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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789644/heritability-of-climate-relevant-traits-in-a-rainforest-skink
#1
Felipe Martins, Loeske Kruuk, John Llewelyn, Craig Moritz, Ben Phillips
There is justified concern about the impact of global warming on the persistence of tropical ectotherms. There is also growing evidence for strong selection on climate-relevant physiological traits. Understanding the evolutionary potential of populations is especially important for low dispersal organisms in isolated populations, because these populations have little choice but to adapt. Despite this, direct estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for physiological traits in ectotherms-which will determine their evolutionary responses to selection-are sparse, especially for reptiles...
May 22, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773924/mercury-in-the-diatoms-of-various-ecological-formations
#2
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772087/environmental-change-and-predator-diversity-drive-alpha-and-beta-diversity-in-freshwater-macro-and-microorganisms
#3
Pablo Augusto P Antiqueira, Owen L Petchey, Viviane Piccin Dos Santos, Valéria Maia de Oliveira, Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global biodiversity is eroding due to anthropogenic causes such as climate change, habitat loss, and trophic simplification of biological communities. Most studies address only isolated causes within a single group of organisms; however, biological groups of different trophic levels may respond in particular ways to different environmental impacts. Our study used natural microcosms to investigate the predicted individual and interactive effects of warming, changes in top predator diversity, and habitat size on the alpha and beta diversity of macrofauna, microfauna and bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764286/environmental-evaluation-of-flocculation-efficiency-in-the-separation-of-the-microalgal-biomass-of-scenedesmus-sp-cultivated-in-full-scale-photobioreactors
#4
Marisa D Scherer, Fernando J C Magalhães Filho, Amanda C Oliveira, Nelson F H Selesu, Cássia M L Ugaya, André B Mariano, José V C Vargas
In this paper the environmental evaluation of the separation process of the microalgal biomass Scenedesmus sp. from full-scale photobioreactors was carried out at the Research and Development Nucleus for Sustainable Energy (NPDEAS), with different flocculants (iron sulfate - FeCl3 , sodium hydroxide - NaOH, calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 and aluminum sulphate Al2 (SO4 )3 , by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, using the SimaPro 7.3 software. Furthermore, the flocculation efficiency by means of optical density (OD) was also evaluated...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736651/a-scientometric-review-of-emerging-trends-and-new-developments-in-agricultural-ecological-compensation
#5
Ke He, Junbiao Zhang, Xueting Wang, Yangmei Zeng, Lu Zhang
Agricultural ecological compensation has drawn an increasingly broad range of interest since early 1990s. In recent years, the volume of the literature grows rapidly. As a result, a systematic review of the diverse research field and its current trends becomes essential. This paper surveys the literature of agricultural ecological compensation between 1990 and 2016. Specifically, by employing CiteSpace information visualization software, we firstly identified the research hotspots and evolution path and then illustrated the frontier and developing trend of the domain in core and broader perspectives...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735478/development-and-validation-of-a-multidisciplinary-mobile-care-system-for-patients-with-advanced-gastrointestinal-cancer-interventional-observation-study
#6
Ji Yeong Soh, Won Chul Cha, Dong Kyung Chang, Ji Hye Hwang, Kihyung Kim, Miyong Rha, Hee Kwon
BACKGROUND: Mobile health apps have emerged as supportive tools in the management of advanced cancers. However, only a few apps have self-monitoring features, and they are not standardized and validated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate a multidisciplinary mobile care system with self-monitoring features that can be useful for patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: The development of the multidisciplinary mobile health management system was divided into 3 steps...
May 7, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720454/data-driven-dynamical-model-indicates-that-the-heat-shock-response-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-is-tailored-to-handle-natural-temperature-variation
#7
Stefano Magni, Antonella Succurro, Alexander Skupin, Oliver Ebenhöh
Global warming exposes plants to severe heat stress, with consequent crop yield reduction. Organisms exposed to high temperature stresses typically protect themselves with a heat shock response (HSR), where accumulation of unfolded proteins initiates the synthesis of heat shock proteins through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. While the molecular mechanisms are qualitatively well characterized, our quantitative understanding of the underlying dynamics is still very limited. Here, we study the dynamics of HSR in the photosynthetic model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a data-driven mathematical model of HSR...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710646/review-of-brown-carbon-aerosols-recent-progress-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Juping Yan, Xiaoping Wang, Ping Gong, Chuanfei Wang, Zhiyuan Cong
Brown carbon (BrC), a carbonaceous aerosol which absorbs solar radiation over a broad range of wavelengths, is beginning to be seen as an important contributor to global warming. BrC absorbs both inorganic and organic pollutants, leading to serious effects on human health. We review the fundamental features of BrC, including its sources, chemical composition, optical properties and radiative forcing effects. We detail the importance of including photochemical processes related to BrC in the GEOS-Chem transport model for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709838/major-threats-of-pollution-and-climate-change-to-global-coastal-ecosystems-and-enhanced-management-for-sustainability
#9
REVIEW
Yonglong Lu, Jingjing Yuan, Xiaotian Lu, Chao Su, Yueqing Zhang, Chenchen Wang, Xianghui Cao, Qifeng Li, Jilan Su, Venugopalan Ittekkot, Richard Angus Garbutt, Simon Bush, Stephen Fletcher, Tonny Wagey, Anatolii Kachur, Neville Sweijd
Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709815/biochar-compost-and-biochar-compost-blend-as-options-to-recover-nutrients-and-sequester-carbon
#10
Thomas L Oldfield, Nataša Sikirica, Claudio Mondini, Guadalupe López, Peter J Kuikman, Nicholas M Holden
This work assessed the potential environmental impact of recycling organic materials in agriculture via pyrolysis (biochar) and composting (compost), as well its combination (biochar-compost blend) versus business-as-usual represented by mineral fertiliser. Life cycle assessment methodology was applied using data sourced from experiments (FP7 project Fertiplus) in three countries (Spain, Italy and Belgium), and considering three environmental impact categories, (i) global warming; (ii) acidification and (iii) eutrophication...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700326/author-correction-nitrogen-rich-organic-soils-under-warm-well-drained-conditions-are-global-nitrous-oxide-emission-hotspots
#11
Jaan Pärn, Jos T A Verhoeven, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Nancy B Dise, Sami Ullah, Anto Aasa, Sergey Egorov, Mikk Espenberg, Järvi Järveoja, Jyrki Jauhiainen, Kuno Kasak, Leif Klemedtsson, Ain Kull, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Elena D Lapshina, Annalea Lohila, Krista Lõhmus, Martin Maddison, William J Mitsch, Christoph Müller, Ülo Niinemets, Bruce Osborne, Taavi Pae, Jüri-Ott Salm, Fotis Sgouridis, Kristina Sohar, Kaido Soosaar, Kathryn Storey, Alar Teemusk, Moses M Tenywa, Julien Tournebize, Jaak Truu, Gert Veber, Jorge A Villa, Seint Sann Zaw, Ülo Mander
The original version of this Article contained an error in the first sentence of the Acknowledgements section, which incorrectly referred to the Estonian Research Council grant identifier as "PUTJD618". The correct version replaces the grant identifier with "PUTJD619". This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692022/-effects-of-biochar-application-three-years-ago-on-global-warming-potentials-of-ch-4-and-n-2-o-in-a-rice-wheat-rotation-system
#12
Zhen Wu, Yu Bing Dong, Zheng Qin Xiong
To evaluate the long-term effects of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 3-year field-aged biochar (B3 ) and fresh biochar (B0 ) on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) in a typical rice-wheat rotation system. Four treatments were established as control without nitrogen fertilizer (CK), urea without biochar (N), urea with fresh biochar amended in 2015 (NB0 ), and urea with 3-year field-aged biochar amended in 2012 (NB3 )...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684388/sorbitol-production-and-optimization-of-photosynthetic-supply-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#13
Taejun Chin, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Biochemicals production is a major theme in the application of photosynthesis to address global warming and organic-resource problems. Among biochemicals, sugar alcohols have attracted research attention because they are directly derived from two photosynthetic products, sugars and reductants. Here, we produced sorbitol photosynthetically by using cyanobacteria and modified the supply of its substrates through genetic engineering. Expression of an NADPH-dependent enzyme that generates sorbitol-6-phosphate, S6PDH, was highly toxic to cyanobacteria likely due to the sorbitol production, whereas expression of an NADH-dependent enzyme, SrlD2, yielded no sorbitol...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682861/catalytic-power-of-enzymes-decreases-with-temperature-new-insights-for-understanding-soil-c-cycling-and-microbial-ecology-under-warming
#14
Gaël Alvarez, Tanvir Shahzad, Laurence Andanson, Michael Bahn, Matthew D Wallenstein, Sébastien Fontaine
Most current models of soil C dynamics predict that climate warming will accelerate soil C mineralization, resulting in a long-term CO2 release and positive feedback to global warming. However, ecosystem warming experiments show that CO2 loss from warmed soils declines to control levels within a few years. Here, we explore the temperature-dependence of enzymatic conversion of polymerised soil organic C (SOC) into assimilable compounds, which is presumed the rate-limiting step of SOC mineralization. Combining literature review, modelling and enzyme assays, we studied the effect of temperature on activity of enzymes considering their thermal inactivation and catalytic activity...
April 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675967/shrub-range-expansion-alters-diversity-and-distribution-of-soil-fungal-communities-across-an-alpine-elevation-gradient
#15
Courtney G Collins, Jason E Stajich, Sören E Weber, Nuttapon Pombubpa, Jeffrey M Diez
Global climate and land use change are altering plant and soil microbial communities worldwide, particularly in arctic and alpine biomes where warming is accelerated. The widespread expansion of woody shrubs into historically herbaceous alpine plant zones is likely to interact with climate to affect soil microbial community structure and function, however our understanding of alpine soil ecology remains limited. This study aimed to 1) determine whether the diversity and community composition of soil fungi vary across elevation gradients and to 2) assess the impact of woody shrub expansion on these patterns...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668041/warming-intensify-co-2-flux-and-nutrient-release-from-algal-wrack-subsidies-on-sandy-beaches
#16
M Lastra, J López, I F Rodil
Algal wrack subsidies underpin most of the food web structure of exposed sandy beaches, and are responsible of important biogeochemical processes that link marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The response in decomposition of algal wrack deposits to global warming has not been studied in ocean exposed sandy beaches to date. With this aim, passive open top chambers (OTCs) were used to increase soil temperature within the range predicted by the IPCC for western Europe (between 0.5 and 1.5 °C), following the hypothesis that the biogeochemical processing of macroalgal wrack subsidies would accelerate in response to temperature increase...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666763/the-distribution-of-organic-carbon-fractions-in-a-typical-loess-paleosol-profile-and-its-paleoenvironmental-significance
#17
Qingqing Zhang, Jinghua Huang, Feinan Hu, Na Huo, Yingni Shang, Wenqian Chang, Shiwei Zhao
Background: The loess-paleosol sequence on the Loess Plateau has been considered an important paleoclimatic archive to study global climatic and environmental changes in the Quaternary. So far, little attention has been paid to the characteristics of soil organic carbon fractions in loess-paleosol sequences, which may provide valuable information for exploring the evolution of climate and environment in the Quaternary on the Loess Plateau. Methods: In order to explore the significance of mineral-associated organic carbon to total organic carbon (MOC/TOC) ratios in the loess-paleosol sequence for reconstructing paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution in the Quaternary on the Loess Plateau, we selected a typical loess-paleosol profile in Chunhua county, Xianyang city, Shaanxi province, as the research object...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662248/internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#18
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a "poster species" for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625977/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-turbid-alkaline-lakes-determined-with-quantitative-pcr
#19
Rupert Bliem, Georg Reischer, Rita Linke, Andreas Farnleitner, Alexander Kirschner
In recent years, global warming has led to a growing number of Vibrio cholerae infections of bathing water users in regions formerly unaffected by this pathogen. It is therefore of high importance to monitor V. cholerae in the aquatic environments and to elucidate the main factors governing their prevalence and abundance. For this purpose, rapid and standardizable methods that can be performed by routine water laboratories are prerequisite. In this study we applied a recently developed multiplex quantitative PCR strategy to (i) monitor the spatiotemporal variability of V...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589234/nitrogen-fertilizer-in-combination-with-an-ameliorant-mitigated-yield-scaled-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-a-coastal-saline-rice-field-in-southeastern-china
#20
Liying Sun, Yuchun Ma, Bo Li, Cheng Xiao, Lixin Fan, Zhengqin Xiong
Coastal saline rice fields play an increasingly important role in rice production and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, few studies investigated the influences of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and soil ameliorant on GHG emissions simultaneously in this region. Thus, a field experiment was established to study the effects of different N fertilizers and soil ameliorant on global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GHG intensity (GHGI) after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2 ) equivalent emissions of methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O), agrochemical inputs, and farm operations along with agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) during the rice season of 2016 in a coastal saline paddy in Lianyungang, China...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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