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Global Warming Weather

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291557/a-regional-scale-modeling-framework-combining-biogeochemical-model-with-life-cycle-and-economic-analysis-for-integrated-assessment-of-cropping-systems
#1
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabaie, John P Bolte, Ganti S Murthy
The goal of this study was to integrate a crop model, DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic analysis models using a GIS-based integrated platform, ENVISION. The integrated model enables LCA practitioners to conduct integrated economic analysis and LCA on a regional scale while capturing the variability of soil emissions due to variation in regional factors during production of crops and biofuel feedstocks. In order to evaluate the integrated model, the corn-soybean cropping system in Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana was studied and the integrated model was used to first model the soil emissions and then conduct the LCA as well as economic analysis...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287181/what-s-hot-about-mercury-examining-the-influence-of-climate-on-mercury-levels-in-ontario-top-predator-fishes
#2
Miranda M Chen, Lianna Lopez, Satyendra P Bhavsar, Sapna Sharma
Mercury (Hg) levels in Ontario top predator fishes have been increasing in recent decades. These increases may be a result of many additive factors, including global climate change. Only recently has research been conducted on how climate change may impact Hg levels in freshwater fishes at large-scales. We examined the relationship between Hg trends and (1) local weather, (2) large-scale climate drivers, and (3) anthropogenic Hg emissions, in native cool water (walleye and northern pike) and warm water (smallmouth bass and largemouth bass) predatory fishes in Ontario, Canada, for historical (1970-1992) and recent (1993-2014) time periods...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285561/latitudinal-variation-in-responses-of-a-forest-herbivore-and-its-egg-parasitoids-to-experimental-warming
#3
Mariana Abarca, John T Lill, Pablo Frank-Bolton
Disrupted biotic interactions are a predicted consequence of anthropogenic climate change when interactants differ in the magnitude or direction of phenological responses. Here, we examined the responses to artificial warming of northern, southern and central populations of the eastern tent caterpillar and its hymenopteran egg parasitoids. We subjected egg masses from each region to the typical conditions they experience in their source locality or to a warmer temperature regime, to quantify the effects of simulated warming on their relative phenology, survival and neonate starvation endurance...
December 28, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238520/detecting-latitudinal-and-altitudinal-expansion-of-invasive-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis-and-phyllostachys-bambusoides-poaceae-in-japan-to-project-potential-habitats-under-1-5%C3%A2-c-4-0%C3%A2-c-global-warming
#4
Kohei Takenaka Takano, Kenshi Hibino, Ayaka Numata, Michio Oguro, Masahiro Aiba, Hideo Shiogama, Izuru Takayabu, Tohru Nakashizuka
Rapid expansion of exotic bamboos has lowered species diversity in Japan's ecosystems by hampering native plant growth. The invasive potential of bamboo, facilitated by global warming, may also affect other countries with developing bamboo industries. We examined past (1975-1980) and recent (2012) distributions of major exotic bamboos (Phyllostachys edulis and P. bambusoides) in areas adjacent to 145 weather stations in central and northern Japan. Bamboo stands have been established at 17 sites along the latitudinal and altitudinal distributional limit during the last three decades...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233795/using-microsimulation-to-estimate-the-future-health-and-economic-costs-of-salmonellosis-under-climate-change-in-central-queensland-australia
#5
Dimity Maree Stephen, Adrian Gerard Barnett
BACKGROUND: The incidence of salmonellosis, a costly foodborne disease, is rising in Australia. Salmonellosis increases during high temperatures and rainfall, and future incidence is likely to rise under climate change. Allocating funding to preventative strategies would be best informed by accurate estimates of salmonellosis costs under climate change and by knowing which population subgroups will be most affected. OBJECTIVE: We used microsimulation models to estimate the health and economic costs of salmonellosis in Central Queensland under climate change between 2016 and 2036 to inform preventative strategies...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228297/density-dependence-landscape-and-weather-impacts-on-aquatic-aedes-japonicus-japonicus-diptera-culicidae-abundance-along-an-urban-altitudinal-gradient
#6
Luis Fernando Chaves, Kazuhiko Moji
The Asian Bush Mosquito, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) is an important globally invasive mosquito species. In comparison with other major invasive mosquitoes, relatively little is known about Ae. j. japonicus population dynamics in the field. Here, we present results from a 54-biweek long study of Ae. j. japonicus abundance in ovitraps set across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan. Spatially, we found that Ae. j. japonicus fourth instar larvae (Aj4il) were more abundant at the base and top of Mt...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197279/trends-in-the-consecutive-days-of-temperature-and-precipitation-extremes-in-china-during-1961-2015
#7
Jun Shi, Linli Cui, Kangmin Wen, Zhan Tian, Peipei Wei, Bowen Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Consecutive climatic extremes have more intense impacts on natural ecosystems and human activities than occasional events. There were many studies about the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events, but few focused on the consecutiveness or continuousness of climatic extremes. We analyzed the temporal and spatial distributions and tendencies in the consecutive temperature and precipitation extremes in China during 1961-2015. METHODS: Daily temperature and precipitation data at 1867 meteorological stations over China was used and four consecutive indices of climate extremes, i...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179067/how-wildfire-risk-is-related-to-urban-planning-and-fire-weather-index-in-se-france-1990-2013
#8
D M Fox, P Carrega, Y Ren, P Caillouet, C Bouillon, S Robert
Wildfires burn >450,000ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather conditions affect fire occurrence. Housing density is determined by long term land use policies while weather conditions evolve quickly. The first objective was to quantify the impacts of land use policy on WUI characteristics and fire risk in SE France during 1990-2012. The second objective was to quantify how Fire Weather Index (FWI) is related to fire occurrence...
November 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#9
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#10
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#11
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078312/increasing-potential-for-intense-tropical-and-subtropical-thunderstorms-under-global-warming
#12
Martin S Singh, Zhiming Kuang, Eric D Maloney, Walter M Hannah, Brandon O Wolding
Intense thunderstorms produce rapid cloud updrafts and may be associated with a range of destructive weather events. An important ingredient in measures of the potential for intense thunderstorms is the convective available potential energy (CAPE). Climate models project increases in summertime mean CAPE in the tropics and subtropics in response to global warming, but the physical mechanisms responsible for such increases and the implications for future thunderstorm activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that high percentiles of the CAPE distribution (CAPE extremes) also increase robustly with warming across the tropics and subtropics in an ensemble of state-of-the-art climate models, implying strong increases in the frequency of occurrence of environments conducive to intense thunderstorms in future climate projections...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064726/relationship-between-wine-composition-and-temperature-impact-on-bordeaux-wine-typicity-in-the-context-of-global-warming-review
#13
Julie Drappier, Cécile Thibon, Amélie Rabot, Laurence Geny-Denis
Weather conditions throughout the year have a greater influence than other factors (such as soil and cultivars) on grapevine development and berry composition. Temperature affects gene expression and enzymatic activity of primary and secondary metabolism which determine grape ripening and wine characteristics. In the context of the climate change, temperatures will probably rise between 0.3°C and 1.7°C over the next 20 years. They are already rising and the physiology of grapevines is already changing. These modifications exert a profound shift in primary (sugar and organic acid balance) and secondary (phenolic and aromatic compounds) berry metabolisms and the resulting composition of wine...
October 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037370/modeling-warming-predicts-a-physiological-threshold-for-the-extinction-of-the-living-fossil-frog-calyptocephalella-gayi
#14
Marcela A Vidal, Francisco Novoa-Muñoz, Enrique Werner, Cristian Torres, Ricardo Nova
Global climate change will have a greater impact on ectotherms in tropical and subtropical communities than at higher latitudes, because ambient temperatures are closer to the upper thermal limits of species. Amphibian species are highly dependent on external weather conditions, and the effect of global warming on these has been evaluated recently. The Great Chilean frog (Calyptocephalella gayi) is an endemic, monotypic species and genus whose conservation status is considered Vulnerable because of high extraction pressure for human consumption, lack of regulatory measures and comprehension by its consumers...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028280/temporal-changes-in-soil-c-n-p-stoichiometry-over-the-past-60-years-across-subtropical-china
#15
Zaipeng Yu, Minhuang Wang, Zhiqun Huang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Matthew A Vadeboncoeur, Eric B Searle, Han Y H Chen
Controlled experiments have shown that global changes decouple the biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), resulting in shifting stoichiometry that lies at the core of ecosystem functioning. However, the response of soil stoichiometry to global changes in natural ecosystems with different soil depths, vegetation types, and climate gradients remain poorly understood. Based on 2,736 observations along soil profiles of 0-150 cm depth from 1955 to 2016, we evaluated the temporal changes in soil C-N-P stoichiometry across subtropical China, where soils are P-impoverished, with diverse vegetation, soil, and parent material types and a wide range of climate gradients...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027048/export-fluxes-of-geochemical-solutes-in-the-meltwater-stream-of-sutri-dhaka-glacier-chandra-basin-western-himalaya
#16
Ajit T Singh, C M Laluraj, Parmanand Sharma, Lavkush K Patel, Meloth Thamban
The hydrochemistry of meltwater from the Sutri Dhaka Glacier, Western Himalaya, has been studied to understand the influence of the factors controlling the weathering processes of the glaciers during the peak ablation period. The high solar irradiance prompted intense melting, which has raised the stream flow of the glacier. The meltwater has been observed as slightly alkaline (mean pH 8.2) and contains the major anions (HCO3(-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) > Cl(-)) and cations (Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) > Na(+) > NH4(+)) with Ca(2+) (78...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018258/future-soil-moisture-and-temperature-extremes-imply-expanding-suitability-for-rainfed-agriculture-in-temperate-drylands
#17
John B Bradford, Daniel R Schlaepfer, William K Lauenroth, Charles B Yackulic, Michael Duniway, Sonia Hall, Gensuo Jia, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, Seth M Munson, Scott D Wilson, Britta Tietjen
The distribution of rainfed agriculture, which accounts for approximately ¾ of global croplands, is expected to respond to climate change and human population growth and these responses may be especially pronounced in water limited areas. Because the environmental conditions that support rainfed agriculture are determined by climate, weather, and soil conditions that affect overall and transient water availability, predicting this response has proven difficult, especially in temperate regions that support much of the world's agriculture...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895899/effects-of-heat-stress-on-construction-labor-productivity-in-hong-kong-a-case-study-of-rebar-workers
#18
Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan
Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839009/beneficial-effects-of-a-heat-wave-higher-growth-and-immune-components-driven-by-a-higher-food-intake
#19
Marie Van Dievel, Robby Stoks, Lizanne Janssens
While heat waves will become more frequent and intense under global warming, the ability of species to deal with extreme weather events is poorly understood. We investigated how a heat wave influenced growth rate and investment in two immune components (phenoloxidase activity and melanin content) in larvae of two damselfly species, Ischnura elegans and Enallagma cyathigerum Late instar larvae were kept at 18°C (i.e. their average natural water temperatures) or at a simulated long heat wave at 30°C. To explain the heat wave effects, we quantified traits related to energy uptake (food intake and growth efficiency), energy expenditure (metabolic rate measured as activity of the electron transport system, ETS) and investment in energy storage (fat content)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819098/protection-and-consolidation-of-stone-heritage-by-self-inoculation-with-indigenous-carbonatogenic-bacterial-communities
#20
Fadwa Jroundi, Mara Schiro, Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo, Kerstin Elert, Inés Martín-Sánchez, María Teresa González-Muñoz, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro
Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks. To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy. Here we present a novel, environmentally friendly, bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone, based on the isolation of an indigenous community of carbonatogenic bacteria from salt damaged stone, followed by their culture and re-application back onto the same stone...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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