microbial-reduction-of-natural-organic-matter-in-a-tropical-wetland
#8
Edgardo I Valenzuela, Alejandra Prieto-Davó, Nguyen E López-Lozano, Alberto Hernández-Eligio, Leticia Vega-Alvarado, Katy Juárez, Ana Sarahí García-González, Mercedes G López, Francisco J Cervantes
Wetlands constitute the main natural source of methane on Earth due to their high content of natural organic matter (NOM), but key drivers such as electron acceptors supporting methanotrophic activities in these habitats are poorly understood. We performed anoxic incubations using freshly collected sediment along with water samples harvested from a tropical wetland, amended with (13)C-methane (0.67 atm) to test the capacity of its microbial community to perform anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) linked to the reduction of the humic fraction of its NOM...
March 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317324/big-in-the-benthos-future-change-of-seafloor-community-biomass-in-a-global-body-size-resolved-model
#9
Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#10
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295022/impacts-of-twenty-years-of-experimental-warming-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-moisture-and-soil-mites-across-alpine-subarctic-tundra-communities
#11
Juha M Alatalo, Annika K Jägerbrand, Jaanis Juhanson, Anders Michelsen, Peter Ľuptáčik
High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291228/high-resolution-data-on-the-impact-of-warming-on-soil-co2-efflux-from-an-asian-monsoon-forest
#12
Naishen Liang, Munemasa Teramoto, Masahiro Takagi, Jiye Zeng
This paper describes a project for evaluation of global warming's impacts on soil carbon dynamics in Japanese forest ecosystems. We started a soil warming experiment in late 2008 in a 55-year-old evergreen broad-leaved forest at the boundary between the subtropical and warm-temperate biomes in southern Japan. We used infrared carbon-filament heat lamps to increase soil temperature by about 2.5 °C at a depth of 5 cm and continuously recorded CO2 emission from the soil surface using a multichannel automated chamber system...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279534/winter-ecology-of-a-subalpine-grassland-effects-of-snow-removal-on-soil-respiration-microbial-structure-and-function
#13
Konstantin Gavazov, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Robert T E Mills, Alexandre Buttler, Gerd Gleixner, Jukka Pumpanen, Michael Bahn
Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions...
March 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275727/extreme-warmth-and-heat-stressed-plankton-in-the-tropics-during-the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#14
Joost Frieling, Holger Gebhardt, Matthew Huber, Olabisi A Adekeye, Samuel O Akande, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jack J Middelburg, Stefan Schouten, Appy Sluijs
Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272033/sewage-sludge-as-fertiliser-environmental-assessment-of-storage-and-land-application-options
#15
A Willén, C Junestedt, L Rodhe, M Pell, H Jönsson
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242195/trade-off-between-dimethyl-sulfide-and-isoprene-emissions-from-marine-phytoplankton
#16
REVIEW
K G Srikanta Dani, Francesco Loreto
Marine phytoplankton emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and isoprene that influence air quality, cloud dynamics, and planetary albedo. We show that globally (i) marine phytoplankton taxa tend to emit either DMS or isoprene, and (ii) sea-water surface concentration and emission hotspots of DMS and isoprene have opposite latitudinal gradients. We argue that a convergence of antioxidant functions between DMS and isoprene is possible, driven by potential metabolic competition for photosynthetic substrates...
February 24, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208235/warmer-night-time-temperature-promotes-microbial-heterotrophic-activity-and-modifies-stream-sediment-community
#17
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Maria Casellas, Stoyana Pecheva, Anna M Romaní
Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203240/experimental-air-warming-of-a-stylosanthes-capitata-vogel-dominated-tropical-pasture-affects-soil-respiration-and-nitrogen-dynamics
#18
Miquel A Gonzalez-Meler, Lais B C Silva, Eduardo Dias-De-Oliveira, Charles E Flower, Carlos A Martinez
Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149178/saudiveg-ecoinformatics-aims-current-status-and-perspectives
#19
Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Jacob Thomas, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Sivadasan Mayandy, Stephan M Hennekens, Joop H J Schaminėe, Ladislav Mucina, Abdulla M Alansari
During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD)...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142211/stimulation-of-n2-o-emission-by-manure-application-to-agricultural-soils-may-largely-offset-carbon-benefits-a-global-meta-analysis
#20
Minghua Zhou, Bo Zhu, Shijie Wang, Xinyu Zhu, Harry Vereecken, Nicolas Brüggemann
Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
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