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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143490/rock-glaciers-in-crystalline-catchments-hidden-permafrost-related-threats-to-alpine-headwater-lakes
#1
Boris P Ilyashuk, Elena A Ilyashuk, Roland Psenner, Richard Tessadri, Karin A Koinig
A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#2
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118777/capparis-spinosa-l-in-a-systematic-review-a-xerophilous-species-of-multi-values-and-promising-potentialities-for-agrosystems-under-the-threat-of-global-warming
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Chedraoui, Alain Abi-Rizk, Marc El-Beyrouthy, Lamis Chalak, Naim Ouaini, Loïc Rajjou
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109712/anaerobic-oxidation-of-ethane-propane-and-butane-by-marine-microbes-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Rajesh Singh, Michael S Guzman, Arpita Bose
The deep ocean and its sediments are a continuous source of non-methane short-chain alkanes (SCAs) including ethane, propane, and butane. Their high global warming potential, and contribution to local carbon and sulfur budgets has drawn significant scientific attention. Importantly, microbes can use gaseous alkanes and oxidize them to CO2, thus acting as effective biofilters. A relative decrease of these gases with a concomitant (13)C enrichment of propane and n-butane in interstitial waters vs. the source suggests microbial anaerobic oxidation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109229/are-the-effects-of-elevated-temperature-on-meiotic-recombination-and-thermotolerance-linked-via-the-axis-and-synaptonemal-complex
#5
REVIEW
Christopher H Morgan, Huakun Zhang, Kirsten Bomblies
Meiosis is unusual among cell divisions in shuffling genetic material by crossovers among homologous chromosomes and partitioning the genome into haploid gametes. Crossovers are critical for chromosome segregation in most eukaryotes, but are also an important factor in evolution, as they generate novel genetic combinations. The molecular mechanisms that underpin meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation are well conserved across kingdoms, but are also sensitive to perturbation by environment, especially temperature...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105233/simulating-the-recent-impacts-of-multiple-biotic-disturbances-on-forest-carbon-cycling-across-the-united-states
#6
M Kautz, P Anthoni, A J H Meddens, T A M Pugh, A Arneth
Biotic disturbances (BDs, e.g., insects, pathogens and wildlife herbivory) substantially affect boreal and temperate forest ecosystems globally. However, accurate impact assessments comprising larger spatial scales are lacking to date, although these are critically needed given the expected disturbance intensification under a warming climate. Hence, our quantitative knowledge on current and future BD impacts, e.g., on forest carbon (C) cycling, is strongly limited. We extended a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to simulate ecosystem response to prescribed tree mortality and defoliation due to multiple biotic agents across United States forests during the period 1997-2015, and quantified the BD-induced vegetation C loss, i...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089526/salinity-stratification-controlled-productivity-variation-over-300-ky-in-the-bay-of-bengal
#7
R Da Silva, A Mazumdar, T Mapder, A Peketi, R K Joshi, A Shaji, P Mahalakshmi, B Sawant, B G Naik, M A Carvalho, S K Molletti
The unique hydrographic setting of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) makes it an ideal tropical marine system to study the influence of regional and global forcings on productivity and [CO2aq] through the late quaternary. Enormous fresh water flux into the BoB and consequent salinity stratification significantly weaken the convective mixing and wind driven processes which are commonly responsible for transport of nutrients to the euphotic zone driving primary productivity. Here we present a high resolution organic carbon-CaCO3 MAR and δ(13)CTOC records for the last 300 ky from the BoB...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089132/global-analysis-of-agricultural-soil-denitrification-in-response-to-fertilizer-nitrogen
#8
Jinyang Wang, David R Chadwick, Yi Cheng, Xiaoyuan Yan
Terrestrial soil denitrification is of great importance for closing the nitrogen (N) cycle, yet the current understanding of soil denitrification response to N fertilization remains uncertain. While there has been a focus on factors controlling N2O fluxes from agricultural soils because of its global warming effect, much less is known about factors controlling total denitrification losses, yet these can be sufficiently large to affect N use efficiency. Here, we collated 353 observations from 74 papers and conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to explore the effects of N fertilization on agricultural soil denitrification (N2O+N2) where the acetylene inhibition technique was used...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064726/relationship-between-wine-composition-and-temperature-impact-on-bordeaux-wine-typicity-in-the-context-of-global-warming-review
#9
Julie Drappier, Cécile Thibon, Amélie Rabot, Laurence Geny-Denis
Weather conditions throughout the year have a greater influence than other factors (such as soil and cultivars) on grapevine development and berry composition. Temperature affects gene expression and enzymatic activity of primary and secondary metabolism which determine grape ripening and wine characteristics. In the context of the climate change, temperatures will probably rise between 0.3°C and 1.7°C over the next 20 years. They are already rising and the physiology of grapevines is already changing. These modifications exert a profound shift in primary (sugar and organic acid balance) and secondary (phenolic and aromatic compounds) berry metabolisms and the resulting composition of wine...
October 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062410/mechanochemical-synthesis-of-small-organic-molecules
#10
REVIEW
Tapas Kumar Achar, Anima Bose, Prasenjit Mal
With the growing interest in renewable energy and global warming, it is important to minimize the usage of hazardous chemicals in both academic and industrial research, elimination of waste, and possibly recycle them to obtain better results in greener fashion. The studies under the area of mechanochemistry which cover the grinding chemistry to ball milling, sonication, etc. are certainly of interest to the researchers working on the development of green methodologies. In this review, a collection of examples on recent developments in organic bond formation reactions like carbon-carbon (C-C), carbon-nitrogen (C-N), carbon-oxygen (C-O), carbon-halogen (C-X), etc...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054872/transcriptional-activities-of-the-microbial-consortium-living-with-the-marine-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-trichodesmium-reveal-potential-roles-in-community-level-nitrogen-cycling
#11
Michael D Lee, Eric A Webb, Nathan G Walworth, Fei-Xue Fu, Noelle A Held, Mak A Saito, David A Hutchins
Trichodesmium are globally distributed cyanobacteria whose nitrogen-fixing capabilities fuel primary production in warm, oligotrophic oceans. Like many photoautotrophs, Trichodesmium serve as hosts to various other microorganisms, yet little is known about how this associated community modulates fluxes of environmentally relevant chemical species into and out of the supraorganismal structure. Here we utilized metatranscriptomics to examine gene-expression activities of microbial communities associated with Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) using laboratory-maintained enrichment cultures that have previously been shown to harbor similar microbial communities to those of natural populations...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053214/herbicide-discovery-in-light-of-rapidly-spreading-resistance-and-ever-increasing-regulatory-hurdles
#12
Bodo Peters, Harry J Strek
According to the UN the global population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion people in 2050. This means that the demand for food, feed and fiber will double while at the same time agriculture is being challenged by a scarcity of water, global warming, less land available for farming, protection of natural habitats, demand for biodiversity on farms and other factors. In addition crop protection products are under pressure from rapidly spreading resistance and increasing regulatory requirements. Many regulatory bodies are also moving away from a risk assessment approach to a more hazard-based approach to grant registrations...
October 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052370/imidazolium-and-triazine-based-porous-organic-polymers-for-heterogeneous-catalytic-conversion-of-co2-into-cyclic-carbonates
#13
Hong Zhong, Yanqing Su, Xingwei Chen, Xiaoju Li, Ruihu Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption and concomitant catalytic conversion into useful chemicals are promising approaches to alleviate energy crisis and global warming. It is highly desirable for developing new types of heterogeneous catalytic materials containing CO2-philic groups and catalytic active sites for CO2 chemical transformation. Here, we present an imidazolium- and triazine-based porous organic polymer with counter chloride anion (IT-POP-1). The porosity and CO2 affinity of IT-POP-1 may be modulated at molecular level through facile anion exchange strategy...
October 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052295/tropical-forests-are-thermally-buffered-despite-intensive-selective-logging
#14
Rebecca A Senior, Jane K Hill, Suzan Benedick, David P Edwards
Tropical rainforests are subject to extensive degradation by commercial selective logging. Despite pervasive changes to forest structure, selectively logged forests represent vital refugia for global biodiversity. The ability of these forests to buffer temperature-sensitive species from climate warming will be an important determinant of their future conservation value, although this topic remains largely unexplored. Thermal buffering potential is broadly determined by: (i) the difference between the "macroclimate" (climate at a local scale, m to ha) and the "microclimate" (climate at a fine-scale, mm to m, that is distinct from the macroclimate); (ii) thermal stability of microclimates (e...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043043/a-pantropical-analysis-of-the-impacts-of-forest-degradation-and-conversion-on-local-temperature
#15
Rebecca A Senior, Jane K Hill, Pamela González Del Pliego, Laurel K Goode, David P Edwards
Temperature is a core component of a species' fundamental niche. At the fine scale over which most organisms experience climate (mm to ha), temperature depends upon the amount of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which is principally governed by vegetation. Tropical regions have undergone widespread and extreme changes to vegetation, particularly through the degradation and conversion of rainforests. As most terrestrial biodiversity is in the tropics, and many of these species possess narrow thermal limits, it is important to identify local thermal impacts of rainforest degradation and conversion...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988089/the-location-and-scale-specific-correlation-between-temperature-and-soil-carbon-sequestration-across-the-globe
#16
Jingyi Huang, Budiman Minasny, Alex B McBratney, José Padarian, John Triantafilis
Much research has been conducted to understand the spatial distribution of soil carbon stock and its temporal dynamics. However, an agreement has not been reached on whether increasing global temperature has a positive or negative feedback on soil carbon stocks. By analysing global maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) using a spherical wavelet analysis, it was found that the correlation between SOC and soil temperature at the regional scale was negative between 52° N and 40° S parallels and positive beyond this region...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988083/high-resolution-sedimentary-records-of-some-organochlorine-pesticides-in-yamzho-yumco-lake-of-the-tibetan-plateau-concentration-and-composition
#17
Yong Sun, Guo-Li Yuan, Jun Li, Jianhui Tang, Gen-Hou Wang
Sediment cores from lakes have been used to reconstruct the historic deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially in remote alpine areas. To reconstruct the deposition history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), two sediment cores from Yamzho Yumco Lake were drilled and dated with high-resolution, from which 23 OCPs were analyzed in greater detail. Regarding several legacy compounds, concentration peaks in the cores were observed in the 1970s, corresponding to the heavy usage of these compounds around the world...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974688/photochemical-alteration-of-organic-carbon-draining-permafrost-soils-shifts-microbial-metabolic-pathways-and-stimulates-respiration
#18
Collin P Ward, Sarah G Nalven, Byron C Crump, George W Kling, Rose M Cory
In sunlit waters, photochemical alteration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) impacts the microbial respiration of DOC to CO2. This coupled photochemical and biological degradation of DOC is especially critical for carbon budgets in the Arctic, where thawing permafrost soils increase opportunities for DOC oxidation to CO2 in surface waters, thereby reinforcing global warming. Here we show how and why sunlight exposure impacts microbial respiration of DOC draining permafrost soils. Sunlight significantly increases or decreases microbial respiration of DOC depending on whether photo-alteration produces or removes molecules that native microbial communities used prior to light exposure...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973920/origin-of-the-rna-world-the-fate-of-nucleobases-in-warm-little-ponds
#19
Ben K D Pearce, Ralph E Pudritz, Dmitry A Semenov, Thomas K Henning
Before the origin of simple cellular life, the building blocks of RNA (nucleotides) had to form and polymerize in favorable environments on early Earth. At this time, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles delivered organics such as nucleobases (the characteristic molecules of nucleotides) to warm little ponds whose wet-dry cycles promoted rapid polymerization. We build a comprehensive numerical model for the evolution of nucleobases in warm little ponds leading to the emergence of the first nucleotides and RNA...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971346/combined-pet-mri-global-warming-summary-report-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-pet-mri-march-27-29-2017-t%C3%A3-bingen-germany
#20
REVIEW
D L Bailey, B J Pichler, B Gückel, G Antoch, H Barthel, Z M Bhujwalla, S Biskup, S Biswal, M Bitzer, R Boellaard, R F Braren, C Brendle, K Brindle, A Chiti, C la Fougère, R Gillies, V Goh, M Goyen, M Hacker, L Heukamp, G M Knudsen, A M Krackhardt, I Law, J C Morris, K Nikolaou, J Nuyts, A A Ordonez, K Pantel, H H Quick, K Riklund, O Sabri, B Sattler, E G C Troost, M Zaiss, L Zender, Thomas Beyer
The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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