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Global Warming Weather

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102779/long-term-dust-aerosol-production-from-natural-sources-in-iceland
#1
Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, Haraldur Olafsson
: Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times...
February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#2
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062105/an-assessment-of-climate-change-impacts-on-maize-yields-in-hebei-province-of-china
#3
Yongfu Chen, Xinru Han, Wei Si, Zhigang Wu, Hsiaoping Chien, Katsuo Okamoto
The climate change impacts on maize yields are quantified in this paper using statistical models with panel data from 3731 farmers' observations across nine sample villages in Hebei Province of China. The marginal impacts of climate change and the simulated impacts on maize yields based on scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 from the global climate models of Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate version 5 (MIROC5) and Meteorological Research Institute Coupled General Circulation Model version 3 (MRI-CGCM3) were then calculated, analyzed, and explained...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#4
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045552/factors-influencing-knowledge-food-safety-practices-and-food-preferences-during-warm-weather-of-salmonella-and-campylobacter-cases-in-south-australia
#5
Adriana Milazzo, Lynne C Giles, Ying Zhang, Ann P Koehler, Janet E Hiller, Peng Bi
OBJECTIVE: To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days...
January 3, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010818/geographic-variation-and-acclimation-effects-on-thermoregulation-behavior-in-the-widespread-lizard-liolaemus-pictus
#6
Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Samuel Perret, José Luis Bartheld, Jean-François Le Galliard
Populations at the warm range margins of the species distribution may be at the greatest risks of extinction from global warming unless they can tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Yet, some studies suggest that the thermal behavior of some lizard species is evolutionarily rigid. During two successive years, we compared the thermal biology of two populations of Liolaemus pictus living at the northern (warmer) and one population living at the southern (colder) range limits, thus spanning an 800km latitudinal distance...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987123/environmental-investigation-for-the-presence-of-vibrio-species-following-a-case-of-severe-gastroenteritis-in-a-touristic-island
#7
Assimoula Economopoulou, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Michael Angelos Almpan, Vassilios Sandalakis, Sofia Maraki, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
Global changes have caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather. Similar patterns were also observed in Vibrio-associated diseases affecting marine organisms such as fish, bivalves, and corals. Following a possible human case of infection due to V. cholerae in the island of Kos (eastern Aegean, Greece), environmental samples were collected and tested for the presence of Vibrio species...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917927/robust-increase-in-extreme-summer-rainfall-intensity-during-the-past-four-decades-observed-in-china
#8
Chan Xiao, Peili Wu, Lixia Zhang, Lianchun Song
Global warming increases the moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere and consequently the potential risks of extreme rainfall. Here we show that maximum hourly summer rainfall intensity has increased by about 11.2% on average, using continuous hourly gauge records for 1971-2013 from 721 weather stations in China. The corresponding event accumulated precipitation has on average increased by more than 10% aided by a small positive trend in events duration. Linear regression of the 95(th) percentile daily precipitation intensity with daily mean surface air temperature shows a negative scaling of -9...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904417/global-warming-and-the-possible-globalization-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-call-for-increased-awareness-and-action
#9
Emmanuel O Balogun, Andrew J Nok, Kiyoshi Kita
Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880846/potential-impacts-of-climate-change-on-native-plant-distributions-in-the-falkland-islands
#10
Rebecca Upson, Jennifer J Williams, Tim P Wilkinson, Colin P Clubbe, Ilya M D Maclean, Jim H McAdam, Justin F Moat
The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used present day climate maps calibrated using local weather data, 2020-2080 climate predictions from regional climate models, non-climate variables derived from a digital terrain model and a comprehensive database on local plant distributions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879459/clinical-and-epidemiological-features-of-paederus-dermatitis-among-nut-farm-workers-in-turkey
#11
Emel Uzunoğlu, Işıl Deniz Oğuz, Büşra Kır, Cihangir Akdemir
Paederus dermatitis is an acute irritant dermatitis resulting from contact with the hemolymph of Paederus beetles. This dermatitis mimics other infectious skin disorders, often resulting in diagnostic dilemmas. This study of 46 patients was conducted to increase awareness about Paederus dermatitis. Possible causes of a number of cases of Paederus dermatitis in Giresun, Turkey, were investigated using climate data and telephone interviews with the patients about risk factors. Insects caught by patients were identified at the species level...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843109/non-cholera-vibrios-the-microbial-barometer-of-climate-change
#12
REVIEW
Craig Baker-Austin, Joaquin Trinanes, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures...
January 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828944/broadening-not-strengthening-of-the-agulhas-current-since-the-early-1990s
#13
Lisa M Beal, Shane Elipot
Western boundary currents-such as the Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean-carry heat poleward, moderating Earth's climate and fuelling the mid-latitude storm tracks. They could exacerbate or mitigate warming and extreme weather events in the future, depending on their response to anthropogenic climate change. Climate models show an ongoing poleward expansion and intensification of the global wind systems, most robustly in the Southern Hemisphere, and linear dynamical theory suggests that western boundary currents will intensify and shift poleward as a result...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751682/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-green-waste-composting-windrow
#14
Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
January 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723443/technical-and-economic-evaluation-of-biogas-capture-and-treatment-for-piedras-blancas-landfill-in-cordoba-argentina
#15
Franco Matías Francisca, Marcos Alexis Montoro, Daniel Alejandro Glatstein
Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Cordoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero order model, Landfill Gas Generation Model (LandGEM - EPA), Scholl Canyon model and triangular model...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698291/global-and-mediterranean-climate-change-a-short-summary
#16
Virginia Ciardini, Gian Marco Contessa, Rosaria Falsaperla, José Luis Gómez-Amo, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Giandomenico Pace, Salvatore Piacentino, Damiano Sferlazzo, Alcide di Sarra
: Observed changes at the global scale. An increase of the annual mean global temperature and changes of other climate parameters have been observed in the last century. The global temperature and the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases are changing at a very fast pace compared to those found in palaeoclimate records. Changes in the Mediterranean. Variations of some climate change indicators can be much larger at the local than at the global scale, and the Mediterranean has been indicated among the regions most sensitive to climate change, also due to the increasing anthropogenic pressure...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566717/the-correlation-between-dengue-incidence-and-diurnal-ranges-of-temperature-of-colombo-district-sri-lanka-2005-2014
#17
N D B Ehelepola, Kusalika Ariyaratne
BACKGROUND: Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal temperatures, ranging around different mean temperatures, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. OBJECTIVE: We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs) in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. DESIGN: We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005-2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509758/projecting-pest-population-dynamics-under-global-warming-the-combined-effect-of-inter-and-intra-annual-variations
#18
Royi Zidon, Hirotsugu Tsueda, Efrat Morin, Shai Morin
The typical short generation length of insects makes their population dynamics highly sensitive not only to mean annual temperatures but also to their intra-annual variations. To consider the combined effect of both thermal factors under global warming, we propose a modeling framework that links general circulation models (GCMs) with a stochastic weather generator and population dynamics models to predict species population responses to inter- and intra-annual temperature changes. This framework was utilized to explore future changes in populations of Bemisia tabaci, an invasive insect pest-species that affects multiple agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region...
June 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440662/weather-explains-high-annual-variation-in-butterfly-dispersal
#19
Mikko Kuussaari, Susu Rytteri, Risto K Heikkinen, Janne Heliölä, Peter von Bagh
Weather conditions fundamentally affect the activity of short-lived insects. Annual variation in weather is therefore likely to be an important determinant of their between-year variation in dispersal, but conclusive empirical studies are lacking. We studied whether the annual variation of dispersal can be explained by the flight season's weather conditions in a Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) metapopulation. This metapopulation was monitored using the mark-release-recapture method for 12 years. Dispersal was quantified for each monitoring year using three complementary measures: emigration rate (fraction of individuals moving between habitat patches), average residence time in the natal patch, and average distance moved...
July 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433467/human-and-environmental-dangers-posed-by-ongoing-global-tropospheric-aerosolized-particulates-for-weather-modification
#20
J Marvin Herndon
BACKGROUND: U.S. military perception of nuclear warfare led to countless unethical nuclear experiments performed on unsuspecting individuals without their informed consent. As evidenced here, subsequent perception of weather warfare has led to exposing millions of unsuspecting individuals to toxic coal fly ash with no public disclosure, no informed consent, and no health warnings. METHODS: Three methods were used: (1) comparison of eight elements analyzed in rainwater samples, thought to have leached from aerosolized coal fly ash, with corresponding coal fly ash laboratory leachate; (2) comparison of 14 elements analyzed in air filter dust with corresponding elements in coal fly ash; and (3) comparison of 23 elements analyzed in fibrous mesh found after snow melted with corresponding elements in coal fly ash...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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