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Lateral geniculate nucleus

Nathan K Evanson, Fernanda Guilhaume-Correa, James P Herman, Michael D Goodman
Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction in these animals. Accordingly, we undertook a histologic analysis of mice after TBI. Gross pathology and histologic analysis using Nissl stain and NeuN immunohistochemistry demonstrated no obvious tissue damage or neuron loss...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Rose, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system is traditionally thought to be exclusively cortical whereas the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is classically considered to just be a 'relay' of visual information between the retina and the cortex. However, a number of recent experiments call into question the simplistic view of visual cortex being the only site of plasticity. Thalamic neurons, at least in mouse dLGN, combine inputs from ganglion cells located in both eyes and recent evidence suggests that the feature selectivity of dLGN neurons is subject to experience-dependent plasticity...
May 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
B L Mayer, L H A Monteiro
A Newman-Watts graph is formed by including random links in a regular lattice. Here, the emergence of synchronization in coupled Newman-Watts graphs is studied. The whole neural network is considered as a toy model of mammalian visual pathways. It is composed by four coupled graphs, in which a coupled pair represents the lateral geniculate nucleus and the visual cortex of a cerebral hemisphere. The hemispheres communicate with each other through a coupling between the graphs representing the visual cortices...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Marian Evangelio, María García-Amado, Francisco Clascá
A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Siddhesh Salelkar, Gowri Manohari Somasekhar, Supratim Ray
Local field potential (LFP) recorded using a microelectrode reflects the activity of several neural processes, including afferent synaptic inputs, microcircuit-level computations and spiking activity. Objectively probing their contribution requires a design that allows dissociation between these potential contributors. Earlier reports have shown that the primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has a higher temporal frequency (drift rate) cutoff than the primary visual cortex (V1), such that at higher drift rates, inputs into V1 from the LGN continue to persist whereas output ceases, permitting partial dissociation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Douglas R Wylie, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Andrea H Gaede, Douglas L Altshuler, Andrew N Iwaniuk
In this paper, we review the connections and physiology of visual pathways to the cerebellum in birds and consider their role in flight. We emphasize that there are two visual pathways to the cerebellum. One is to the vestibulocerebellum (folia IXcd and X) that originates from two retinal-recipient nuclei that process optic flow: the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM). The second is to the oculomotor cerebellum (folia VI-VIII), which receives optic flow information, mainly from LM, but also local visual motion information from the optic tectum, and other visual information from the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (Glv)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Mikhalkin, Pavel Zykin
The early postnatal development of the A-layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was investigated in kittens aged 0-34 days by immunohistochemistry for the selective marker for neuronal differentiation (NeuN protein) and parvalbumin. We report two new facts about the LGNd development. First, there is a transient stratification of NeuN labelling in layer A, and to a lesser extent in layer A1, in kittens aged 0 and 4 days. Second, a transient population of large cells that are located between the LGNd A-layers (interlaminar cells) showed high expression levels of both NeuN and parvalbumin...
April 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
J Michael Hasse, Elise M Bragg, Allison J Murphy, Farran Briggs
The corticogeniculate (CG) pathway links the visual cortex with the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and is the first feedback connection in the mammalian visual system. Whether functional connections between CG neurons and LGN relay neurons obey or ignore the separation of feedforward visual signals into parallel processing streams is not known. Accordingly, there is some debate about whether CG neurons are morphologically heterogeneous or homogenous. Here we characterized the morphology of CG neurons in the ferret, a visual carnivore with distinct feedforward parallel processing streams, and compared the morphology of ferret CG neurons with CG neuronal morphology previously described in macaque monkeys (Briggs et al, 2016)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Wayne W Tschetter, Gubbi Govindaiah, Ian M Etherington, William Guido, Cristopher M Niell
Receptive field properties of individual visual neurons are dictated by the precise patterns of synaptic connections they receive, including the arrangement of inputs in visual space and features such as polarity (On versus Off). The inputs from retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the mouse undergo significant refinement over development, however it is unknown how this corresponds to the establishment of functional visual response properties. Here we conducted in vivo and in vitro recordings in mouse LGN, beginning just after natural eye opening to determine how receptive fields develop as excitatory and feed-forward inhibitory retinal afferents refine...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mary Kl Baldwin, Leah Krubitzer
Titi monkeys are arboreal, diurnal New World monkeys whose ancestors were the first surviving branch of the New World radiation. In the current study, we use cytoarchtectonic and immunohistochemical characteristics to compare subcortical structures associated with visual processing with those of other well-studied primates. Our goal was to appreciate features that are similar across all New World monkeys, and primates in general, versus those features that are unique to titi monkeys and other primate taxa. We examined tissue stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin (Cb), parvalbumin (Pv), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to characterize the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual pulvinar...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ying Gao, Shisi Hu, Qiqin Li, Muran Wang, Zhina Zhi, Xiuli Kuang, Yaoyao Li, Sergii Vakal, Yun Wang
Perinatal inflammatory insult in preterm babies is associated with vision impairment, but the underlying cellular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we set out to explore whether systemic inflammatory stress affects the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Neonatal inflammation was induced by single and systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg) at postnatal day 4 (P4). Morphological changes of RGCs were investigated by using 3D neuron reconstruction technique in Thy-1 YFPH transgenic mice at P21, of which a fraction of RGCs selectively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
April 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
INTRODUCTION: The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the major relay center of the visual pathway in humans. There are few quantitative data on the morphology of LGN in prenatal infants. In this study, using serial brain sections, the author investigated the morphology of this nucleus during the second half of fetal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human brains were obtained at routine autopsy from preterm infants aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks. After fixation, the brain was embedded en bloc in celloidin and cut serially at 30 μm in the horizontal plane...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sofie C Sundberg, Björn Granseth
Genetically modified mouse strains that express Cre-recombinase in specific neuronal sub-populations have become widely used tools for investigating neuronal function. The Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mouse expresses this enzyme in corticothalamic neurons in layer 6 of cerebral cortex. We observed that about 7% of Cre-expressing cells in the primary visual cortex are found within the white matter bordering layer 6. By using the immunohistochemical marker for layer 6 neurons, Forkhead box protein 2 (FoxP2), and fluorescently conjugated latex beads injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, we show that about half of these cells are similar to and could belong to the layer 6 corticothalamic neuron population...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Tomasz Blasiak, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
Physiological function of rhythmic firing in the neuronal networks of sensory systems has been linked with information coding. Also, neuronal oscillations in different frequency bands often change as a signature of brain state or sensory processing. Infra-slow oscillation (ISO) in the neuronal firing dependent on the retinal network has been previously described in the structures of the subcortical visual system. In this paper, we show for the first time that firing of ISO neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus is also characterised by a harmonic discharge pattern, i...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Martha Bickford
A half century after Ray Guillery's classic descriptions of cell types, axon types, and synaptic architecture of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the functional organization of this nucleus, as well as all other thalamic nuclei, is still of enormous interest. This review will focus on 2 classic papers written by Ray Guillery: "A study of Golgi preparations from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the adult cat", and "The organization of synaptic interconnections in the laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat", as well as the studies that most directly followed from the insights these landmark manuscripts provided...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rafael Lacerda Furlanetto, Sergio Henrique Teixeira, Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli, Claudio Luiz Lottenberg, Fabiano Emori, Michel Michelan, Edson Amaro, Augusto Paranhos
PURPOSE: To analyze the correlation between structural characteristics of intraorbital optic nerve (ION) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI), and the severity of glaucomatous damage. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 41 glaucoma patients and 12 age- and sex-matched controls underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) and frequency doubling technology (FDT) as functional evaluation; optic disc stereophotograph, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal scanning laser tomography as ocular structural evaluation; and 3T MRI...
2018: PloS One
Hsin-Hao Yu, Nafiseh Atapour, Tristan A Chaplin, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello G P Rosa
Lesions of striate cortex (V1) trigger massive retrograde degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In primates, these lesions also lead to scotomas within which conscious vision is abolished. Mediation of residual visual capacity within these regions (blindsight) has been traditionally attributed to an indirect visual pathway to the extrastriate cortex, which involves the superior colliculus and pulvinar complex. However, recent studies have suggested that preservation of the LGN is critical for behavioral evidence of blindsight, raising the question of what type of visual information is channeled by remaining neurons in this structure...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Henry J Alitto, Daniel L Rathbun, Tucker G Fisher, Prescott C Alexander, W Martin Usrey
Visual information processed in the retina is transmitted to primary visual cortex via relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus. Although retinal ganglion cells are the primary source of driving input to LGN neurons, not all retinal spikes are transmitted to the cortex. Here, we investigate the relationship between stimulus contrast and retinogeniculate communication and test the hypothesis that both the time course and strength of retinogeniculate interactions are dynamic and dependent on stimulus contrast...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hongjian Li, Qi Fang, Yijun Ge, Zhong Li, Jianjun Meng, Jianbing Zhu, Hongbo Yu
Simple cells in the cat primary visual cortex usually have elongated receptive fields (RFs), and their orientation selectivity can be largely predicted by their RFs. As to the relay cells in cats' lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), they also have weak but significant orientation bias (OB). It is thus of interest to investigate the fine spatiotemporal receptive field (STRF) properties in LGN, compare them with the dynamics of orientation tuning, and examine the dynamic relationship between STRF and orientation sensitivity in LGN...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
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