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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#1
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#2
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#3
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078312/increasing-potential-for-intense-tropical-and-subtropical-thunderstorms-under-global-warming
#4
Martin S Singh, Zhiming Kuang, Eric D Maloney, Walter M Hannah, Brandon O Wolding
Intense thunderstorms produce rapid cloud updrafts and may be associated with a range of destructive weather events. An important ingredient in measures of the potential for intense thunderstorms is the convective available potential energy (CAPE). Climate models project increases in summertime mean CAPE in the tropics and subtropics in response to global warming, but the physical mechanisms responsible for such increases and the implications for future thunderstorm activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that high percentiles of the CAPE distribution (CAPE extremes) also increase robustly with warming across the tropics and subtropics in an ensemble of state-of-the-art climate models, implying strong increases in the frequency of occurrence of environments conducive to intense thunderstorms in future climate projections...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064726/relationship-between-wine-composition-and-temperature-impact-on-bordeaux-wine-typicity-in-the-context-of-global-warming-review
#5
Julie Drappier, Cécile Thibon, Amélie Rabot, Laurence Geny-Denis
Weather conditions throughout the year have a greater influence than other factors (such as soil and cultivars) on grapevine development and berry composition. Temperature affects gene expression and enzymatic activity of primary and secondary metabolism which determine grape ripening and wine characteristics. In the context of the climate change, temperatures will probably rise between 0.3°C and 1.7°C over the next 20 years. They are already rising and the physiology of grapevines is already changing. These modifications exert a profound shift in primary (sugar and organic acid balance) and secondary (phenolic and aromatic compounds) berry metabolisms and the resulting composition of wine...
October 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037370/modeling-warming-predicts-a-physiological-threshold-for-the-extinction-of-the-living-fossil-frog-calyptocephalella-gayi
#6
Marcela A Vidal, Francisco Novoa-Muñoz, Enrique Werner, Cristian Torres, Ricardo Nova
Global climate change will have a greater impact on ectotherms in tropical and subtropical communities than at higher latitudes, because ambient temperatures are closer to the upper thermal limits of species. Amphibian species are highly dependent on external weather conditions, and the effect of global warming on these has been evaluated recently. The Great Chilean frog (Calyptocephalella gayi) is an endemic, monotypic species and genus whose conservation status is considered Vulnerable because of high extraction pressure for human consumption, lack of regulatory measures and comprehension by its consumers...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028280/temporal-changes-in-soil-c-n-p-stoichiometry-over-the-past-60-years-across-subtropical-china
#7
Zaipeng Yu, Minhuang Wang, Zhiqun Huang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Matthew A Vadeboncoeur, Eric B Searle, Han Y H Chen
Controlled experiments have shown that global changes decouple the biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), resulting in shifting stoichiometry that lies at the core of ecosystem functioning. However, the response of soil stoichiometry to global changes in natural ecosystems with different soil depths, vegetation types, and climate gradients remain poorly understood. Based on 2,736 observations along soil profiles of 0-150 cm depth from 1955 to 2016, we evaluated the temporal changes in soil C-N-P stoichiometry across subtropical China, where soils are P-impoverished, with diverse vegetation, soil, and parent material types and a wide range of climate gradients...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027048/export-fluxes-of-geochemical-solutes-in-the-meltwater-stream-of-sutri-dhaka-glacier-chandra-basin-western-himalaya
#8
Ajit T Singh, C M Laluraj, Parmanand Sharma, Lavkush K Patel, Meloth Thamban
The hydrochemistry of meltwater from the Sutri Dhaka Glacier, Western Himalaya, has been studied to understand the influence of the factors controlling the weathering processes of the glaciers during the peak ablation period. The high solar irradiance prompted intense melting, which has raised the stream flow of the glacier. The meltwater has been observed as slightly alkaline (mean pH 8.2) and contains the major anions (HCO3(-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) > Cl(-)) and cations (Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) > Na(+) > NH4(+)) with Ca(2+) (78...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018258/future-soil-moisture-and-temperature-extremes-imply-expanding-suitability-for-rainfed-agriculture-in-temperate-drylands
#9
John B Bradford, Daniel R Schlaepfer, William K Lauenroth, Charles B Yackulic, Michael Duniway, Sonia Hall, Gensuo Jia, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, Seth M Munson, Scott D Wilson, Britta Tietjen
The distribution of rainfed agriculture, which accounts for approximately ¾ of global croplands, is expected to respond to climate change and human population growth and these responses may be especially pronounced in water limited areas. Because the environmental conditions that support rainfed agriculture are determined by climate, weather, and soil conditions that affect overall and transient water availability, predicting this response has proven difficult, especially in temperate regions that support much of the world's agriculture...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895899/effects-of-heat-stress-on-construction-labor-productivity-in-hong-kong-a-case-study-of-rebar-workers
#10
Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan
Global warming is bringing more frequent and severe heat waves, and the result will be serious for vulnerable populations such as construction workers. Excessive heat stress has profound effects on physiological responses, which cause occupational injuries, fatalities and low productivity. Construction workers are particularly affected by heat stress, because of the body heat production caused by physically demanding tasks, and hot and humid working conditions. Field studies were conducted between August and September 2016 at two construction training grounds in Hong Kong...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839009/beneficial-effects-of-a-heat-wave-higher-growth-and-immune-components-driven-by-a-higher-food-intake
#11
Marie Van Dievel, Robby Stoks, Lizanne Janssens
While heat waves will become more frequent and intense under global warming, the ability of species to deal with extreme weather events is poorly understood. We investigated how a heat wave influenced growth rate and investment in two immune components (phenoloxidase activity and melanin content) in larvae of two damselfly species, Ischnura elegans and Enallagma cyathigerum Late instar larvae were kept at 18°C (i.e. their average natural water temperatures) or at a simulated long heat wave at 30°C. To explain the heat wave effects, we quantified traits related to energy uptake (food intake and growth efficiency), energy expenditure (metabolic rate measured as activity of the electron transport system, ETS) and investment in energy storage (fat content)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819098/protection-and-consolidation-of-stone-heritage-by-self-inoculation-with-indigenous-carbonatogenic-bacterial-communities
#12
Fadwa Jroundi, Mara Schiro, Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo, Kerstin Elert, Inés Martín-Sánchez, María Teresa González-Muñoz, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro
Enhanced salt weathering resulting from global warming and increasing environmental pollution is endangering the survival of stone monuments and artworks. To mitigate the effects of these deleterious processes, numerous conservation treatments have been applied that, however, show limited efficacy. Here we present a novel, environmentally friendly, bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone, based on the isolation of an indigenous community of carbonatogenic bacteria from salt damaged stone, followed by their culture and re-application back onto the same stone...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802826/human-leptospirosis-cases-in-palermo-italy-the-role-of-rodents-and-climate
#13
Maria Vitale, Stefano Agnello, Michele Chetta, Benedetta Amato, Giustina Vitale, Calogero Di Bella, Domenico Vicari, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti
Many regions of the world are increasingly exposed to leptospirosis due to poverty, global warming and high urban density. Here, we report a molecular survey for pathogenic Leptospira spp. in rodents and two symptomatic human cases of leptospirosis in the city of Palermo, Italy. Four rodent species were captured in six areas of the city, and a molecular analysis for pathogenic Leptospira spp. on DNA from the kidney samples showed a different prevalence of leptospirosis in all the species of rodents. In addition, two human cases that occurred in May and October of 2009 in the city were also reported...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735231/exploring-the-association-between-heat-and-mortality-in-switzerland-between-1995-and-2013
#14
Martina S Ragettli, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Christian Schindler, Martin Röösli
Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013)...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733643/recent-wetting-and-glacier-expansion-in-the-northwest-himalaya-and-karakoram
#15
Ram R Yadav, Anil K Gupta, Bahadur S Kotlia, Vikram Singh, Krishna G Misra, Akhilesh K Yadava, Anoop K Singh
Hydroclimatic variability driven by global warming in the climatically vulnerable cold semi-arid to arid northwest (NW) Himalaya is poorly constrained due to paucity of continuous weather records and annually resolved proxies. Applying a network of annually resolved tree-ring-width chronologies from semi-arid region of Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India, we reconstructed April-May standardized precipitation index extending back to A.D. 1439 (576 years). The reconstructed series is featured by the most conspicuous long-term droughts during the 15(th) to early 17(th) centuries followed by a general wetting, with 1984-2014 being the wettest interval in the past 576 years...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717999/macro-and-microclimate-conditions-may-alter-grapevine-deacclimation-variation-in-thermal-amplitude-in-two-contrasting-wine-regions-from-north-and-south-america
#16
Francisco Gonzalez Antivilo, Rosalía Cristina Paz, Markus Keller, Roberto Borgo, Jorge Tognetti, Fidel Roig Juñent
Low temperature is a limiting factor that affects vineyard distribution globally. The level of cold hardiness acquired during the dormant season by Vitis sp. is crucial for winter survival. Most research published on this topic has been generated beyond 40° N latitude, where daily mean temperatures may attain injurious levels during the dormant season resulting in significant damage to vines and buds. Symptoms of cold injury have been identified in Mendoza (32-35° S latitude), a Southern Hemisphere wine region characterized by a high thermal amplitude, and warm winds during the dormant season...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699259/increasing-temperature-cuts-back-crop-yields-in-hungary-over-the-last-90-years
#17
Zsolt Pinke, Gábor L Lövei
The transformation of climatic regime has an undeniable impact on plant production, but we rarely have long enough date series to examine the unfolding of such effects. The clarification of the relationship between crop plants and climate has a near-immediate importance due to the impending human-made global change. This study investigated the relationship between temperature, precipitation, drought intensity, and the yields of four major cereals in Hungary between 1921-2010. The analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields...
July 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691098/high-particulate-iron-ii-content-in-glacially-sourced-dusts-enhances-productivity-of-a-model-diatom
#18
Elizabeth M Shoenfelt, Jing Sun, Gisela Winckler, Michael R Kaplan, Alejandra L Borunda, Kayla R Farrell, Patricio I Moreno, Diego M Gaiero, Cristina Recasens, Raymond N Sambrotto, Benjamin C Bostick
Little is known about the bioavailability of iron (Fe) in natural dusts and the impact of dust mineralogy on Fe utilization by photosynthetic organisms. Variation in the supply of bioavailable Fe to the ocean has the potential to influence the global carbon cycle by modulating primary production in the Southern Ocean. Much of the dust deposited across the Southern Ocean is sourced from South America, particularly Patagonia, where the waxing and waning of past and present glaciers generate fresh glaciogenic material that contrasts with aged and chemically weathered nonglaciogenic sediments...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605843/evaluation-of-fertilizer-and-water-management-effect-on-rice-performance-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-in-different-seasonal-weather-of-tropical-climate
#19
Hyun-Hwoi Ku, Keiichi Hayashi, Ruth Agbisit, Gina Villegas-Pangga
Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549655/experimental-winter-warming-modifies-thermal-performance-and-primes-acorn-ants-for-warm-weather
#20
Heidi J MacLean, Clint A Penick, Robert R Dunn, Sarah E Diamond
The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species...
July 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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