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Global Warming Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317324/big-in-the-benthos-future-change-of-seafloor-community-biomass-in-a-global-body-size-resolved-model
#1
Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#2
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295022/impacts-of-twenty-years-of-experimental-warming-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-moisture-and-soil-mites-across-alpine-subarctic-tundra-communities
#3
Juha M Alatalo, Annika K Jägerbrand, Jaanis Juhanson, Anders Michelsen, Peter Ľuptáčik
High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291228/high-resolution-data-on-the-impact-of-warming-on-soil-co2-efflux-from-an-asian-monsoon-forest
#4
Naishen Liang, Munemasa Teramoto, Masahiro Takagi, Jiye Zeng
This paper describes a project for evaluation of global warming's impacts on soil carbon dynamics in Japanese forest ecosystems. We started a soil warming experiment in late 2008 in a 55-year-old evergreen broad-leaved forest at the boundary between the subtropical and warm-temperate biomes in southern Japan. We used infrared carbon-filament heat lamps to increase soil temperature by about 2.5 °C at a depth of 5 cm and continuously recorded CO2 emission from the soil surface using a multichannel automated chamber system...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279534/winter-ecology-of-a-subalpine-grassland-effects-of-snow-removal-on-soil-respiration-microbial-structure-and-function
#5
Konstantin Gavazov, Johannes Ingrisch, Roland Hasibeder, Robert T E Mills, Alexandre Buttler, Gerd Gleixner, Jukka Pumpanen, Michael Bahn
Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions...
March 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275727/extreme-warmth-and-heat-stressed-plankton-in-the-tropics-during-the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#6
Joost Frieling, Holger Gebhardt, Matthew Huber, Olabisi A Adekeye, Samuel O Akande, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jack J Middelburg, Stefan Schouten, Appy Sluijs
Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272033/sewage-sludge-as-fertiliser-environmental-assessment-of-storage-and-land-application-options
#7
A Willén, C Junestedt, L Rodhe, M Pell, H Jönsson
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242195/trade-off-between-dimethyl-sulfide-and-isoprene-emissions-from-marine-phytoplankton
#8
REVIEW
K G Srikanta Dani, Francesco Loreto
Marine phytoplankton emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and isoprene that influence air quality, cloud dynamics, and planetary albedo. We show that globally (i) marine phytoplankton taxa tend to emit either DMS or isoprene, and (ii) sea-water surface concentration and emission hotspots of DMS and isoprene have opposite latitudinal gradients. We argue that a convergence of antioxidant functions between DMS and isoprene is possible, driven by potential metabolic competition for photosynthetic substrates...
February 24, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208235/warmer-night-time-temperature-promotes-microbial-heterotrophic-activity-and-modifies-stream-sediment-community
#9
Anna Freixa, Vicenç Acuña, Maria Casellas, Stoyana Pecheva, Anna M Romaní
Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203240/experimental-air-warming-of-a-stylosanthes-capitata-vogel-dominated-tropical-pasture-affects-soil-respiration-and-nitrogen-dynamics
#10
Miquel A Gonzalez-Meler, Lais B C Silva, Eduardo Dias-De-Oliveira, Charles E Flower, Carlos A Martinez
Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149178/saudiveg-ecoinformatics-aims-current-status-and-perspectives
#11
Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Jacob Thomas, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Sivadasan Mayandy, Stephan M Hennekens, Joop H J Schaminėe, Ladislav Mucina, Abdulla M Alansari
During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD)...
February 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142211/stimulation-of-n2-o-emission-by-manure-application-to-agricultural-soils-may-largely-offset-carbon-benefits-a-global-meta-analysis
#12
Minghua Zhou, Bo Zhu, Shijie Wang, Xinyu Zhu, Harry Vereecken, Nicolas Brüggemann
Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142125/potential-role-of-compost-and-green-manure-amendment-to-mitigate-soil-ghgs-emissions-in-mediterranean-drip-irrigated-maize-production-systems
#13
Annachiara Forte, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (GMAN)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139035/the-threat-to-coral-reefs-from-more-intense-cyclones-under-climate-change
#14
Alistair J Cheal, M Aaron MacNeil, Michael J Emslie, Hugh Sweatman
Ocean warming under climate change threatens coral reefs directly, through fatal heat stress to corals and indirectly, by boosting the energy of cyclones that cause coral destruction and loss of associated organisms. Although cyclone frequency is unlikely to rise, cyclone intensity is predicted to increase globally, causing more frequent occurrences of the most destructive cyclones with potentially severe consequences for coral reef ecosystems. While increasing heat stress is considered a pervasive risk to coral reefs, quantitative estimates of threats from cyclone intensification are lacking due to limited data on cyclone impacts to inform projections...
April 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135027/long-term-no-till-and-stover-retention-each-decrease-the-global-warming-potential-of-irrigated-continuous-corn
#15
Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Catherine E Stewart, Aaron J Sindelar, Gary E Varvel, Brian J Wienhold
Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117440/elevation-alters-ecosystem-properties-across-temperate-treelines-globally
#16
Jordan R Mayor, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Richard D Bardgett, Jean-Christophe Clément, Alex Fajardo, Sandra Lavorel, Maja K Sundqvist, Michael Bahn, Chelsea Chisholm, Ellen Cieraad, Ze'ev Gedalof, Karl Grigulis, Gaku Kudo, Daniel L Oberski, David A Wardle
Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra...
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115725/heat-induced-masculinization-in-domesticated-zebrafish-is-family-specific-and-yields-a-set-of-different-gonadal-transcriptomes
#17
Laia Ribas, Woei Chang Liew, Noèlia Díaz, Rajini Sreenivasan, László Orbán, Francesc Piferrer
Understanding environmental influences on sex ratios is important for the study of the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms and for evaluating the effects of global warming and chemical pollution. Fishes exhibit sexual plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms of environmental effects on their reproduction are unclear even in the well-established teleost research model, the zebrafish. Here we established the conditions to study the effects of elevated temperature on zebrafish sex. We showed that sex ratio response to elevated temperature is family-specific and typically leads to masculinization (female-to-male sex reversal), resulting in neomales...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115713/global-long-range-transport-and-lung-cancer-risk-from-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-shielded-by-coatings-of-organic-aerosol
#18
Manish Shrivastava, Silja Lou, Alla Zelenyuk, Richard C Easter, Richard A Corley, Brian D Thrall, Philip J Rasch, Jerome D Fast, Staci L Massey Simonich, Huizhong Shen, Shu Tao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102293/ocean-warming-and-acidification-synergistically-increase-coral-mortality
#19
F Prada, E Caroselli, S Mengoli, L Brizi, P Fantazzini, B Capaccioni, L Pasquini, K E Fabricius, Z Dubinsky, G Falini, S Goffredo
Organisms that accumulate calcium carbonate structures are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), potentially reducing the socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on these taxa. Since rising atmospheric CO2 is responsible for global warming and increasing ocean acidity, to correctly predict how OW and OA will affect marine organisms, their possible interactive effects must be assessed. Here we investigate, in the field, the combined temperature (range: 16-26 °C) and acidification (range: pHTS 8...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094515/nanoporous-materials-for-the-onboard-storage-of-natural-gas
#20
K Vasanth Kumar, Kathrin Preuss, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso
Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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