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Global Warming Weather

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605843/evaluation-of-fertilizer-and-water-management-effect-on-rice-performance-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-in-different-seasonal-weather-of-tropical-climate
#1
Hyun-Hwoi Ku, Keiichi Hayashi, Ruth Agbisit, Gina Villegas-Pangga
Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS)...
June 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549655/experimental-winter-warming-modifies-thermal-performance-and-primes-acorn-ants-for-warm-weather
#2
Heidi J MacLean, Clint A Penick, Robert R Dunn, Sarah E Diamond
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493368/microbial-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-dryland-ecosystems-mechanisms-microbiome-and-mitigation
#3
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464336/global-evaluation-of-a-semi-empirical-model-for-yield-anomalies-and-application-to-within-season-yield-forecasting
#4
Bernhard Schauberger, Christoph Gornott, Frank Wechsung
Quantifying the influence of weather on yield variability is decisive for agricultural management under current and future climate anomalies. We extended an existing semi-empirical modeling scheme that allows for such quantification. Yield anomalies, measured as inter-annual differences, were modeled for maize, soybeans and wheat in the US and 32 other main producer countries. We used two yield data sets, one derived from reported yields and the other from a global yield data set deduced from remote sensing...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444505/occupational-heat-stress-assessment-and-protective-strategies-in-the-context-of-climate-change
#5
Chuansi Gao, Kalev Kuklane, Per-Olof Östergren, Tord Kjellstrom
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386431/february-precipitation-in-the-wintering-grounds-of-the-lesser-whitethroat-sylvia-curruca-is-it-a-cue-for-migration-onset
#6
Irith Aloni, Shai Markman, Yaron Ziv
Numerous studies report shifts in bird migration phenology, presumably owing to global warming. However, most studies focus on migration patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigated associations between weather conditions in African wintering grounds of the lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca, and spring arrival time in Eilat, Israel. Using multivariate regression models, we analysed a 30-year dataset in order to examine correlations between median springtime arrival and 46 climate variables of the wintering quarters...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381634/negative-co2-emissions-via-enhanced-silicate-weathering-in-coastal-environments
#7
REVIEW
Filip J R Meysman, Francesc Montserrat
Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5-2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to exploit the natural process of mineral weathering for the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Here, we discuss the potential of applying ESW in coastal environments as a climate change mitigation option. By deliberately introducing fast-weathering silicate minerals onto coastal sediments, alkalinity is released into the overlying waters, thus creating a coastal CO2 sink...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381631/climate-change-mitigation-potential-benefits-and-pitfalls-of-enhanced-rock-weathering-in-tropical-agriculture
#8
REVIEW
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348220/communicating-the-deadly-consequences-of-global-warming-for-human-heat-stress
#9
Tom K R Matthews, Robert L Wilby, Conor Murphy
In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317479/climate-changes-and-human-health-a-review-of-the-effect-of-environmental-stressors-on-cardiovascular-diseases-across-epidemiology-and-biological-mechanisms
#10
Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316346/invasion-trajectory-of-pacific-oysters-in-the-northern-wadden-sea
#11
Karsten Reise, Christian Buschbaum, Heike Büttger, Johannes Rick, K Mathias Wegner
Invasion trajectories of introduced alien species usually begin with a long establishment phase of low abundance, often followed by exponential expansion and subsequent adjustment phases. We review the first 26 years of feral Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas around the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (North Sea, NE Atlantic), and reveal causal conditions for the invasion phases. Sea-based oyster farming with repeated introductions made establishment of feral oysters almost inevitable. Beds of mussels Mytilus edulis on mud flats offered firm substrate for attachment and ideal growth conditions around low tide level...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303943/increased-chemical-weathering-during-the-deglacial-to-mid-holocene-summer-monsoon-intensification
#12
Pavan Miriyala, N P Sukumaran, B Nagender Nath, P B Ramamurty, A V Sijinkumar, B Vijayagopal, V Ramaswamy, Tyson Sebastian
Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284225/how-does-the-dengue-vector-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-respond-to-global-warming
#13
Pengfei Jia, Xiang Chen, Jin Chen, Liang Lu, Qiyong Liu, Xiaoyue Tan
BACKGROUND: Global warming has a marked influence on the life cycle of epidemic vectors as well as their interactions with human beings. The Aedes albopictus mosquito as the vector of dengue fever surged exponentially in the last decade, raising ecological and epistemological concerns of how climate change altered its growth rate and population dynamics. As the global warming pattern is considerably uneven across four seasons, with a confirmed stronger effect in winter, an emerging need arises as to exploring how the seasonal warming effects influence the annual development of Ae...
March 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273392/surfing-parameter-hyperspaces-under-climate-change-scenarios-to-design-future-rice-ideotypes
#14
Livia Paleari, Ermes Movedi, Giovanni Cappelli, Lloyd T Wilson, Roberto Confalonieri
Growing food crops to meet global demand and the search for more sustainable cropping systems are increasing the need for new cultivars in key production areas. This study presents the identification of rice traits putatively producing the largest yield benefits in five areas that markedly differ in terms of environmental conditions in the Philippines, India, China, Japan and Italy. The ecophysiological model WARM and sensitivity analysis techniques were used to evaluate phenotypic traits involved with light interception, photosynthetic efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stressors, resistance to fungal pathogens and grain quality...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264774/combined-effects-of-climate-and-land-management-on-watershed-vegetation-dynamics-in-an-arid-environment
#15
Peilong Liu, Lu Hao, Cen Pan, Decheng Zhou, Yongqiang Liu, Ge Sun
Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter to characterize vegetation dynamics and ecosystem structure that determines the ecosystem functions and services such as clean water supply and carbon sequestration in a watershed. However, linking LAI dynamics and environmental controls (i.e., coupling biosphere, atmosphere, and anthroposphere) remains challenging and such type of studies have rarely been done at a watershed scale due to data availability. The present study examined the spatial and temporal variations of LAI for five ecosystem types within a watershed with a complex topography in the Upper Heihe River Basin, a major inland river in the arid and semi-arid western China...
March 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238433/impact-of-temperature-variation-on-mortality-an-observational-study-from-12-counties-across-hubei-province-in-china
#16
Yunquan Zhang, Chuanhua Yu, Junzhe Bao, Xudong Li
BACKGROUND: Compared with cold- and heat-related health impacts, the evidence was very limited in assessing the mortality effects of temperature variation (TV) accounting for both intra-day and inter-day changes in temperature. OBJECTIVE: We used a newly proposed composite indicator of intra-day and inter-day TV and evaluated TV-mortality associations in Hubei, China at the provincial level. METHODS: Daily mortality and meteorological data during 2009-2012 were obtained from 12 urban and rural counties across Hubei Province in China...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211465/decreasing-trend-in-severe-weather-occurrence-over-china-during-the-past-50-years
#17
Qinghong Zhang, Xiang Ni, Fuqing Zhang
Understanding the trend of localized severe weather under the changing climate is of great significance but remains challenging which is at least partially due to the lack of persistent and homogeneous severe weather observations at climate scales while the detailed physical processes of severe weather cannot be resolved in global climate models. Based on continuous and coherent severe weather reports from over 500 manned stations, for the first time, this study shows a significant decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence across China during the past five decades...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176783/humans-have-already-increased-the-risk-of-major-disruptions-to-pacific-rainfall
#18
Scott B Power, François P D Delage, Christine T Y Chung, Hua Ye, Bradley F Murphy
Intermittent disruptions to rainfall patterns and intensity over the Pacific Ocean lasting up to ∼ 1 year have major impacts on severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems, and disease within the Pacific, and in many countries beyond. The frequency with which major disruptions to Pacific rainfall occur has been projected to increase over the 21st century, in response to global warming caused by large 21st century greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use the latest generation of climate models to show that humans may have contributed to the major disruption that occurred in the real world during the late 20th century...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135027/long-term-no-till-and-stover-retention-each-decrease-the-global-warming-potential-of-irrigated-continuous-corn
#19
Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Catherine E Stewart, Aaron J Sindelar, Gary E Varvel, Brian J Wienhold
Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116356/tambora-and-the-mackerel-year-phenology-and-fisheries-during-an-extreme-climate-event
#20
Karen E Alexander, William B Leavenworth, Theodore V Willis, Carolyn Hall, Steven Mattocks, Steven M Bittner, Emily Klein, Michelle Staudinger, Alexander Bryan, Julianne Rosset, Benjamin H Carr, Adrian Jordaan
Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora's extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences...
January 2017: Science Advances
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