keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Superior colliculus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134765/developmental-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-and-retinotopicity-of-the-murine-retinocollicular-projection
#1
Jamie Beros, Jennifer Rodger, Alan R Harvey
During mammalian visual system development, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo extensive apoptotic death. In mouse retina, approximately 50% of RGCs present at birth (postnatal day 0; P0) die by P5, at a time when axons innervate central targets such as the superior colliculus (SC). We examined whether RGCs that make short-range axonal targeting errors within the contralateral SC are more likely to be eliminated during the peak period of RGC death (P1-P5), compared with RGCs initially making more accurate retinotopic connections...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134717/superior-colliculus-resting-state-networks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#2
Isadora Olivé, Maria Densmore, Sherain Harricharan, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth Lanius
OBJECTIVES: The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#3
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130968/immunohistochemical-localization-of-calbindin-d28k-parvalbumin-and-calretinin-in-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-circling-mice
#4
Jin-Koo Lee, Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung Ju Kim
The circling mouse serves as a hearing loss model. It has spontaneous tmie gene mutations that cause hair cell and cochlear degeneration. However, little is known about the role of the tmie gene in superior olivary complex (SOC) regions, in which sound information from the two ears is integrated and primarily relayed to the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and inferior colliculus. Several studies have reported that abnormal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is associated with the pathology of hearing loss. This study investigated the distribution of Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs), such as calbindin D28k, parvalbumin, and calretinin, in the SOC of the circling mouse on postnatal day 16...
November 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127718/-frontal-eye-field-in-prosimian-galagos-intracortical-microstimulation-and-tracing-studies
#5
Iwona Stepniewska, Pierre Pouget, Jon H Kaas
The frontal eye field (FEF) in prosimian primates was identified as a small cortical region, above and anterior to the anterior frontal sulcus, from which saccadic eye movements were evoked with electrical stimulation. Tracer injections revealed FEF connections with cortical and subcortical structures participating in higher order visual processing. Ipsilateral cortical connections were the densest with adjoining parts of the dorsal premotor and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Label in a region corresponding to supplementary eye field (SEF) of other primates, suggests the existence of SEF in galagos...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116453/the-role-of-the-pulvinar-in-spatial-visual-attention
#6
Ricardo Gattass, Juliana G M Soares, Bruss Lima
This chapter deals with the role of the pulvinar in spatial visual attention. There are at least two aspects in which the pulvinar seems to be instrumental for selective visual processes. The first aspect concerns pulvinar connectivity pattern. The pulvinar is connected with brain regions known to be playing a role in attentional mechanisms, such as area V4, the superior colliculus (SC), and the inferior parietal cortex (IP). Additionally, the pulvinar is richly interconnected with multiple cortical areas. This enables the pulvinar to serve as a hub for brain communication, potentially gating the flow of information across different regions...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116187/a-translational-study-on-looming-evoked-defensive-response-and-the-underlying-subcortical-pathway-in-autism
#7
Yu Hu, Zhuoming Chen, Lu Huang, Yue Xi, Bingxiao Li, Hong Wang, Jiajian Yan, Tatia M C Lee, Qian Tao, Kwok-Fai So, Chaoran Ren
Rapidly approaching objects indicating threats can induce defensive response through activating a subcortical pathway comprising superior colliculus (SC), lateral posterior nucleus (LP), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Abnormal defensive response has been reported in autism, and impaired synaptic connections could be the underlying mechanism. Whether the SC-LP-BLA pathway processes looming stimuli abnormally in autism is not clear. Here, we found that looming-evoked defensive response is impaired in a subgroup of the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111854/the-effect-of-morphine-upon-dna-methylation-in-ten-regions-of-the-rat-brain
#8
Timothy M Barrow, Hyang-Min Byun, Xinyan Li, Chris Smart, Yong-Xiang Wang, Yacong Zhang, Andrea A Baccarelli, Liqiong Guo
Morphine is one of the most effective analgesics in medicine. However, its use is associated with the development of tolerance and dependence. Recent studies demonstrating epigenetic changes in the brain after exposure to opiates have provided insight into mechanisms possibly underlying addiction. In this study, we sought to identify epigenetic changes in ten regions of the rat brain following acute and chronic morphine exposure. We analyzed DNA methylation of six nuclear-encoded genes implicated in brain function (Bdnf, Comt, Il1b, Il6, Nr3c1, and Tnf) and three mitochondrially-encoded genes (Mtco1, Mtco2, and Mtco3), and measured global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels...
November 7, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107519/direct-dopaminergic-projections-from-the-snc-modulate-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-lamprey-tectum
#9
Juan Pérez-Fernández, Andreas A Kardamakis, Daichi G Suzuki, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
Dopamine neurons in the SNc play a pivotal role in modulating motor behavior via striatum. Here, we show that the same dopamine neuron that targets striatum also sends a direct branch to the optic tectum (superior colliculus). Whenever SNc neurons are activated, both targets will therefore be affected. Visual stimuli (looming or bars) activate the dopamine neurons coding saliency and also elicit distinct motor responses mediated via tectum (eye, orienting or evasive), which are modulated by the dopamine input...
October 23, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089439/frontal-eye-field-inactivation-diminishes-superior-colliculus-activity-but-delayed-saccadic-accumulation-governs-reaction-time-increases
#10
Tyler R Peel, Suryadeep Dash, Stephen G Lomber, Brian D Corneil
Stochastic accumulator models provide a comprehensive framework for how neural activity could produce behavior. Neural activity within the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (iSC) support such models for saccade initiation, by relating variations in saccade reaction time (SRT) to variations in parameters such as baseline, rate of accumulation of activity, or threshold. Here, by recording iSC activity during reversible cryogenic inactivation of the FEF in four male non-human primates, we causally test which parameter(s) best explains concomitant increases in SRT...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077796/a-layer-specific-corticofugal-input-to-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#11
Hector Zurita, Crystal Rock, Jessica Perkins, Alfonso Junior Apicella
In the auditory cortex (AC), corticofugal projections arise from each level of the auditory system and are considered to provide feedback "loops" important to modulate the flow of ascending information. It is well established that the cortex can influence the response of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) via descending corticofugal projections. However, little is known about the relative contribution of different pyramidal neurons to these projections in the SC. We addressed this question by taking advantage of anterograde and retrograde neuronal tracing to directly examine the laminar distribution, long-range projections, and electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons projecting from the AC to the SC of the mouse brain...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066954/visual-neurons-in-the-superior-colliculus-innervated-by-islet2-or-islet2-retinal-ganglion-cells-display-distinct-tuning-properties
#12
Rachel B Kay, Jason W Triplett
Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina's projection to the superior colliculus (SC), where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060082/retinal-electrostimulation-in-rats-activation-thresholds-from-superior-colliculus-and-visual-cortex-recordings
#13
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Tianruo Guo, John W Morley, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Retinal neuromodulation is an emerging therapeutic approach to restore functional vision to those suffering retinal photoreceptor degeneration. The retina encodes visual information and transmits it to the brain. Replicating this retinal code through electrical stimulation is essential to improving the performance of visual prostheses. In doing so, the first step relies on precise neural recordings from visual centers that allow studying the response of these neurons to electrical stimulation of the retina...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055053/expression-patterns-of-ion-channels-and-structural-proteins-in-a-multimodal-cell-type-of-the-avian-optic-tectum
#14
Katharina Lischka, Simone Ladel, Harald Luksch, Stefan Weigel
The midbrain is an important subcortical area involved in distinct functions such as multimodal integration, movement initiation, bottom-up and top-down attention. Our group is particularly interested in cellular computation of multisensory integration. We focus on the visual part of the avian midbrain, the optic tectum (TeO, counterpart to mammalian superior colliculus). This area has a layered structure with the great advantage of distinct in- and output regions. In chicken, the TeO is organized in 15 layers where visual input targets the superficial layers while auditory input terminates in deeper layers...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050909/bold-fmri-in-the-mouse-auditory-pathway
#15
Guilherme Blazquez Freches, Cristina Chavarrias, Noam Shemesh
The auditory pathway is widely distributed throughout the brain, and is perhaps one of the most interesting networks in the context of neuroplasticity. Accurate mapping of neural activity in the entire pathway, preferably noninvasively, and with high resolution, could be instrumental for understanding such longitudinal processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has clear advantages for such characterizations, as it is noninvasive, provides relatively high spatial resolution and lends itself for repetitive studies, albeit relying on an indirect neurovascular coupling to deliver its information...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037507/gamma-oscillations-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-pulvinar-in-response-to-faces-support-discrimination-performance-in-monkeys
#16
Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Minh Nui Nguyen, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to discriminate different visual stimuli (Nguyen et al., 2013, 2014). However, the contribution of SC and pulvinar neurons to the discrimination of the facial images and subsequent behavioral performance remains unknown...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029071/visual-cortex-limits-pop-out-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-awake-mice
#17
Mehran Ahmadlou, Azadeh Tafreshiha, J Alexander Heimel
We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings evoke more neural response when surrounded by orthogonal gratings than when surrounded by parallel gratings, particularly in the awake mouse...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025168/-a-model-explaining-infantile-esotropia-dissociated-strabismus-as-a-result-of-sensory-interhemispheric-dissociation-and-crossed-dominance-in-the-brainstem
#18
Marcel Paulus Ten Tusscher
Over 150 million years, modern reptiles, birds and mammals evolved. Predatory birds and mammals have eyes on the front of their heads. In these animals, binocular correspondence, voluntary eye movements, eye-hand coordination, partial decussation at the optic chiasm and cortical interhemispheric pathways could develop at the cost of a smaller visual field. The subsequent enlargement of the cerebral neocortex and the hemispheric pathways are of central importance in binocular vision, sensory fusion and infantile strabismus...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993236/affective-blindsight-relies-on-low-spatial-frequencies
#19
Nicolas Burra, Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Alessia Celeghin, Beatrice de Gelder, Alan J Pegna
The human brain can process facial expressions of emotions rapidly and without awareness. Several studies in patients with damage to their primary visual cortices have shown that they may be able to guess the emotional expression on a face despite their cortical blindness. This non-conscious processing, called affective blindsight, may arise through an intact subcortical visual route that leads from the superior colliculus to the pulvinar, and thence to the amygdala. This pathway is thought to process the crude visual information conveyed by the low spatial frequencies of the stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988338/opposing-collicular-influences-on-the-parafascicular-pf-and-posteromedial-pom-thalamic-nuclei-relationship-to-pom-induced-inhibition-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-snr
#20
Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway
The superior colliculus activates the zona incerta (ZI), which sends GABAergic projections to the posteromedial (POm) thalamic nucleus. Consistent with this circuit, we previously showed that stimulation of the superior colliculus activates ZI and causes inhibition of neuronal activity in POm (Watson et al., J Neurosci 35:9463-9476, 2015). Other studies, however, have shown that collicular stimulation activates the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. The present study extends these reports by showing that unilateral collicular stimulation causes bilateral activation of Pf that is concomitant with bilateral inhibition of POm...
October 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
keyword
keyword
75827
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"