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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323288/impacts-of-simulated-erosion-and-soil-amendments-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-and-maize-yield-in-miamian-soil-of-central-ohio
#1
Yanru Liang, Rattan Lal, Shengli Guo, Ruiqiang Liu, Yaxian Hu
Erosion-induced topsoil loss is a threat to sustainable productivity. Topsoil removal from, or added to, the existing surface is an efficient technique to simulate on-site soil erosion and deposition. A 15-year simulated erosion was conducted at Waterman Farm of Ohio State University to assess impacts of topsoil depth on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and maize yield. Three topsoil treatments were investigated: 20 cm topsoil removal, 20 cm topsoil addition, and undisturbed control. Results show that the average global warming potential (GWP) (Mg CO2 Eq ha-1 growing season-1) from the topsoil removal plot (18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323116/impact-on-short-lived-climate-forcers-increases-projected-warming-due-to-deforestation
#2
C E Scott, S A Monks, D V Spracklen, S R Arnold, P M Forster, A Rap, M Äijälä, P Artaxo, K S Carslaw, M P Chipperfield, M Ehn, S Gilardoni, L Heikkinen, M Kulmala, T Petäjä, C L S Reddington, L V Rizzo, E Swietlicki, E Vignati, C Wilson
The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317730/large-scale-sill-emplacement-in-brazil-as-a-trigger-for-the-end-triassic-crisis
#3
Thea H Heimdal, Henrik H Svensen, Jahandar Ramezani, Karthik Iyer, Egberto Pereira, René Rodrigues, Morgan T Jones, Sara Callegaro
The end-Triassic is characterized by one of the largest mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic, coinciding with major carbon cycle perturbations and global warming. It has been suggested that the environmental crisis is linked to widespread sill intrusions during magmatism associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Sub-volcanic sills are abundant in two of the largest onshore sedimentary basins in Brazil, the Amazonas and Solimões basins, where they comprise up to 20% of the stratigraphy. These basins contain extensive deposits of carbonate and evaporite, in addition to organic-rich shales and major hydrocarbon reservoirs...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315312/taking-the-metabolic-pulse-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs
#4
Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E Corredor, Rob B Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I Kline, David A Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Meléndez, Heather N Page, Isaac R Santos, Kai G Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto
Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311751/measurement-and-correlation-of-the-viscosity-of-1-1-1-2-2-4-5-5-5-nonafluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-3-pentanone
#5
Chenyang Wen, Xianyang Meng, Marcia L Huber, Jiangtao Wu
The Paris Agreement on climate change, in which many nations have agreed to limit greenhouse gas emissions, has spurred interest in developing working fluids with low global warming potential (GWP) that can satisfy environmental concerns and have thermophysical properties that can meet engineering performance requirements. One such fluid is 1,1,1,2,2,4,5,5,5-nonafluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pentanone (also known as Novec-649 and Novec-1230), which has potential applications in organic Rankine cycles (ORC), electronics cooling, computer/data center cooling and fire extinguishing...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304182/high-colored-dissolved-organic-matter-cdom-absorption-in-surface-waters-of-the-central-eastern-arctic-ocean-implications-for-biogeochemistry-and-ocean-color-algorithms
#6
Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Benjamin Rabe, Ilka Peeken, Astrid Bracher
As consequences of global warming sea-ice shrinking, permafrost thawing and changes in fresh water and terrestrial material export have already been reported in the Arctic environment. These processes impact light penetration and primary production. To reach a better understanding of the current status and to provide accurate forecasts Arctic biogeochemical and physical parameters need to be extensively monitored. In this sense, bio-optical properties are useful to be measured due to the applicability of optical instrumentation to autonomous platforms, including satellites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302276/haemoglobin-mediated-response-to-hyper-thermal-stress-in-the-keystone-species-daphnia-magna
#7
Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Bettina Zeis, Luisa Orsini
Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300008/mean-global-ocean-temperatures-during-the-last-glacial-transition
#8
Bernhard Bereiter, Sarah Shackleton, Daniel Baggenstos, Kenji Kawamura, Jeff Severinghaus
Little is known about the ocean temperature's long-term response to climate perturbations owing to limited observations and a lack of robust reconstructions. Although most of the anthropogenic heat added to the climate system has been taken up by the ocean up until now, its role in a century and beyond is uncertain. Here, using noble gases trapped in ice cores, we show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.57 ± 0.24 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition (20,000 to 10,000 years ago)...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285561/latitudinal-variation-in-responses-of-a-forest-herbivore-and-its-egg-parasitoids-to-experimental-warming
#9
Mariana Abarca, John T Lill, Pablo Frank-Bolton
Disrupted biotic interactions are a predicted consequence of anthropogenic climate change when interactants differ in the magnitude or direction of phenological responses. Here, we examined the responses to artificial warming of northern, southern and central populations of the eastern tent caterpillar and its hymenopteran egg parasitoids. We subjected egg masses from each region to the typical conditions they experience in their source locality or to a warmer temperature regime, to quantify the effects of simulated warming on their relative phenology, survival and neonate starvation endurance...
December 28, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278348/the-importance-of-physician-climate-advocacy-in-the-face-of-political-denial
#10
Andrew Jameton
Most physicians accept the general scientific discoveries about anthropogenic global warming and its dangers. Occasional denial by individual physicians of climate change can be readily answered by reference to the scientific consensus. But widespread, organized, political denial of climate change is hazardous to physicians' advocacy for an effective public health and health care response to climate change. This article assumes that physician climate advocacy is ethical and celebrates the many forms of health climate advocacy already under way...
December 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259092/effects-of-temperature-on-the-meiotic-recombination-landscape-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Ke Zhang, Xue-Chang Wu, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Thomas D Petes
Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242185/will-the-antarctic-tardigrade-acutuncus-antarcticus-be-able-to-withstand-environmental-stresses-due-to-global-climate-change
#12
Ilaria Giovannini, Tiziana Altiero, Roberto Guidetti, Lorena Rebecchi
Since conditions in Continental Antarctica are highly selective and extremely hostile to life, its biota is depauperate, but well adapted to live in this region. Global climate change has the potential to impact Continental Antarctica organisms because of increasing temperatures and ultraviolet radiation. This research evaluates how ongoing climate changes will affect Antarctic species, and if Antarctic organisms will be able to adapt to the new environmental conditions. Tardigrades represent the main terrestrial components of Antarctic meiofauna; therefore the pan-Antarctic tardigrade Acutuncus antarcticus was used as model to predict the fate of Antarctic meiofauna threatened by climate changes...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238568/predictions-of-response-to-temperature-are-contingent-on-model-choice-and-data-quality
#13
Etienne Low-Décarie, Tobias G Boatman, Noah Bennett, Will Passfield, Antonio Gavalás-Olea, Philipp Siegel, Richard J Geider
The equations used to account for the temperature dependence of biological processes, including growth and metabolic rates, are the foundations of our predictions of how global biogeochemistry and biogeography change in response to global climate change. We review and test the use of 12 equations used to model the temperature dependence of biological processes across the full range of their temperature response, including supra- and suboptimal temperatures. We focus on fitting these equations to thermal response curves for phytoplankton growth but also tested the equations on a variety of traits across a wide diversity of organisms...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238118/mechanisms-and-model-diversity-of-trade-wind-shallow-cumulus-cloud-feedbacks-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Vial, Sandrine Bony, Bjorn Stevens, Raphaela Vogel
Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations...
2017: Surveys in Geophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235209/contrasting-above-and-belowground-organic-matter-decomposition-and-carbon-and-nitrogen-dynamics-in-response-to-warming-in-high-arctic-tundra
#15
Daan Blok, Samuel Faucherre, Imre Banyasz, Riikka Rinnan, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates...
December 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235029/impacts-of-integrated-nutrient-management-on-methane-emission-global-warming-potential-and-carbon-storage-capacity-in-rice-grown-in-a-northeast-india-soil
#16
Ashmita Bharali, Kushal Kumar Baruah, Sunitee Gohain Baruah, Pradip Bhattacharyya
Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230041/efficient-dissolved-organic-carbon-production-and-export-in-the-oligotrophic-ocean
#17
Saeed Roshan, Timothy DeVries
Biologically fixed carbon is transferred from the surface to deep ocean as sinking particles or dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DOC is estimated to account for ~20% of global export production, but the degree to which this varies regionally has not been assessed at a global scale. Here we present the first observationally based global-scale assessment of DOC production and export, obtained by combining an artificial neural network estimate of the global DOC distribution, and a data-constrained ocean circulation model...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216467/drivers-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-in-a-subarctic-catchment-importance-of-microbial-decomposition-sorption-desorption-peatland-and-lateral-flow
#18
Jing Tang, Alla Y Yurova, Guy Schurgers, Paul A Miller, Stefan Olin, Benjamin Smith, Matthias B Siewert, David Olefeldt, Petter Pilesjö, Anneli Poska
Tundra soils account for 50% of global stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), and it is expected that the amplified climate warming in high latitude could cause loss of this SOC through decomposition. Decomposed SOC could become hydrologically accessible, which increase downstream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and subsequent carbon release to the atmosphere, constituting a positive feedback to climate warming. However, DOC export is often neglected in ecosystem models. In this paper, we incorporate processes related to DOC production, mineralization, diffusion, sorption-desorption, and leaching into a customized arctic version of the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS in order to mechanistically model catchment DOC export, and to link this flux to other ecosystem processes...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198522/role-of-compostable-tableware-in-food-service-and-waste-management-a-life-cycle-assessment-study
#19
Maurizio Fieschi, Ugo Pretato
It is estimated that in Europe 88-100 million tonnes of food waste are generated every year, with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of around 227 MT of CO2 equivalents generated for their collection and disposal. A 12% of this waste is estimated to arise from food service within the hospitality sector, which includes quick service restaurants, casual and fine dining, contract catering (canteens, prisons, hospitals, schools etc.) as well as indoor and outdoor events and exhibitions. Given this considerable amount and that the mixed unsorted collection is often the only practicable way to handle such waste flows, the choice of tableware and cutlery can make a big difference in facilitating waste collection as well as in reducing the overall environmental impact of food waste management...
November 30, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190723/effects-of-increasing-temperature-and-co2-on-quality-of-litter-shredders-and-microorganisms-in-amazonian-aquatic-systems
#20
Renato Tavares Martins, Renan de Souza Rezende, José Francisco Gonçalves Júnior, Aline Lopes, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Heloide de Lima Cavalcante, Neusa Hamada
Climate change may affect the chemical composition of riparian leaf litter and, aquatic organisms and, consequently, leaf breakdown. We evaluated the effects of different scenarios combining increased temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on leaf detritus of Hevea spruceana (Benth) Müll. and decomposers (insect shredders and microorganisms). We hypothesized that simulated climate change (warming and elevated CO2) would: i) decrease leaf-litter quality, ii) decrease survival and leaf breakdown by shredders, and iii) increase microbial leaf breakdown and fungal biomass...
2017: PloS One
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