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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909293/major-losses-of-nutrients-following-a-severe-drought-in-a-boreal-forest
#1
Daniel Houle, Geneviève Lajoie, Louis Duchesne
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide(1). Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented(2-4), very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#2
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903701/can-multi-generational-exposure-to-ocean-warming-and-acidification-lead-to-the-adaptation-of-life-history-and-physiology-in-a-marine-metazoan
#3
Emma M Gibbin, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Felix Christen, Vincent Turpin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Pierre U Blier, Piero Calosi
Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; (iii) whether observed phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845764/contribution-of-arctic-seabird-colony-ammonia-to-atmospheric-particles-and-cloud-albedo-radiative-effect
#4
B Croft, G R Wentworth, R V Martin, W R Leaitch, J G Murphy, B N Murphy, J K Kodros, J P D Abbatt, J R Pierce
The Arctic region is vulnerable to climate change and able to affect global climate. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions, which have poorly understood climate impacts related to atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we show that ammonia from seabird-colony guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of newly formed particles, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Our chemical-transport model simulations indicate that the pan-Arctic seabird-influenced particles can grow by sulfuric acid and organic vapour condensation to diameters sufficiently large to promote pan-Arctic cloud-droplet formation in the clean Arctic summertime...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829370/drought-stress-in-maize-causes-differential-acclimation-responses-of-glutathione-and-sulfur-metabolism-in-leaves-and-roots
#5
Nisar Ahmad, Mario Malagoli, Markus Wirtz, Ruediger Hell
BACKGROUND: Drought is the most important environmental stress that limits crop yield in a global warming world. Despite the compelling evidence of an important role of oxidized and reduced sulfur-containing compounds during the response of plants to drought stress (e.g. sulfate for stomata closure or glutathione for scavenging of reactive oxygen species), the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway is almost not investigated at the molecular or at the whole plant level during drought...
November 9, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827818/oocyte-embryo-and-blastocyst-cryopreservation-in-art-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-comparing-slow-freezing-versus-vitrification-to-produce-evidence-for-the-development-of-global-guidance
#6
REVIEW
Laura Rienzi, Clarisa Gracia, Roberta Maggiulli, Andrew R LaBarbera, Daniel J Kaser, Filippo M Ubaldi, Sheryl Vanderpoel, Catherine Racowsky
BACKGROUND: Successful cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is essential not only to maximize the safety and efficacy of ovarian stimulation cycles in an IVF treatment, but also to enable fertility preservation. Two cryopreservation methods are routinely used: slow-freezing or vitrification. Slow-freezing allows for freezing to occur at a sufficiently slow rate to permit adequate cellular dehydration while minimizing intracellular ice formation. Vitrification allows the solidification of the cell(s) and of the extracellular milieu into a glass-like state without the formation of ice...
November 8, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814028/anthropogenic-forcing-of-carbonate-and-organic-carbon-preservation-in-marine-sediments
#7
Richard Keil
Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term...
November 2, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798702/the-role-of-microbial-community-composition-in-controlling-soil-respiration-responses-to-temperature
#8
Marc D Auffret, Kristiina Karhu, Amit Khachane, Jennifer A J Dungait, Fiona Fraser, David W Hopkins, Philip A Wookey, Brajesh K Singh, Thomas E Freitag, Iain P Hartley, James I Prosser
Rising global temperatures may increase the rates of soil organic matter decomposition by heterotrophic microorganisms, potentially accelerating climate change further by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, the possibility that microbial community responses to prolonged warming may modify the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration creates large uncertainty in the strength of this positive feedback. Both compensatory responses (decreasing temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in the long-term) and enhancing responses (increasing temperature sensitivity) have been reported, but the mechanisms underlying these responses are poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795404/quorum-quenching-of-nitrobacter-winogradskyi-suggests-that-quorum-sensing-regulates-fluxes-of-nitrogen-oxide-s-during-nitrification
#9
Brett L Mellbye, Andrew T Giguere, Peter J Bottomley, Luis A Sayavedra-Soto
: Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread process in bacteria used to coordinate gene expression with cell density, diffusion dynamics, and spatial distribution through the production of diffusible chemical signals. To date, most studies on QS have focused on model bacteria that are amenable to genetic manipulation and capable of high growth rates, but many environmentally important bacteria have been overlooked. For example, representatives of proteobacteria that participate in nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, produce QS signals called acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs)...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790990/thermogenic-methane-release-as-a-cause-for-the-long-duration-of-the-petm
#10
Joost Frieling, Henrik H Svensen, Sverre Planke, Margot J Cramwinckel, Haavard Selnes, Appy Sluijs
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (∼56 Ma) was a ∼170,000-y (∼170-kyr) period of global warming associated with rapid and massive injections of (13)C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, reflected in sedimentary components as a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Carbon cycle modeling has indicated that the shape and magnitude of this CIE are generally explained by a large and rapid initial pulse, followed by ∼50 kyr of (13)C-depleted carbon injection. Suggested sources include submarine methane hydrates, terrigenous organic matter, and thermogenic methane and CO2 from hydrothermal vent complexes...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790788/additive-impacts-of-experimental-climate-change-increase-risk-to-an-ectotherm-at-the-arctic-s-edge
#11
Jon M Davenport, Blake R Hossack, LeeAnn Fishback
Globally, Arctic and Subarctic regions have experienced the greatest temperature increases during the last 30 years. These extreme changes have amplified threats to the freshwater ecosystems that dominate the landscape in many areas by altering water budgets. Several studies in temperate environments have examined the adaptive capacity of organisms to enhance our understanding of the potential repercussions of warming and associated accelerated drying for freshwater ecosystems. However, few experiments have examined these impacts in Arctic or Subarctic freshwater ecosystems, where the climate is changing most rapidly...
October 27, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789091/life-cycle-assessment-of-a-biogas-power-plant-with-application-of-different-climate-metrics-and-inclusion-of-near-term-climate-forcers
#12
Cristina Iordan, Carine Lausselet, Francesco Cherubini
This study assesses the environmental sustainability of electricity production through anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic wastes. The analysis relies on primary data from a biogas plant, supplemented with data from the literature. The climate impact assessment includes emissions of near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) like ozone precursors and aerosols, which are frequently overlooked in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and the application of a suite of different emission metrics, based on either the Global Warming Potential (GWP) or the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) with a time horizon (TH) of 20 or 100 years...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781156/climate-related-environmental-stress-in-intertidal-grazers-scaling-up-biochemical-responses-to-assemblage-level-processes
#13
Elena Maggi, Mario Cappiello, Antonella Del Corso, Francesca Lenzarini, Eleonora Peroni, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
BACKGROUND: Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763352/characterization-and-biodegradability-of-sludge-from-a-high-rate-a-stage-contact-tank-and-b-stage-membrane-bioreactor-of-a-pilot-scale-ab-system-treating-municipal-wastewaters
#14
Antoine Prandota Trzcinski, Lily Ganda, Chinagarn Kunacheva, Dong Qing Zhang, Li Leonard Lin, Guihe Tao, Yingjie Lee, Wun Jern Ng
In light of global warming mitigation efforts, increasing sludge disposal costs, and need for reduction in the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants, innovation in treatment technology has been tailored towards energy self-sufficiency. The AB process is a promising technology for achieving maximal energy recovery from wastewaters with minimum energy expenditure and therefore inherently reducing excess sludge production. Characterization of this novel sludge and its comparison with the more conventional B-stage sludge are necessary for a deeper understanding of AB treatment process design...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762332/climatic-geographic-and-operational-determinants-of-trihalomethanes-thms-in-drinking-water-systems
#15
Maria Valdivia-Garcia, Paul Weir, Zoe Frogbrook, David W Graham, David Werner
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are conditionally carcinogenic compounds formed during chlorine disinfection in water treatment processes around the world. THMs occur especially when source waters are subject to marine influences, high and-or regular precipitation, and elevated levels of organic matter. THMs formation is then rooted in geographic, operational and climatic factors, the relative importance of which can only be derived from large datasets and may change in the future. Ninety three full-scale Scottish water treatment plants (WTPs) were assessed from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 to identify factors that promote THMs formation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748424/sustained-acceleration-of-soil-carbon-decomposition-observed-in-a-6-year-warming-experiment-in-a-warm-temperate-forest-in-southern-japan
#16
Munemasa Teramoto, Naishen Liang, Masahiro Takagi, Jiye Zeng, John Grace
To examine global warming's effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition in Asian monsoon forests, we conducted a soil warming experiment with a multichannel automated chamber system in a 55-year-old warm-temperate evergreen broadleaved forest in southern Japan. We established three treatments: control chambers for total soil respiration, trenched chambers for heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and warmed trenched chambers to examine warming effect on Rh. The soil was warmed with an infrared heater above each chamber to increase soil temperature at 5 cm depth by about 2...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742149/environmental-assessment-of-energy-generation-from-agricultural-and-farm-waste-through-anaerobic-digestion
#17
Figen Sisman Nayal, Aydin Mammadov, Nilgun Ciliz
While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738171/impact-ejecta-at-the-paleocene-eocene-boundary
#18
Morgan F Schaller, Megan K Fung, James D Wright, Miriam E Katz, Dennis V Kent
Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin...
October 14, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721480/ecosystem-responses-to-warming-and-watering-in-typical-and-desert-steppes
#19
Zhenzhu Xu, Yanhui Hou, Lihua Zhang, Tao Liu, Guangsheng Zhou
Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703075/collapse-of-insect-gut-symbiosis-under-simulated-climate-change
#20
Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Akiyo Tada, Dmitry L Musolin, Nobuhiro Hari, Takahiro Hosokawa, Kenji Fujisaki, Takema Fukatsu
: Global warming impacts diverse organisms not only directly but also indirectly via other organisms with which they interact. Recently, the possibility that elevated temperatures resulting from global warming may substantially affect biodiversity through disrupting mutualistic/parasitic associations has been highlighted. Here we report an experimental demonstration that global warming can affect a pest insect via suppression of its obligate bacterial symbiont. The southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula depends on a specific gut bacterium for its normal growth and survival...
October 4, 2016: MBio
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