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Lateral geniculate nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#1
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920772/endogenous-attention-to-object-features-modulates-the-erp-c1-component
#2
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17) - as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus - but also at subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of ERP C1 response - reflecting V1 modulation - would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918463/apoptotic-mechanisms-after-repeated-noise-trauma-in-the-mouse-medial-geniculate-body-and-primary-auditory-cortex
#3
Felix Fröhlich, Arne Ernst, Ira Strübing, Dietmar Basta, Moritz Gröschel
A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group)...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#4
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912695/region-and-cell-specific-expression-of-transmembrane-collagens-in-mouse-brain
#5
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Courtney N Knill, Ubadah Sabbagh, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
Unconventional collagens are nonfribrillar proteins that not only contribute to the structure of extracellular matrices but exhibit unique bio-activities. Although roles for unconventional collagens have been well-established in the development and function of non-neural tissues, only recently have studies identified roles for these proteins in brain development, and more specifically, in the formation and refinement of synaptic connections between neurons. Still, our understanding of the full cohort of unconventional collagens that are generated in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893999/cortically-coordinated-nrem-thalamocortical-oscillations-play-an-essential-instructive-role-in-visual-system-plasticity
#6
Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Julie Colbath, Christopher Broussard, Jiaxing Wu, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Two long-standing questions in neuroscience are how sleep promotes brain plasticity and why some forms of plasticity occur preferentially during sleep vs. wake. Establishing causal relationships between specific features of sleep (e.g., network oscillations) and sleep-dependent plasticity has been difficult. Here we demonstrate that presentation of a novel visual stimulus (a single oriented grating) causes immediate, instructive changes in the firing of mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons, leading to increased firing-rate responses to the presented stimulus orientation (relative to other orientations)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875311/bisphenol-a-exposure-perturbs-visual-function-of-adult-cats-by-remodeling-the-neuronal-activity-in-the-primary-visual-pathway
#7
Guangwei Xu, Fan Hu, Xuan Wang, Bing Zhang, Yifeng Zhou
Bisphenol A (BPA), a common environmental xenoestrogen, has been implicated in physiological and behavioral impairment, but the neuronal basis remains elusive. Although various synaptic mechanisms have been shown to mediate BPA-induced brain deficits, there are almost no reports addressing its underlying physiological mechanisms at the individual neuron level, particularly in the primary visual system. In the present study, using multiple-channel recording technique, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the primary visual system of cats to various direction stimuli both before and after BPA exposure...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867482/neurochemical-differences-betweentarget-specific-populations-of-rat-dorsal-raphe-projection-neurons
#8
Eric W Prouty, Daniel J Chandler, Barry D Waterhouse
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits...
August 31, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866840/topography-of-the-human-acoustic-radiation-as-revealed-by-ex-vivo-fibers-micro-dissection-and-in-vivo-diffusion-based-tractography
#9
Chiara Maffei, Jorge Jovicich, Alessandro De Benedictis, Francesco Corsini, Mattia Barbareschi, Franco Chioffi, Silvio Sarubbo
The acoustic radiation is a compact bundle of fibers conveying auditory information from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to the auditory cortex. Topographical knowledge of this bundle in primates is scarce and in vivo diffusion-based tractography reconstructions in humans remains challenging, especially with the most widely used MRI acquisition protocols. Therefore, the AR represents a notable anatomical omission in the neurobiological investigation of acoustic and linguistic functional mechanisms in humans...
September 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837966/l-m-cone-opponency-in-visual-evoked-potentials-of-human-cortex
#10
Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni, Balázs Vince Nagy, Cristiane Maria Gomes Martins, Daniela Maria Oliveria Bonci, Einat Hauzman, Avinash Aher, Tina I Tsai, Jan Kremers, Dora Fix Ventura
L and M cones send their signals to the cortex using two chromatic (parvocellular and blue-yellow koniocellular) and one luminance (magnocellular) pathways. These pathways contain ON and OFF subpathways that respond to excitation increments and decrements respectively. Here, we report on visually evoked potentials (VEP) recordings that reflect L- and M-cone driven increment (LI and MI) and decrement (LD and MD) activity. VEP recordings were performed on 12 trichromats and four dichromats (two protanopes and two deuteranopes)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#11
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#12
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772144/epileptic-rat-brain-tissue-analyzed-by-2d-correlation-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Julia Sacharz, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Janina Zięba-Palus, Marian H Lewandowski, Rafał Kowalski, Katarzyna Palus, Łukasz Chrobok, Paulina Moskal, Malwina Birczyńska, Agnieszka Sozańska
Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG)...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753413/anophthalmia-in-a-wild-eastern-gray-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis
#14
Jamie L Rothenburger, Elizabeth A Hartnett, Fiona M K James, Bruce H Grahn
We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.
July 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735134/intraventricular-meningioma-resection-with-postoperative-ischemia-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#15
Saman Sizdahkhani, Stephen T Magill, Michael W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular meningiomas comprise 0.5%-3% of intracranial meningiomas. They often cause obstructive hydrocephalus and commonly are treated with surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical approaches and resection techniques needed to approach intraventricular tumors while highlighting the eloquent anatomy and blood supply surrounding the ventricular system to avoid neurological injury. METHODS: Two cases of left atrial intraventricular meningiomas that were complicated by postoperative lateral geniculate nucleus ischemia and resultant temporary contralateral quadrantanopia are described...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729937/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-combined-with-electrophysiology-in-the-evaluation-of-visual-pathway-in-experimental-rat-models-with-monocular-blindness
#16
Zuohua Tang, Jie Wang, Zebin Xiao, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Weijun Tang, Qian Chen, Lingjie Wu, Rong Wang, Yufeng Zhong, Wentao Wang, Jianfeng Luo
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to explore the feasibility of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) combined with visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked visual cortex responses (AVR) in evaluating for the establishment of visual/auditory compensatory pathways after monocular blindness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 healthy neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 for Groups A and B). Right optic nerve (ON) transection was performed on the 7 rats of Group A to obtain a monocularly blind model, and the 7 rats of Group B were chosen as the control group...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#17
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
KEY POINTS: The ascending brainstem transmitter acetylcholine depolarizes thalamocortical relay neurons while it induces hyperpolarization in local circuit inhibitory interneurons. Sustained K(+) currents are modulated in thalamic neurons to control their activity modes; for the interneurons the molecular nature of the underlying ion channels is as yet unknown. Activation of TASK-1 K(+) channels results in hyperpolarization of interneurons and suppression of their action potential firing...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711710/comparison-of-the-role-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-in-developmental-refinement-of-neuronal-connectivity-between-the-cerebellum-and-the-sensory-thalamus
#18
REVIEW
Madoka Narushima
Developmental refinement of neuronal connectivity is crucial for proper brain function. In the early phase of development, input fibers arrive at their target areas guided by specific molecular cues and form abundant immature synapses. Then, functionally important synapses are preserved and strengthened by neural activity while unnecessary synapses are eliminated. Afferent synapses in the sensory thalamus, such as from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus, and climbing fiber (CF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum are valuable models for studying this developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity because only a limited number of input fibers innervate a given postsynaptic thalamocortical (TC) neuron or PC...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696183/visual-system-involvement-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-disease
#19
Alessandro Arrigo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Laura Rania, Elisa Postorino, Silvia Marino, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Pasquale Aragona, Angelo Quartarone, Michele Gaeta
Purpose To assess intracranial visual system changes of newly diagnosed Parkinson disease in drug-naïve patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease and 20 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging) was performed with a 3-T MR imager. White matter changes were assessed by exploring a white matter diffusion profile by means of diffusion-tensor imaging-based parameters and constrained spherical deconvolution-based connectivity analysis and by means of white matter voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
July 11, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#20
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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