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Global Warming Organisms

Jaan Pärn, Jos T A Verhoeven, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Nancy B Dise, Sami Ullah, Anto Aasa, Sergey Egorov, Mikk Espenberg, Järvi Järveoja, Jyrki Jauhiainen, Kuno Kasak, Leif Klemedtsson, Ain Kull, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Elena D Lapshina, Annalea Lohila, Krista Lõhmus, Martin Maddison, William J Mitsch, Christoph Müller, Ülo Niinemets, Bruce Osborne, Taavi Pae, Jüri-Ott Salm, Fotis Sgouridis, Kristina Sohar, Kaido Soosaar, Kathryn Storey, Alar Teemusk, Moses M Tenywa, Julien Tournebize, Jaak Truu, Gert Veber, Jorge A Villa, Seint Sann Zaw, Ülo Mander
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and the main driver of stratospheric ozone depletion. Since soils are the largest source of N2 O, predicting soil response to changes in climate or land use is central to understanding and managing N2 O. Here we find that N2 O flux can be predicted by models incorporating soil nitrate concentration (NO3 - ), water content and temperature using a global field survey of N2 O emissions and potential driving factors across a wide range of organic soils. N2 O emissions increase with NO3 - and follow a bell-shaped distribution with water content...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
A C Ruiz-Fernández, V Carnero-Bravo, J A Sanchez-Cabeza, L H Pérez-Bernal, O A Amaya-Monterrosa, S Bojórquez-Sánchez, P G López-Mendoza, J G Cardoso-Mohedano, R B Dunbar, D A Mucciarone, A J Marmolejo-Rodríguez
Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (Corg ) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO2 and storing sedimentary Corg for long periods, although their Corg burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published210 Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100years) of Corg concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree...
March 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bin Qu, Mika Sillanpää, Shichang Kang, Fangping Yan, Zhiguo Li, Hongbo Zhang, Chaoliu Li
Rivers are critical links in the carbon and nitrogen cycle in aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here riverine carbon and nitrogen exports in nine large rivers on the Tibetan Plateau - the "Water Tower of Asia" - were investigated in the monsoon season from 2013 to 2015. Compared with the world average, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 30.7mg/L) were high in river basins of the plateau due to extensive topographic relief and intensive water erosion. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 1...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Emma L Cross, Elizabeth M Harper, Lloyd S Peck
The inability of organisms to cope in changing environments poses a major threat to their survival. Rising carbon dioxide concentrations, recently exceeding 400 μatm, are rapidly warming and acidifying our oceans. Current understanding of organism responses to this environmental phenomenon is based mainly on relatively short- to medium-term laboratory and field experiments, which cannot evaluate the potential for long-term acclimation and adaptation, the processes identified as most important to confer resistance...
March 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Joanne M Bennett, Piero Calosi, Susana Clusella-Trullas, Brezo Martínez, Jennifer Sunday, Adam C Algar, Miguel B Araújo, Bradford A Hawkins, Sally Keith, Ingolf Kühn, Carsten Rahbek, Laura Rodríguez, Alexander Singer, Fabricio Villalobos, Miguel Ángel Olalla-Tárraga, Ignacio Morales-Castilla
How climate affects species distributions is a longstanding question receiving renewed interest owing to the need to predict the impacts of global warming on biodiversity. Is climate change forcing species to live near their critical thermal limits? Are these limits likely to change through natural selection? These and other important questions can be addressed with models relating geographical distributions of species with climate data, but inferences made with these models are highly contingent on non-climatic factors such as biotic interactions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Jacob E Hill, Travis L DeVault, James C Beasley, Olin E Rhodes, Jerrold L Belant
Vultures provide an essential ecosystem service through removal of carrion, but globally, many populations are collapsing and several species are threatened with extinction. Widespread declines in vulture populations could increase the availability of carrion to other organisms, but the ways facultative scavengers might respond to this increase have not been thoroughly explored. We aimed to determine whether facultative scavengers increase carrion consumption in the absence of vulture competition and whether they are capable of functionally replacing vultures in the removal of carrion biomass from the landscape...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Cuicui Mu, Lili Li, Xiaodong Wu, Feng Zhang, Lin Jia, Qian Zhao, Tingjun Zhang
Deep carbon pool in permafrost regions is an important component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the greenhouse gas production from deep permafrost soils is not well understood. Here, using soils collected from 5-m deep permafrost cores from meadow and wet meadow on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), we investigated the effects of temperature on CO2 and N2 O production under aerobic incubations and CH4 production under anaerobic incubations. After a 35-day incubation, the CO2, N2 O and CH4 production at -2 °C to 10 °C were 0...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cin-Ty A Lee, Hehe Jiang, Elli Ronay, Daniel Minisini, Jackson Stiles, Matthew Neal
On greater than million year timescales, carbon in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system is controlled by geologic inputs of CO2 through volcanic and metamorphic degassing. High atmospheric CO2 and warm climates in the Cretaceous have been attributed to enhanced volcanic emissions of CO2 through more rapid spreading at mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, to a global flare-up in continental arc volcanism. Here, we show that global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism also enhance the global flux of nutrients into the ocean through production of windblown ash...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Darshika Wanigarathna, Jiajian Gao, Bin Liu
Fluorocarbon has important applications in industry, but is environmentally unfriendly, which can cause ozone depletion and contribute to the global warming with long atmospheric lifetime and high global warming potential. In this work, the metal-organic framework UiO-66(Zr) is demonstrated to have excellent performance characteristics to separate fluorocarbon mixtures at room temperature. Adsorption isotherm measurements of UiO-66(Zr) display high fluorocarbon sorption uptakes of 5.0 mmol g-1 for R22 (CHClF2), 4...
March 6, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Naomi Horowitz, Jessica Frago, Dongyan Mu
This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management
Patrícia Anacleto, Cátia Figueiredo, Miguel Baptista, Ana Luísa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Luísa M P Valente, António Marques, Rui Rosa
Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus)...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Research
Cosme López-Calderón, Mónica Feriche, Esmeralda Alaminos, Juan M Pleguezuelos
The effects of climate change on organisms are now being extensively studied in many different taxa. However, the variation in body size, usually shrinkage in response to increasing temperature, has received little attention regarding to reptiles. During past periods of global warming, many organisms shrank in size, and current evidence and experiments manipulating temperature have shown a biomass decrease in some organisms with increasing temperatures. Here we test whether the body size of the Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus from the southeastern Iberian Peninsula is changing and correlated with the increasing temperature in this region during a 39-year period (1976-2014)...
December 2017: Current Zoology
Wang Qingkui, Shengen Liu, Peng Tian
Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic C (SOC) decomposition is critical to quantifying the climate-carbon cycle feedback and predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change. However, the driving factors of the spatial variation in Q10 at a continental scale are fully unidentified. In this study, we conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically varying temperature based on the mean annual temperature of the soil origin sites. A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 22 sites along a 3200 km-long north-south transect of forests in China, and the Q10 of soil microbial respiration and corresponding environmental variables were measured...
February 24, 2018: Global Change Biology
Lisa Bröder, Tommaso Tesi, August Andersson, Igor Semiletov, Örjan Gustafsson
The burial of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) in marine sediments contributes to the regulation of atmospheric CO2 on geological timescales and may mitigate positive feedback to present-day climate warming. However, the fate of terrOC in marine settings is debated, with uncertainties regarding its degradation during transport. Here, we employ compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of terrestrial biomarkers to determine cross-shelf transport times. For the World's largest marginal sea, the East Siberian Arctic shelf, transport requires 3600 ± 300 years for the 600 km from the Lena River to the Laptev Sea shelf edge...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Christopher Carcaillet, Jean-Louis Latil, Sébastien Abou, Adam Ali, Bassam Ghaleb, Frédéric Magnin, Paul Roiron, Serge Aubert
Up to now, the most widely accepted idea of the periglacial environment is that of treeless ecosystems such as the arctic or the alpine tundra, also called the tabula rasa paradigm. However, several palaeoecological studies have recently challenged this idea, that is, treeless environments in periglacial areas where all organisms would have been exterminated near the glacier formed during the Last Glacial Maximum, notably in the Scandinavian mountains. In the Alps, the issue of glacial refugia of trees remains unanswered...
February 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
Matthew D Smith, Hemamala I Karunadasa
With nearly 20% of global electricity consumed by lighting, more efficient illumination sources can enable massive energy savings. However, effectively creating the high-quality white light required for indoor illumination remains a challenge. To accurately represent color, the illumination source must provide photons with all the energies visible to our eye. Such a broad emission is difficult to achieve from a single material. In commercial white-light sources, one or more light-emitting diodes, coated by one or more phosphors, yield a combined emission that appears white...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lei Wu, Xian Wu, Shan Lin, Yupeng Wu, Shuirong Tang, Minghua Zhou, Muhammad Shaaban, Jinsong Zhao, Ronggui Hu, Yakov Kuzyakov, Jinshui Wu
Rice paddy conversion to vegetable production is a common agricultural practice driven by economic benefits and shifting diets. However, little is known on the initial effects of this land-use conversion on net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Annual NECB and emissions of CH4 and N2O were measured from a native double rice cropping system (Rice) and a vegetable field recently converted from rice paddy (Veg) under no nitrogen (N) fertilization (Rice-N0 and Veg-N0) and conventional N fertilization (Rice-N+ and Veg-N+) during the initial four years upon conversion in subtropical China...
January 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zheng Wan, Abdel El Makhloufi, Yang Chen, Jiayuan Tang
Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% by 2050 from their 2012 levels, owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive, and crucial industrial support is absent. In 2003, the International Maritime Organization adopted Resolution A.963 (23) to regulate shipping CO2 emissions via technical, operational, and market-based routes. However, progress has been slow and uncertain; there is no concrete emission reduction target or definitive action plan...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
A Gomiero, R G J Bellerby, M Manca Zeichen, L Babbini, A Viarengo
Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
M Abdalla, A Hastings, D R Chadwick, D L Jones, C D Evans, M B Jones, R M Rees, P Smith
Livestock grazing intensity (GI) is thought to have a major impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and soil quality indicators in grassland agroecosystems. To critically investigate this, we conducted a global review and meta-analysis of 83 studies of extensive grazing, covering 164 sites across different countries and climatic zones. Unlike previous published reviews we normalized the SOC and total nitrogen (TN) data to a 30 cm depth to be compatible with IPCC guidelines. We also calculated a normalized GI and divided the data into four main groups depending on the regional climate (dry warm, DW; dry cool, DC; moist warm, MW; moist cool, MC)...
February 1, 2018: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
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