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Lateral geniculate nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343769/ckamp44-modulates-integration-of-visual-inputs-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#1
Xufeng Chen, Muhammad Aslam, Tim Gollisch, Kevin Allen, Jakob von Engelhardt
Relay neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) receive excitatory inputs from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Retinogeniculate synapses are characterized by a prominent short-term depression of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated currents, but the underlying mechanisms and its function for visual integration are not known. Here we identify CKAMP44 as a crucial auxiliary subunit of AMPARs in dLGN relay neurons, where it increases AMPAR-mediated current amplitudes and modulates gating of AMPARs. Importantly, CKAMP44 is responsible for the distinctive short-term depression in retinogeniculate synapses by reducing the rate of recovery from desensitization of AMPARs...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343640/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-reveals-insights-into-circuit-assembly-and-refinement
#2
Brian T Kalish, Lucas Cheadle, Sinisa Hrvatin, M Aurel Nagy, Samuel Rivera, Megan Crow, Jesse Gillis, Rory Kirchner, Michael E Greenberg
Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. However, much less is known about how such changes contribute to later stages of circuit assembly and refinement. In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322522/eye-specific-segregation-and-differential-fasciculation-of-developing-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-in-the-mouse-visual-pathway
#3
Austen A Sitko, Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol Mason
Prior to forming and refining synaptic connections, axons of projection neurons navigate long distances to their targets. While much is known about guidance cues for axon navigation through intermediate choice points, whether and how axons are organized within tracts is less clear. Here we analyze the organization of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing mouse retinogeniculate pathway. RGC axons are organized by both eye-specificity and topography in the optic nerve and tract: ipsilateral RGC axons are segregated from contralateral axons and are offset laterally in the tract relative to contralateral axon topographic position...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320715/subcortical-pathways-to-extrastriate-visual-cortex-underlie-residual-vision-following-bilateral-damage-to-v1
#4
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Residual vision, or blindsight, following damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) has been investigated for almost half a century. While there have been many studies of patients with unilateral damage to V1, far fewer have examined bilateral damage, mainly due to the rarity of such patients. Here we re-examine the residual visual function and underlying pathways of previously studied patient SBR who, as a young adult, suffered bilateral damage restricted to V1 which rendered him cortically blind. While earlier work compared his visual cortex to healthy, sighted participants, here we consider how his visual responses and connections compare to patients with unilateral damage to V1 in addition to sighted participants...
January 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315552/projections-of-three-subcortical-visual-centres-to-marmoset-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#5
Natalie Zeater, Péter Buzás, Bogdan Dreher, Ulrike Grünert, Paul R Martin
The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receives projections from visuotopically organised subcortical nuclei, in addition to inputs from the retina, visual cortices, and the thalamic reticular nucleus. Here, we study subcortical projections to the geniculate from the superior colliculus (SC) and parabigeminal nucleus (PBG) in the midbrain, and the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) in the pretectum of marmosets. Marmosets are New World diurnal foveate monkeys, and are an increasingly popular model for studying the primate visual system...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249282/spatial-information-in-a-non-retinotopic-visual-cortex
#6
Julien Fournier, Christian M Müller, Ingmar Schneider, Gilles Laurent
Turtle dorsal cortex (dCx), a three-layered cortical area of the reptilian telencephalon, receives inputs from the retina via the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus and constitutes the first cortical stage of visual processing. The receptive fields of dCx neurons usually occupy the entire contralateral visual field. Electrophysiological recordings in awake and anesthetized animals reveal that dCx is sensitive to the spatial structure of natural images, that dCx receptive fields are not entirely uniform across space, and that adaptation to repeated stimulation is position specific...
December 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228141/the-source-of-visual-size-adaptation
#7
Hang Zeng, Sylvia Kreutzer, Gereon R Fink, Ralph Weidner
Size adaptation describes the tendency of the visual system to adjust neural responsiveness of size representations after prolonged exposure to particular stimulations. A larger (or smaller) adaptor stimulus influences the perceived size of a similar test stimulus shown subsequently. Size adaptation may emerge on various processing levels. Functional representations of the adaptor to which the upcoming stimulus is adapted may be coded early in the visual system mainly reflecting retinal size. Alternatively, size adaptation may involve higher order processes that take into account additional information such as an object's estimated distance from the observer, hence reflecting perceived size...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218725/characterization-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-horizontal-cell-and-amacrine-cell-types-expressing-the-neurotrophic-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ret
#8
Nadia Parmhans, Szilard Sajgo, Jingwen Niu, Wenqin Luo, Tudor Constantin Badea
We report the retinal expression pattern of Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase for the Glial Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs), during development and in the adult mouse. Ret is initially expressed in Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs), followed by Horizontal Cells (HCs) and Amacrine Cells (ACs), beginning with the early stages of postmitotic development. Ret expression persists in all three classes of neurons in the adult. Using RNA sequencing, immunostaining and random sparse recombination, we show that Ret is expressed in at least three distinct types of ACs, and ten types of RGCs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210928/retinal-ganglion-cell-topography-in-patients-with-visual-pathway-pathology
#9
Simon Zehnder, Hannes Wildberger, James V M Hanson, Sebastian Lukas, Stefan Pelz, Klara Landau, Werner Wichmann, Christina Gerth-Kahlert
BACKGROUND: To investigate and quantify the impact of intracranial lesions at different locations within the visual pathway on the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) complex and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). METHODS: Patients with intracranial lesions affecting the optic chiasm (Group I) or the optic tract and/or lateral geniculate nucleus (Group II) were included. All patients received kinetic visual field assessment and underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208714/encoding-model-of-temporal-processing-in-human-visual-cortex
#10
Anthony Stigliani, Brianna Jeska, Kalanit Grill-Spector
How is temporal information processed in human visual cortex? Visual input is relayed to V1 through segregated transient and sustained channels in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). However, there is intense debate as to how sustained and transient temporal channels contribute to visual processing beyond V1. The prevailing view associates transient processing predominately with motion-sensitive regions and sustained processing with ventral stream regions, while the opposing view suggests that both temporal channels contribute to neural processing beyond V1...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207951/downstream-mediators-of-ten-m3-signalling-in-the-developing-visual-pathway
#11
Kelly A Glendining, Sam C Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari, Catherine A Leamey
BACKGROUND: The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in a broad high-ventral to low-dorsal gradient across the retina and in topographically-corresponding gradients in primary visual centres. Deletion of Ten-m3 causes profound disruption of binocular visual alignment and function. Surprisingly, one of the most apparent neuroanatomical changes-dramatic mismapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, retinal axons along the representation of the nasotemporal retinal axis-does not correlate well with Ten-m3's expression pattern, raising questions regarding mechanism...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184207/lateral-geniculate-neurons-projecting-to-primary-visual-cortex-show-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adult-mice
#12
Juliane Jaepel, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Tobias Rose
Experience-dependent plasticity in the mature visual system is widely considered to be cortical. Using chronic two-photon Ca2+ imaging of thalamic afferents in layer 1 of binocular visual cortex, we provide evidence against this tenet: the respective dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) cells showed pronounced ocular dominance (OD) shifts after monocular deprivation in adult mice. Most (86%), but not all, of dLGN cell boutons were monocular during normal visual experience. Following deprivation, initially deprived-eye-dominated boutons reduced or lost their visual responsiveness to that eye and frequently became responsive to the non-deprived eye...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181831/molecular-guidance-cues-in-the-development-of-visual-pathway
#13
REVIEW
Yupu Diao, Yuqing Chen, Peijun Zhang, Liyuan Cui, Jiayi Zhang
70%-80% of our sensory input comes from vision. Light hit the retina at the back of our eyes and the visual information is relayed into the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) thereafter, constituting the image-forming visual circuit. Molecular cues are one of the key factors to guide the wiring and refinement of the image-forming visual circuit during pre- and post-embryonic stages. Distinct molecular cues are involved in different developmental stages and nucleus, suggesting diverse guidance mechanisms...
November 27, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180667/rods-progressively-escape-saturation-to-drive-visual-responses-in-daylight-conditions
#14
Alexandra Tikidji-Hamburyan, Katja Reinhard, Riccardo Storchi, Johannes Dietter, Hartwig Seitter, Katherine E Davis, Saad Idrees, Marion Mutter, Lauren Walmsley, Robert A Bedford, Marius Ueffing, Petri Ala-Laurila, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas, Thomas A Münch
Rod and cone photoreceptors support vision across large light intensity ranges. Rods, active under dim illumination, are thought to saturate at higher (photopic) irradiances. The extent of rod saturation is not well defined; some studies report rod activity well into the photopic range. Using electrophysiological recordings from retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of cone-deficient and visually intact mice, we describe stimulus and physiological factors that influence photopic rod-driven responses...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153326/altered-structural-connectivity-of-the-left-visual-thalamus-in-developmental-dyslexia
#15
Christa Müller-Axt, Alfred Anwander, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is a highly prevalent reading disorder affecting about 5%-10% of children [1]. It is characterized by slow and/or inaccurate word recognition skills as well as by poor spelling and decoding abilities [2]. Partly due to technical challenges with investigating subcortical sensory structures, current research on dyslexia in humans by and large focuses on the cerebral cortex [3-7]. These studies found that dyslexia is typically associated with functional and structural alterations of a distributed left-hemispheric cerebral cortex network (e...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146465/more-than-blindsight-case-report-of-a-child-with-extraordinary-visual-capacity-following-perinatal-bilateral-occipital-lobe-injury
#16
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G Sarossy, Marc F Joanisse, Melvyn A Goodale, James A Bourne
Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed phenomenon whereby early-life injury to V1 often results in the preservation of visual perception in both monkeys and humans...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141247/connections-of-anterior-thalamic-visual-centers-in-the-leopard-frog-rana-pipiens
#17
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129732/chromatic-summation-and-receptive-field-properties-of-blue-on-and-blue-off-cells-in-marmoset-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
C D Eiber, A N J Pietersen, N Zeater, S G Solomon, P R Martin
The "blue-on" and "blue-off" receptive fields in retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of diurnal primates combine signals from short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photoreceptors with signals from medium/long wavelength sensitive (ML) photoreceptors. Three questions about this combination remain unresolved. Firstly, is the combination of S and ML signals in these cells linear or non-linear? Secondly, how does the timing of S and ML inputs to these cells influence their responses? Thirdly, is there spatial antagonism within S and ML subunits of the receptive field of these cells? We measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency tuning for four types of drifting sine gratings: S cone isolating, ML cone isolating, achromatic (S + ML), and counterphase chromatic (S - ML), in extracellular recordings from LGN of marmoset monkeys...
November 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113752/region-specific-glial-hyperplasia-and-neuronal-stability-of-rat-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-during-aging
#19
Felipe P Fiuza, Antônio Carlos Q Aquino, Diego A Câmara, José Rodolfo L P Cavalcanti, Expedito S Nascimento Júnior, Ramon H Lima, Rovena Clara G J Engelberth, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The normal aging process is accompanied by functional declines in image-forming and non-image forming visual systems. Among the components of these systems, the thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) offers a good model for aging studies since its three anatomical subdivisions, namely dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), receives light information from retina and projects to different brain areas involved in visual-related functions...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094198/the-turtle-visual-system-mediates-a-complex-spatiotemporal-transformation-of-visual-stimuli-into-cortical-activity
#20
Mahmood S Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel C Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
The three-layered visual cortex of turtle is characterized by extensive intracortical axonal projections and receives non-retinotopic axonal projections from lateral geniculate nucleus. What spatiotemporal transformation of visual stimuli into cortical activity arises from such tangle of malleable cortical inputs and intracortical connections? To address this question, we obtained band-pass filtered extracellular recordings of neural activity in turtle dorsal cortex during visual stimulation of the retina. We discovered important spatial and temporal features of stimulus-modulated cortical local field potential (LFP) recordings...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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