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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924606/active-pacific-meridional-overturning-circulation-pmoc-during-the-warm-pliocene
#1
Natalie J Burls, Alexey V Fedorov, Daniel M Sigman, Samuel L Jaccard, Ralf Tiedemann, Gerald H Haug
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924452/greenhouse-gas-performance-of-biochemical-biodiesel-production-from-straw-soil-organic-carbon-changes-and-time-dependent-climate-impact
#2
Hanna Karlsson, Serina Ahlgren, Mats Sandgren, Volkmar Passoth, Ola Wallberg, Per-Anders Hansson
BACKGROUND: Use of bio-based diesel is increasing in Europe. It is currently produced from oilseed crops, but can also be generated from lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. However, removing straw affects soil organic carbon (SOC), with potential consequences for the climate impact of the biofuel. This study assessed the climate impacts and energy balance of biodiesel production from straw using oleaginous yeast, with subsequent biogas production from the residues, with particular emphasis on SOC changes over time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920141/effects-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis-invasions-on-soil-nitrogen-cycles-depend-on-invasion-stage-and-warming
#3
Zhenzhen Li, Ling Zhang, Bangliang Deng, Yuanqiu Liu, Fanqian Kong, Guoxian Huang, Qin Zou, Qian Liu, Xiaomin Guo, Yanqiu Fu, Dekui Niu, Evan Siemann
Plant invasions may alter soil nutrient cycling due to differences in physiological traits between the invader and species they displace as well as differences in responses to anthropogenic factors such as nitrogen deposition and warming. Moso bamboo is expanding its range rapidly around the world, displacing diverse forests. In addition, near expansion fronts where invasions are patchy, moso bamboo and other species each contribute soil inputs. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are important processes associated with nutrient availability and climate change that may be impacted by bamboo invasions...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917173/synthetic-iron-hydr-oxide-glucose-associations-in-subsurface-soil-effects-on-decomposability-of-mineral-associated-carbon
#4
R C Porras, C E Hicks Pries, M S Torn, P S Nico
Soils are a globally important reservoir of organic carbon. There is a growing understanding that interactions with soil mineral phases contribute to the accumulation and retention of otherwise degradable organic matter (OM) in soils and sediments. However, the bioavailability of organic compounds in mineral-organic-associations (MOAs), especially under varying environmental conditions is not well known. To assess the impact of mineral association and warming on the decomposition of an easily respirable organic substrate (glucose), we conducted a series of laboratory incubations at different temperatures with field-collected soils from 10 to 20cm, 50-60cm, and 80-90cm depth...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910713/beneficial-effect-of-compost-utilization-on-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-a-rice-cultivation-system-through-the-overall-management-chain
#5
Seung Tak Jeong, Gil Won Kim, Hyun Young Hwang, Pil Joo Kim, Sang Yoon Kim
Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH4) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904751/the-thermal-niche-of-neotropical-nectar-feeding-bats-its-evolution-and-application-to-predict-responses-to-global-warming
#6
Stephanie Ortega-García, Lázaro Guevara, Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Ernesto Vega, Jorge E Schondube
The thermal niche of a species is one of the main determinants of its ecology and biogeography. In this study, we determined the thermal niche of 23 species of Neotropical nectar-feeding bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). We calculated their thermal niches using temperature data obtained from collection records, by generating a distribution curve of the maximum and minimum temperatures per locality, and using the inflection points of the temperature distributions to estimate the species optimal (STZ) and suboptimal (SRZ) zones of the thermal niche...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890712/microbial-carbonic-anhydrases-in-biomimetic-carbon-sequestration-for-mitigating-global-warming-prospects-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Himadri Bose, Tulasi Satyanarayana
All the leading cities in the world are slowly becoming inhospitable for human life with global warming playing havoc with the living conditions. Biomineralization of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of the most economical methods for mitigating global warming. The burning of fossil fuels results in the emission of large quantities of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas is quite high. Alkaline conditions are necessary for CaCO3 precipitation in the mineralization process. In order to use CAs for biomimetic carbon sequestration, thermo-alkali-stable CAs are, therefore, essential...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878236/sponge-bioerosion-on-changing-reefs-ocean-warming-poses-physiological-constraints-to-the-success-of-a-photosymbiotic-excavating-sponge
#8
Michelle Achlatis, Rene M van der Zande, Christine H L Schönberg, James K H Fang, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Sophie Dove
Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877955/new-perspectives-in-ocean-acidification-research-editor-s-introduction-to-the-special-feature-on-ocean-acidification
#9
Philip L Munday
Ocean acidification, caused by the uptake of additional carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, will have far-reaching impacts on marine ecosystems (Gattuso & Hansson 2011 Ocean acidification Oxford University Press). The predicted changes in ocean chemistry will affect whole biological communities and will occur within the context of global warming and other anthropogenic stressors; yet much of the biological research conducted to date has tested the short-term responses of single species to ocean acidification conditions alone...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873278/long-term-trends-in-trait-structure-of-riverine-communities-facing-predation-risk-increase-and-trophic-resource-decline
#10
Adrien Latli, Jean-Pierre Descy, Cédric P Mondy, Mathieu Floury, Laurent Viroux, William Otjacques, Jonathan Marescaux, Eric Depiereux, Michael Ovidio, Philippe Usseglio-Polatera, Patrick Kestemont
Many large European rivers have undergone multiple pressures which have strongly impaired ecosystem functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. Global warming and other environmental changes have favoured the success of invasive species, deeply modifying the structure of aquatic communities in large rivers. Some exogenous species could alter trophic interactions within assemblages by increasing the predation risk for potential prey species (top-down effect) and limiting the dynamics of others via resource availability limitation (bottom-up effect)...
September 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867203/warming-by-1%C3%A2-c-drives-species-and-assemblage-level-responses-in-antarctica-s-marine-shallows
#11
Gail V Ashton, Simon A Morley, David K A Barnes, Melody S Clark, Lloyd S Peck
Forecasting assemblage-level responses to climate change remains one of the greatest challenges in global ecology [1, 2]. Data from the marine realm are limited because they largely come from experiments using limited numbers of species [3], mesocosms whose interior conditions are unnatural [4], and long-term correlation studies based on historical collections [5]. We describe the first ever experiment to warm benthic assemblages to ecologically relevant levels in situ. Heated settlement panels were used to create three test conditions: ambient and 1°C and 2°C above ambient (predicted in the next 50 and 100 years, respectively [6])...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858305/very-large-release-of-mostly-volcanic-carbon-during-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#12
Marcus Gutjahr, Andy Ridgwell, Philip F Sexton, Eleni Anagnostou, Paul N Pearson, Heiko Pälike, Richard D Norris, Ellen Thomas, Gavin L Foster
The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global warming event that occurred about 56 million years ago, and is commonly thought to have been driven primarily by the destabilization of carbon from surface sedimentary reservoirs such as methane hydrates. However, it remains controversial whether such reservoirs were indeed the source of the carbon that drove the warming. Resolving this issue is key to understanding the proximal cause of the warming, and to quantifying the roles of triggers versus feedbacks...
August 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854676/bacterial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-kalakuli-an-alpine-glacial-fed-lake-in-muztagh-ata-of-the-westernmost-tibetan-plateau
#13
Keshao Liu, Yongqin Liu, Nianzhi Jiao, Baiqing Xu, Zhengquan Gu, Tingting Xing, Jinbo Xiong
It is widely accepted that bacterial community composition and diversity in remote alpine lakes are structured by environmental conditions such as nutrient status and temperature. However, the mechanisms that underlie and structure bacterial community composition and diversity in alpine lakes remain unclear. We used 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the complex ecological interactions between bacterial communities and nutrient status in Kalakuli Lake, an alpine glacial-fed lake in Muztagh Ata of the westernmost Tibetan Plateau...
July 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839009/beneficial-effects-of-a-heat-wave-higher-growth-and-immune-components-driven-by-a-higher-food-intake
#14
Marie Van Dievel, Robby Stoks, Lizanne Janssens
While heat waves will become more frequent and intense under global warming, the ability of species to deal with extreme weather events is poorly understood. We investigated how a heat wave influenced growth rate and investment in two immune components (phenoloxidase activity and melanin content) in larvae of two damselfly species, Ischnura elegans and Enallagma cyathigerum Late instar larvae were kept at 18°C (i.e. their average natural water temperatures) or at a simulated long heat wave at 30°C. To explain the heat wave effects, we quantified traits related to energy uptake (food intake and growth efficiency), energy expenditure (metabolic rate measured as activity of the electron transport system, ETS) and investment in energy storage (fat content)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833977/sound-physiological-knowledge-and-principles-in-modeling-shrinking-of-fishes-under-climate-change
#15
Daniel Pauly, William W L Cheung
One of the main expected responses of marine fishes to ocean warming is decrease in body size, as supported by evidence from empirical data and theoretical modeling. The theoretical underpinning for fish shrinking is that the oxygen supply to large fish size cannot be met by their gills, whose surface area cannot keep up with the oxygen demand by their three-dimensional bodies. However, Lefevre et al. (Global Change Biology, 2017, 23, 3449-3459) argue against such theory. Here, we re-assert, with the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT), that gills, which must retain the properties of open surfaces because their growth, even while hyperallometric, cannot keep up with the demand of growing three-dimensional bodies...
August 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831965/a-comparative-analysis-of-vehicle-related-greenhouse-gas-emissions-between-organic-and-conventional-dairy-production
#16
Vivianne Aggestam, Jon Buick
Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819098/protection-and-consolidation-of-stone-heritage-by-self-inoculation-with-indigenous-carbonatogenic-bacterial-communities
#17
Fadwa Jroundi, Mara Schiro, Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo, Kerstin Elert, Inés Martín-Sánchez, María Teresa González-Muñoz, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro
Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks. To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy. Here we present a novel, environmentally friendly, bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone, based on the isolation of an indigenous community of carbonatogenic bacteria from salt damaged stone, followed by their culture and re-application back onto the same stone...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815212/variable-virulence-of-biotype-3-vibrio-vulnificus-due-to-martx-toxin-effector-domain-composition
#18
Byoung Sik Kim, Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes septic human infections characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The annual incidence and global distribution of this pathogen are increasing as ocean waters warm. Clinical strains exhibit variations in the primary virulence toxin, suggesting a potential for the emergence of new strains with altered virulence properties. A clonal outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel serves as a natural experiment for the sudden emergence of a new V...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813506/global-and-local-disturbances-interact-to-modify-seagrass-palatability
#19
Rocío Jiménez-Ramos, Luis G Egea, María J Ortega, Ignacio Hernández, Juan J Vergara, Fernando G Brun
Global change, such as warming and ocean acidification, and local anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication, can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we are far from being able to predict the outcome of multiple interacting disturbances on seagrass communities. Herbivores are key in determining plant community structure and the transfer of energy up the food web. Global and local disturbances may alter the ecological role of herbivory by modifying leaf palatability (i.e. leaf traits) and consequently, the feeding patterns of herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811521/decadal-trends-in-red-sea-maximum-surface-temperature
#20
V Chaidez, D Dreano, S Agusti, C M Duarte, I Hoteit
Ocean warming is a major consequence of climate change, with the surface of the ocean having warmed by 0.11 °C decade(-1) over the last 50 years and is estimated to continue to warm by an additional 0.6 - 2.0 °C before the end of the century(1). However, there is considerable variability in the rates experienced by different ocean regions, so understanding regional trends is important to inform on possible stresses for marine organisms, particularly in warm seas where organisms may be already operating in the high end of their thermal tolerance...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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