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Lateral geniculate nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#1
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077727/asymmetries-of-dark-and-bright-negative-afterimages-are-paralleled-by-subcortical-on-and-off-post-stimulus-responses
#2
Hui Li, Xu Liu, Xiaohong Li, Yiliang Lu, Lothar Spillmann, Ian M Andolina, Wei Wang
: Humans are more sensitive to luminance decrements than increments, as evidenced by lower thresholds and shorter latencies for dark stimuli. This asymmetry is consistent with results of neurophysiological recordings in dorsal lateral-geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of cat and monkey. Specifically, V1 population responses demonstrate that darks elicit higher levels of activation than brights, and the latency of OFF responses in dLGN and V1 is shorter than that of ON responses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053044/retinal-and-nonretinal-contributions-to-extraclassical-surround-suppression-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#3
Tucker G Fisher, Henry J Alitto, W Martin Usrey
: Extraclassical surround suppression is a prominent receptive field property of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, influencing stimulus size tuning, response gain control, and temporal features of visual responses. Despite evidence for the involvement of both retinal and nonretinal circuits in the generation of extraclassical suppression, we lack an understanding of the relative roles played by these pathways and how they interact during visual stimulation...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038987/adaptive-reorganization-of-retinogeniculate-axon-terminals-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-experimental-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Vishal C Patel, Christopher W D Jurgens, Thomas E Krahe, John T Povlishock
The pathologic process in traumatic brain injury marked by delayed axonal loss, known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI), leads to partial deafferentation of neurons downstream of injured axons. This process is linked to persistent visual dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), however, examination of deafferentation in humans is impossible with current technology. To investigate potential reorganization in the visual system following mTBI, we utilized the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) mouse model of mTBI...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990105/novel-methodology-for-creating-macaque-retinas-with-sortable-photoreceptors-and-ganglion-cells
#5
Shreyasi Choudhury, Christianne E Strang, John J Alexander, Miranda L Scalabrino, Julie Lynch Hill, Daniel T Kasuga, C Douglas Witherspoon, Sanford L Boye, Paul D Gamlin, Shannon E Boye
Purpose: The ability to generate macaque retinas with sortable cell populations would be of great benefit to both basic and translational studies of the primate retina. The purpose of our study was therefore to develop methods to achieve this goal by selectively labeling, in life, photoreceptors (PRs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with separate fluorescent markers. Methods: Labeling of macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PRs and RGCs was accomplished by subretinal delivery of AAV5-hGRK1-GFP, and retrograde transport of micro-ruby™ from the lateral geniculate nucleus, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988493/focal-gain-control-of-thalamic-visual-receptive-fields-by-layer-6-corticothalamic-feedback
#6
Wei Wang, Ian M Andolina, Yiliang Lu, Helen E Jones, Adam M Sillito
The projections between the thalamus and primary visual cortex (V1) are a key reciprocal neural circuit, relaying retinal signals to cortical layers 4 & 6 while being simultaneously regulated by massive layer 6 corticothalamic feedback. Effectively dissecting the influence of this corticothalamic feedback circuit in higher mammals remains a challenge for vision research. By pharmacologically increasing the focal gain of visually driven layer 6 responses of cat V1 in a controlled fashion, we examined the effects of such focal cortical changes on the response amplitudes and spatial structure of the receptive fields (RFs) of individual dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) cells...
December 17, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986926/spatial-organization-of-chromatic-pathways-in-the-mouse-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#7
Daniel J Denman, Joshua H Siegle, Christof Koch, R Clay Reid, Timothy J Blanche
: In both dichromats and trichromats, cone opsin signals are maintained independently in cones and combined at the bipolar and retinal ganglion cell level creating parallel color-opponent pathways to the central visual system. Like other dichromats, the mouse retina expresses a short (S) and a medium (M) wavelength opsin, with the S-opsin shifted to peak sensitivity in the ultraviolet (UV) range. Unlike in primates, non-uniform opsin expression across the retina and co-expression in single cones creates a mostly mixed chromatic signal...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939427/a-developmental-study-of-glutamatergic-neuron-populations-in-the-ventrobasal-and-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-comparing-genetic-absence-rats-from-strasbourg-gaers-and-normal-control-wistar-rats
#8
Özlem Kirazlı, Safiye Çavdar, Sercan Yıldızel, Filiz Onat, Erkan Kaptanoğlu
An imbalance of GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is suspected to be the cause of absence epileptic seizures. Absence seizures are known to be generated in thalamocortical circuitry. In the present study we used light microscopy immunohistochemistry to quantify the density of glutamate+ve neurons at two developmental stages (P10 and P60) in two thalamic nuclei, the ventrobasal (VB) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in Wistar rats and compared the results with similar data obtained from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929058/tectal-derived-interneurons-contribute-to-phasic-and-tonic-inhibition-in-the-visual-thalamus
#9
Polona Jager, Zhiwen Ye, Xiao Yu, Laskaro Zagoraiou, Hong-Ting Prekop, Juha Partanen, Thomas M Jessell, William Wisden, Stephen G Brickley, Alessio Delogu
The release of GABA from local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN-INs) provides inhibitory control during visual processing within the thalamus. It is commonly assumed that this important class of interneurons originates from within the thalamic complex, but we now show that during early postnatal development Sox14/Otx2-expressing precursor cells migrate from the dorsal midbrain to generate dLGN-INs. The unexpected extra-diencephalic origin of dLGN-INs sets them apart from GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#10
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903724/a-comparison-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-awake-and-anesthetized-mice
#11
Séverine Durand, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Kenji Mizuseki, Saskia de Vries, Stefan Mihalas, R Clay Reid
: The cerebral cortex of the mouse has become one of the most important systems for studying information processing and the neural correlates of behavior. Multiple studies have examined the first stages of visual cortical processing: primary visual cortex (V1) and its thalamic inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but more rarely in the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in mice. Multiple single-unit surveys of dLGN and V1, both with electrophysiology and two-photon calcium imaging, have described receptive fields in anesthetized animals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903703/retinal-and-non-retinal-contributions-to-extraclassical-surround-suppression-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#12
Tucker G Fisher, Henry J Alitto, W Martin Usrey
: Extraclassical surround suppression is a prominent receptive field property of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, influencing stimulus size tuning, response gain control, and temporal features of visual responses. Despite evidence for the involvement of both retinal and non-retinal circuits in the generation of extraclassical suppression, we lack an understanding of the relative roles played by these pathways and how they interact during visual stimulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#13
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888071/cell-type-specific-expression-of-foxp2-in-the-ferret-and-mouse-retina
#14
Chihiro Sato, Lena Iwai-Takekoshi, Yoshie Ichikawa, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Although the anatomical and physiological properties of subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have been extensively investigated, their molecular properties are still unclear. Here, we examined the expression patterns of FoxP2 in the retina of ferrets and mice. We found that FoxP2 was expressed in small subsets of neurons in the adult ferret retina. FoxP2-positive neurons in the ganglion cell layer were divided into two groups. Large FoxP2-positive neurons expressed Brn3a and were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B injected into the optic nerve, indicating that they are RGCs...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845170/functional-symmetry-of-the-primary-visual-pathway-evidenced-by-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials
#15
Zhenghua Wu, Zheng Wu
The primary visual pathway exhibits a symmetrical anatomical structure, initially arising from the left and right retinas, passing through the lateral geniculate nucleus, and finally projecting to the left and right primary visual cortices. However, to our knowledge, studies based on scalp EEG have not provided adequate evidence of the functional symmetry of the primary visual pathway, as the usual visual ERP is often related to other higher-level brain areas. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) can be considered as the direct response of the primary visual pathway to a repetitive stimulus, with a very limited correlation with responses of higher-level brain areas...
January 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818623/an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-for-activity-dependent-visual-circuit-development
#16
REVIEW
Kara G Pratt, Masaki Hiramoto, Hollis T Cline
Neural circuit development is an activity-dependent process. This activity can be spontaneous, such as the retinal waves that course across the mammalian embryonic retina, or it can be sensory-driven, such as the activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by visual stimuli. Whichever the source, neural activity provides essential instruction to the developing circuit. Indeed, experimentally altering activity has been shown to impact circuit development and function in many different ways and in many different model systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812129/patterns-of-individual-variation-in-visual-pathway-structure-and-function-in-the-sighted-and-blind
#17
Geoffrey K Aguirre, Ritobrato Datta, Noah C Benson, Sashank Prasad, Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Holly Bridge, Kate E Watkins, Omar H Butt, Aleksandra S Dain, Lauren Brandes, Efstathios D Gennatas
Many structural and functional brain alterations accompany blindness, with substantial individual variation in these effects. In normally sighted people, there is correlated individual variation in some visual pathway structures. Here we examined if the changes in brain anatomy produced by blindness alter the patterns of anatomical variation found in the sighted. We derived eight measures of central visual pathway anatomy from a structural image of the brain from 59 sighted and 53 blind people. These measures showed highly significant differences in mean size between the sighted and blind cohorts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798177/synaptic-contributions-to-receptive-field-structure-and-response-properties-in-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#18
Vandana Suresh, Ulaş M Çiftçioğlu, Xin Wang, Brittany M Lala, Kimberly R Ding, William A Smith, Friedrich T Sommer, Judith A Hirsch
: Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780207/visual-bold-response-in-late-blind-subjects-with-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis
#19
E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778378/morphology-of-visual-sector-thalamic-reticular-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey-suggests-retinotopically-specialized-parallel-stream-mixed-input-to-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#20
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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