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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208235/warmer-night-time-temperature-promotes-microbial-heterotrophic-activity-and-modifies-stream-sediment-community
#1
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Maria Casellas, Stoyana Pecheva, Anna M Romaní
Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203240/experimental-air-warming-of-a-stylosanthes-capitata-vogel-dominated-tropical-pasture-affects-soil-respiration-and-nitrogen-dynamics
#2
Miquel A Gonzalez-Meler, Lais B C Silva, Eduardo Dias-De-Oliveira, Charles E Flower, Carlos A Martinez
Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149178/saudiveg-ecoinformatics-aims-current-status-and-perspectives
#3
Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Jacob Thomas, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Sivadasan Mayandy, Stephan M Hennekens, Joop H J Schaminėe, Ladislav Mucina, Abdulla M Alansari
During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD)...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142211/stimulation-of-n2-o-emission-by-manure-application-to-agricultural-soils-may-largely-offset-carbon-benefits-a-global-meta-analysis
#4
Minghua Zhou, Bo Zhu, Shijie Wang, Xinyu Zhu, Harry Vereecken, Nicolas Brüggemann
Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142125/potential-role-of-compost-and-green-manure-amendment-to-mitigate-soil-ghgs-emissions-in-mediterranean-drip-irrigated-maize-production-systems
#5
Annachiara Forte, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (GMAN)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139035/the-threat-to-coral-reefs-from-more-intense-cyclones-under-climate-change
#6
Alistair J Cheal, M Aaron MacNeil, Michael J Emslie, Hugh Sweatman
Ocean warming under climate change threatens coral reefs directly, through fatal heat stress to corals and indirectly, by boosting the energy of cyclones that cause coral destruction and loss of associated organisms. Although cyclone frequency is unlikely to rise, cyclone intensity is predicted to increase globally, causing more frequent occurrences of the most destructive cyclones with potentially severe consequences for coral reef ecosystems. While increasing heat stress is considered a pervasive risk to coral reefs, quantitative estimates of threats from cyclone intensification are lacking due to limited data on cyclone impacts to inform projections...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135027/long-term-no-till-and-stover-retention-each-decrease-the-global-warming-potential-of-irrigated-continuous-corn
#7
Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Catherine E Stewart, Aaron J Sindelar, Gary E Varvel, Brian J Wienhold
Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117440/elevation-alters-ecosystem-properties-across-temperate-treelines-globally
#8
Jordan R Mayor, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Richard D Bardgett, Jean-Christophe Clément, Alex Fajardo, Sandra Lavorel, Maja K Sundqvist, Michael Bahn, Chelsea Chisholm, Ellen Cieraad, Ze'ev Gedalof, Karl Grigulis, Gaku Kudo, Daniel L Oberski, David A Wardle
Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra...
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115725/heat-induced-masculinization-in-domesticated-zebrafish-is-family-specific-and-yields-a-set-of-different-gonadal-transcriptomes
#9
Laia Ribas, Woei Chang Liew, Noèlia Díaz, Rajini Sreenivasan, László Orbán, Francesc Piferrer
Understanding environmental influences on sex ratios is important for the study of the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms and for evaluating the effects of global warming and chemical pollution. Fishes exhibit sexual plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms of environmental effects on their reproduction are unclear even in the well-established teleost research model, the zebrafish. Here we established the conditions to study the effects of elevated temperature on zebrafish sex. We showed that sex ratio response to elevated temperature is family-specific and typically leads to masculinization (female-to-male sex reversal), resulting in neomales...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115713/global-long-range-transport-and-lung-cancer-risk-from-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-shielded-by-coatings-of-organic-aerosol
#10
Manish Shrivastava, Silja Lou, Alla Zelenyuk, Richard C Easter, Richard A Corley, Brian D Thrall, Philip J Rasch, Jerome D Fast, Staci L Massey Simonich, Huizhong Shen, Shu Tao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102293/ocean-warming-and-acidification-synergistically-increase-coral-mortality
#11
F Prada, E Caroselli, S Mengoli, L Brizi, P Fantazzini, B Capaccioni, L Pasquini, K E Fabricius, Z Dubinsky, G Falini, S Goffredo
Organisms that accumulate calcium carbonate structures are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), potentially reducing the socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on these taxa. Since rising atmospheric CO2 is responsible for global warming and increasing ocean acidity, to correctly predict how OW and OA will affect marine organisms, their possible interactive effects must be assessed. Here we investigate, in the field, the combined temperature (range: 16-26 °C) and acidification (range: pHTS 8...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094515/nanoporous-materials-for-the-onboard-storage-of-natural-gas
#12
K Vasanth Kumar, Kathrin Preuss, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso
Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088495/interaction-strength-between-different-grazers-and-macroalgae-mediated-by-ocean-acidification-over-warming-gradients
#13
E Sampaio, I F Rodil, F Vaz-Pinto, A Fernández, F Arenas
Since the past century, rising CO2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects...
January 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078520/effects-of-screenhouse-cultivation-and-organic-materials-incorporation-on-global-warming-potential-in-rice-fields
#14
Guochun Xu, Xin Liu, Qiangsheng Wang, Ruiheng Xiong, Yuhao Hang
Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067283/theoretical-insight-into-oh-and-cl-initiated-oxidation-of-cf3och-cf3-2-and-cf3ocf2cf2h-fate-of-cf3oc-x%C3%A2-cf3-2-and-cf3ocf2cf2x%C3%A2-radicals-x-o-o2
#15
Feng-Yang Bai, Yuan Ma, Shuang Lv, Xiu-Mei Pan, Xiu-Juan Jia
In this study, the mechanistic and kinetic analysis for reactions of CF3OCH(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2H with OH radicals and Cl atoms have been performed at the CCSD(T)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Kinetic isotope effects for reactions CF3OCH(CF3)2/CF3OCD(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2H/CF3OCF2CF2D with OH and Cl were estimated so as to provide the theoretical estimation for future laboratory investigation. All rate constants, computed by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the small-curvature tunneling correction (SCT), are in reasonable agreement with the limited experimental data...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062107/diurnal-evolution-of-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-efflux-in-permafrost-soils-under-control-and-warm-conditions
#16
Julien Fouché, Catherine Keller, Michel Allard, Jean Paul Ambrosi
Cryosols contain ~33% of the global soil organic carbon. Cryosol warming and permafrost degradation may enhance the CO2 release to the atmosphere through the microbial decomposition. Despite the large carbon pool, the permafrost carbon feedback on the climate remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the diurnal evolution of the temperature sensitivity of CO2 efflux in Cryosols. A Histic Cryosol and a Turbic Cryosol were instrumented in tussock tundra ecosystems near Salluit (Nunavik, Canada)...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055123/regional-variation-in-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-in-china-s-forests-and-grasslands
#17
Yuan Liu, Nianpeng He, Jianxing Zhu, Li Xu, Guirui Yu, Shuli Niu, Xiaomin Sun, Xuefa Wen
How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039909/global-synthesis-of-the-temperature-sensitivity-of-leaf-litter-breakdown-in-streams-and-rivers
#18
J J Follstad Shah, J S Kominoski, M Ardón, W K Dodds, M O Gessner, N A Griffiths, C P Hawkins, S L Johnson, A Lecerf, C J LeRoy, D W P Manning, A D Rosemond, R L Sinsabaugh, C M Swan, J R Webster, L H Zeglin
Streams and rivers are important conduits of terrestrially derived carbon (C) to atmospheric and marine reservoirs. Leaf litter breakdown rates are expected to increase as water temperatures rise in response to climate change. The magnitude of increase in breakdown rates is uncertain, given differences in litter quality and microbial and detritivore community responses to temperature, factors that can influence the apparent temperature sensitivity of breakdown and the relative proportion of C lost to the atmosphere vs...
December 31, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000797/mid-cretaceous-carbon-cycle-perturbations-and-oceanic-anoxic-events-recorded-in-southern-tibet
#19
Xiaolin Zhang, Kefan Chen, Dongping Hu, Jingeng Sha
The organic carbon isotope (δ(13)Corg) curve for ~1.7-km-thick mid-Cretaceous strata of the Chaqiela section in Gamba area, southern Tibet is presented in this study. C-isotopic chemostratigraphic correlation combined with biostratigraphic constraints show that the Chaqiela section spans early Aptian through early Campanian period, and that almost all of the carbon cycle perturbations and Oceanic Anoxic Events during the mid-Cretaceous period are well recorded in the continental margin area of the southeastern Tethys Ocean...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992954/the-global-pyrogenic-carbon-cycle-and-its-impact-on-the-level-of-atmospheric-co2-over-past-and-future-centuries
#20
Jean-Sébastien Landry, H Damon Matthews
The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates...
December 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
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