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Global Warming Weather

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895899/effects-of-heat-stress-on-construction-labor-productivity-in-hong-kong-a-case-study-of-rebar-workers
#1
Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan
Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839009/beneficial-effects-of-a-heat-wave-higher-growth-and-immune-components-driven-by-a-higher-food-intake
#2
Marie Van Dievel, Robby Stoks, Lizanne Janssens
While heat waves will become more frequent and intense under global warming, the ability of species to deal with extreme weather events is poorly understood. We investigated how a heat wave influenced growth rate and investment in two immune components (phenoloxidase activity and melanin content) in larvae of two damselfly species, Ischnura elegans and Enallagma cyathigerum Late instar larvae were kept at 18°C (i.e. their average natural water temperatures) or at a simulated long heat wave at 30°C. To explain the heat wave effects, we quantified traits related to energy uptake (food intake and growth efficiency), energy expenditure (metabolic rate measured as activity of the electron transport system, ETS) and investment in energy storage (fat content)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819098/protection-and-consolidation-of-stone-heritage-by-self-inoculation-with-indigenous-carbonatogenic-bacterial-communities
#3
Fadwa Jroundi, Mara Schiro, Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo, Kerstin Elert, Inés Martín-Sánchez, María Teresa González-Muñoz, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro
Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks. To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy. Here we present a novel, environmentally friendly, bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone, based on the isolation of an indigenous community of carbonatogenic bacteria from salt damaged stone, followed by their culture and re-application back onto the same stone...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802826/human-leptospirosis-cases-in-palermo-italy-the-role-of-rodents-and-climate
#4
Maria Vitale, Stefano Agnello, Michele Chetta, Benedetta Amato, Giustina Vitale, Calogero Di Bella, Domenico Vicari, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti
Many regions of the world are increasingly exposed to leptospirosis due to poverty, global warming and high urban density. Here, we report a molecular survey for pathogenic Leptospira spp. in rodents and two symptomatic human cases of leptospirosis in the city of Palermo, Italy. Four rodent species were captured in six areas of the city, and a molecular analysis for pathogenic Leptospira spp. on DNA from the kidney samples showed a different prevalence of leptospirosis in all the species of rodents. In addition, two human cases that occurred in May and October of 2009 in the city were also reported...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735231/exploring-the-association-between-heat-and-mortality-in-switzerland-between-1995-and-2013
#5
Martina S Ragettli, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Martin Röösli
Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013)...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733643/recent-wetting-and-glacier-expansion-in-the-northwest-himalaya-and-karakoram
#6
Ram R Yadav, Anil K Gupta, Bahadur S Kotlia, Vikram Singh, Krishna G Misra, Akhilesh K Yadava, Anoop K Singh
Hydroclimatic variability driven by global warming in the climatically vulnerable cold semi-arid to arid northwest (NW) Himalaya is poorly constrained due to paucity of continuous weather records and annually resolved proxies. Applying a network of annually resolved tree-ring-width chronologies from semi-arid region of Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India, we reconstructed April-May standardized precipitation index extending back to A.D. 1439 (576 years). The reconstructed series is featured by the most conspicuous long-term droughts during the 15(th) to early 17(th) centuries followed by a general wetting, with 1984-2014 being the wettest interval in the past 576 years...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717999/macro-and-microclimate-conditions-may-alter-grapevine-deacclimation-variation-in-thermal-amplitude-in-two-contrasting-wine-regions-from-north-and-south-america
#7
Francisco Gonzalez Antivilo, Rosalía Cristina Paz, Markus Keller, Roberto Borgo, Jorge Tognetti, Fidel Roig Juñent
Low temperature is a limiting factor that affects vineyard distribution globally. The level of cold hardiness acquired during the dormant season by Vitis sp. is crucial for winter survival. Most research published on this topic has been generated beyond 40° N latitude, where daily mean temperatures may attain injurious levels during the dormant season resulting in significant damage to vines and buds. Symptoms of cold injury have been identified in Mendoza (32-35° S latitude), a Southern Hemisphere wine region characterized by a high thermal amplitude, and warm winds during the dormant season...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699259/increasing-temperature-cuts-back-crop-yields-in-hungary-over-the-last-90-years
#8
Zsolt Pinke, Gábor L Lövei
The transformation of climatic regime has an undeniable impact on plant production, but we rarely have long enough date series to examine the unfolding of such effects. The clarification of the relationship between crop plants and climate has a near-immediate importance due to the impending human-made global change. This study investigated the relationship between temperature, precipitation, drought intensity, and the yields of four major cereals in Hungary between 1921-2010. The analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields...
July 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691098/high-particulate-iron-ii-content-in-glacially-sourced-dusts-enhances-productivity-of-a-model-diatom
#9
Elizabeth M Shoenfelt, Jing Sun, Gisela Winckler, Michael R Kaplan, Alejandra L Borunda, Kayla R Farrell, Patricio I Moreno, Diego M Gaiero, Cristina Recasens, Raymond N Sambrotto, Benjamin C Bostick
Little is known about the bioavailability of iron (Fe) in natural dusts and the impact of dust mineralogy on Fe utilization by photosynthetic organisms. Variation in the supply of bioavailable Fe to the ocean has the potential to influence the global carbon cycle by modulating primary production in the Southern Ocean. Much of the dust deposited across the Southern Ocean is sourced from South America, particularly Patagonia, where the waxing and waning of past and present glaciers generate fresh glaciogenic material that contrasts with aged and chemically weathered nonglaciogenic sediments...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605843/evaluation-of-fertilizer-and-water-management-effect-on-rice-performance-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-in-different-seasonal-weather-of-tropical-climate
#10
Hyun-Hwoi Ku, Keiichi Hayashi, Ruth Agbisit, Gina Villegas-Pangga
Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549655/experimental-winter-warming-modifies-thermal-performance-and-primes-acorn-ants-for-warm-weather
#11
Heidi J MacLean, Clint A Penick, Robert R Dunn, Sarah E Diamond
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493368/microbial-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-dryland-ecosystems-mechanisms-microbiome-and-mitigation
#12
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464336/global-evaluation-of-a-semi-empirical-model-for-yield-anomalies-and-application-to-within-season-yield-forecasting
#13
Bernhard Schauberger, Christoph Gornott, Frank Wechsung
Quantifying the influence of weather on yield variability is decisive for agricultural management under current and future climate anomalies. We extended an existing semi-empirical modeling scheme that allows for such quantification. Yield anomalies, measured as inter-annual differences, were modeled for maize, soybeans and wheat in the US and 32 other main producer countries. We used two yield data sets, one derived from reported yields and the other from a global yield data set deduced from remote sensing...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444505/occupational-heat-stress-assessment-and-protective-strategies-in-the-context-of-climate-change
#14
Chuansi Gao, Kalev Kuklane, Per-Olof Östergren, Tord Kjellstrom
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386431/february-precipitation-in-the-wintering-grounds-of-the-lesser-whitethroat-sylvia-curruca-is-it-a-cue-for-migration-onset
#15
Irith Aloni, Shai Markman, Yaron Ziv
Numerous studies report shifts in bird migration phenology, presumably owing to global warming. However, most studies focus on migration patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigated associations between weather conditions in African wintering grounds of the lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca, and spring arrival time in Eilat, Israel. Using multivariate regression models, we analysed a 30-year dataset in order to examine correlations between median springtime arrival and 46 climate variables of the wintering quarters...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381634/negative-co2-emissions-via-enhanced-silicate-weathering-in-coastal-environments
#16
REVIEW
Filip J R Meysman, Francesc Montserrat
Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5-2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to exploit the natural process of mineral weathering for the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Here, we discuss the potential of applying ESW in coastal environments as a climate change mitigation option. By deliberately introducing fast-weathering silicate minerals onto coastal sediments, alkalinity is released into the overlying waters, thus creating a coastal CO2 sink...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381631/climate-change-mitigation-potential-benefits-and-pitfalls-of-enhanced-rock-weathering-in-tropical-agriculture
#17
REVIEW
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348220/communicating-the-deadly-consequences-of-global-warming-for-human-heat-stress
#18
Tom K R Matthews, Robert L Wilby, Conor Murphy
In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317479/climate-changes-and-human-health-a-review-of-the-effect-of-environmental-stressors-on-cardiovascular-diseases-across-epidemiology-and-biological-mechanisms
#19
Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316346/invasion-trajectory-of-pacific-oysters-in-the-northern-wadden-sea
#20
Karsten Reise, Christian Buschbaum, Heike Büttger, Johannes Rick, K Mathias Wegner
Invasion trajectories of introduced alien species usually begin with a long establishment phase of low abundance, often followed by exponential expansion and subsequent adjustment phases. We review the first 26 years of feral Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas around the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (North Sea, NE Atlantic), and reveal causal conditions for the invasion phases. Sea-based oyster farming with repeated introductions made establishment of feral oysters almost inevitable. Beds of mussels Mytilus edulis on mud flats offered firm substrate for attachment and ideal growth conditions around low tide level...
2017: Marine Biology
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