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Lateral geniculate nucleus

E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Veysi Öner, Asker Bulut
PURPOSE: Recent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. METHODS: Thirty-two anisometropic hyperopic children with unilateral amblyopia were included in this prospective study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured as the distance between the retinal pigment epithelium and the chorioscleral edge, by using spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography...
October 18, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Raphaël Mizzi, George A Michael
Over the past few decades, evidence has accumulated showing that, at subcortical levels, visual attention depends partly on the extrageniculate neural pathways, that is, those pathways that bypass the lateral geniculate nucleus and circumvent the primary visual cortex. Working in concert with neuroscience, experimental psychology has contributed considerably to the understanding of the role these pathways play through the use of 3 behavioral cues: nasal-temporal asymmetries, responses to S-cone stimuli, and responses to perceptually suppressed stimuli...
October 10, 2016: Psychological Review
Akikazu Kamiyama, Kazuhisa Fujita, Yoshiki Kashimori
Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior...
September 28, 2016: Bio Systems
Reza Ramezan, Paul Marriott, Shojaeddin Chenouri
This paper introduces the Skellam process with resetting. Resetting is a modification that accommodates the modeling of neural spike trains. We show this as a biologically plausible model, which codes the information content of neural spike trains with three, potentially, time-varying functions. We show that the interspike interval distribution under this model follows a mixture of gamma distributions, a flexible class covering a wide range of commonly used models. Through simulation studies and the analyses of connected retinal ganglion and lateral geniculate nucleus cells, we evaluate the performance of this model...
September 26, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Ali Bayram, Esin Karahan, Başar Bilgiç, Ahmet Ademoglu, Tamer Demiralp
The sensitivity of the sensory systems to temporal changes of the environment constitutes one of the critical issues in perception. In the present study, we investigated the human early visual system's dependency on the temporal frequency of visual input using fMRI. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) were investigated in a wide frequency range (6-46Hz) with fine frequency sampling (13 frequencies). Subject-specific functional-anatomic ROIs were derived from the combination of the anatomic template masks and the functional maps derived from multi-session fMRI analyses across all 13 stimulation conditions...
October 2016: Vision Research
Kaitlin S Bohon, Katherine L Hermann, Thorsten Hansen, Bevil R Conway
The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear...
July 2016: ENeuro
Anahit Grigorian, Larissa McKetton, Keith A Schneider
In albinism, the number of ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is significantly reduced. The retina and optic chiasm have been proposed as candidate sites for misrouting. Since a correlation between the number of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) relay neurons and LGN size has been shown, and based on previously reported reductions in LGN volumes in human albinism, we suggest that fiber projections from LGN to the primary visual cortex (V1) are also reduced. Studying structural differences in the visual system of albinism can improve the understanding of the mechanism of misrouting and subsequent clinical applications...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Emmanuel Márquez-Legorreta, José de Anchieta C Horta-Júnior, Albert S Berrebi, Enrique Saldaña
The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Madoka Narushima, Motokazu Uchigashima, Yuki Yagasaki, Takeshi Harada, Yasuyuki Nagumo, Naofumi Uesaka, Kouichi Hashimoto, Atsu Aiba, Masahiko Watanabe, Mariko Miyata, Masanobu Kano
Neural circuits formed during postnatal development have to be maintained stably thereafter, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is essential for the maintenance of mature synaptic connectivity in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). In mGluR1 knockout (mGluR1-KO) mice, strengthening and elimination at retinogeniculate synapses occurred normally until around postnatal day 20 (P20). However, during the subsequent visual-experience-dependent maintenance phase, weak retinogeniculate synapses were newly recruited...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
M L Sánchez, Z Díaz-Cabiale, J A Narváez, B Manso, P Salinas, E Rivada, V Smith, R Coveñas
Using an immunohistochemical technique, we mapped the immunoreactive structures containing methionine-enkephalin-Arg(6)-Gly(7)-Leu(8) (Met-8) (a marker for the pro-enkephalin system) in the human diencephalon. Compared with previous studies, we observed a more widespread distribution of Met-8 in the human diencephalon. Met-8-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers exhibited a more widespread distribution in the hypothalamus than in the thalamus. We observed six populations of Met-8-immunoreactive cell bodies...
August 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Ning Cheng, Maryam Khanbabaei, Kartikeya Murari, Jong M Rho
Aberrant connectivity is believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent neuroimaging studies have increasingly identified such impairments in patients with ASD, including alterations in sensory systems. However, the cellular substrates and molecular underpinnings of disrupted connectivity remain poorly understood. Utilizing eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as a model system, we investigated the formation and refinement of precise patterning of synaptic connections in the BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD...
August 16, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Angela C Gauthier, Ji Liu
Glaucoma is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in the world. The disease leads to progressive optic nerve degeneration with a gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells. Neurodegeneration in glaucoma extends beyond the eye into the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex, and the disease even shares some characteristics with other central nervous system degenerative disorders. Glaucoma destroys neurons through oxidative stress, impairment in axonal transport, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Shannon E Boye, John J Alexander, C Douglas Witherspoon, Sanford L Boye, James J Peterson, Mark E Clark, Kristen J Sandefer, Chris A Girkin, William W Hauswirth, Paul D Gamlin
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as the preferred vector for targeting gene expression to the retina. Subretinally injected AAV can efficiently transduce retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors in primate retina. Inner and middle primate retina can be transduced by intravitreally delivered AAV, but with low efficiency. This is due to dilution of vector, potential neutralization of capsid because it is not confined to the immune-privileged retinal compartment, and the presence of the inner limiting membrane (ILM), a barrier separating the vitreous from the neural retina...
August 2016: Human Gene Therapy
L Amaral, A Ganho-Ávila, A Osório, M J Soares, D He, Q Chen, B Z Mahon, O F Gonçalves, A Sampaio, F Fang, Y Bi, J Almeida
Neuroplasticity - the capacity of the brain to change as a response to internal and external pressures - has been studied from a number of different perspectives. Perhaps one of the most powerful models is the study of populations that have been congenitally deprived of a sense. It has been shown that the right Auditory Cortex (AC) of congenitally deaf humans is neuroplastically modified in order to represent visual properties of a stimulus. One unresolved question is how this visual information is routed to the AC of congenitally deaf individuals...
September 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
M T Hussan, S Saito, Y Atoji
Glutamate acts as the excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and is mediated largely by the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of VGLUT2 mRNA in the turtle brain by in situ hybridization. Intense expression was observed in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, nucleus dorsomedialis thalami, nucleus dorsolateralis thalami, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, nucleus reuniens and nucleus periventricularis hypothalami. Moderate expression was noticed in the nucleus rotundus, area lateralis hypothalami, reticular nucleus, cerebellar nucleus and nucleus cochlearis...
July 11, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Aaron B Simmons, Samuel J Bloomsburg, Samuel A Billingslea, Morgan M Merrill, Shuai Li, Marshall W Thomas, Peter G Fuerst
PURPOSE: A transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the Pou4f2-promoter (also referred to as Brn-3b and Brn-3.2) was characterized. Pou4f2 expression has been reported in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, in the midbrain, and in the germline. In this study, we characterize the expression pattern of this Cre-recombinase line and report its utility in targeted deletion, temporal deletion, RGC depletion, and germline targeting, which can be regulated by the sex of the Cre-carrying mouse...
2016: Molecular Vision
Emmanuelle Renauld, Maxime Descoteaux, Michaël Bernier, Eleftherios Garyfallidis, Kevin Whittingstall
At rest, healthy human brain activity is characterized by large electroencephalography (EEG) fluctuations in the 8-13 Hz range, commonly referred to as the alpha band. Although it is well known that EEG alpha activity varies across individuals, few studies have investigated how this may be related to underlying morphological variations in brain structure. Specifically, it is generally believed that the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and its efferent fibres (optic radiation, OR) play a key role in alpha activity, yet it is unclear whether their shape or size variations contribute to its inter-subject variability...
2016: PloS One
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