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Superior colliculus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628005/emergence-of-visually-evoked-reward-expectation-signals-in-dopamine-neurons-via-the-superior-colliculus-in-v1-lesioned-monkeys
#1
Norihiro Takakuwa, Rikako Kato, Peter Redgrave, Tadashi Isa
Responses of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons reflecting expected reward from sensory cues are critical for reward-based associative learning. However, critical pathways by which reward-related visual information is relayed to DA neurons remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated Pavlovian conditioning in macaque monkeys with unilateral primary visual cortex (V1) lesions (an animal model of 'blindsight'). Anticipatory licking responses to obtain juice drops were elicited in response to visual conditioned stimuli (CS) in the affected visual field...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620279/interleukin-6-deficiency-attenuates-retinal-ganglion-cell-axonopathy-and-glaucoma-related-vision-loss
#2
Franklin D Echevarria, Cathryn R Formichella, Rebecca M Sappington
The pleotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and degeneration, including that associated with glaucoma. IL-6 protects RGCs from pressure-induced apoptosis in vitro. However, it is unknown how IL-6 impacts glaucomatous degeneration in vivo. To study how IL-6 influences glaucomatous RGC axonopathy, accompanying glial reactivity, and resultant deficits in visual function, we performed neural tracing, histological, and neurobehavioral assessments in wildtype (B6;129SF2/J; WT) and IL-6 knock-out mice (B6;129S2-IL6(t)(m1kopf)/J; IL-6-/-) after 8 weeks of unilateral or bilateral microbead-induced glaucoma (microbead occlusion model)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#3
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence shows that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607399/rim1-2-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-are-required-for-the-refinement-of-ipsilateral-axons-and-eye-specific-segregation
#4
Ahlem Assali, Corentin Le Magueresse, Mohamed Bennis, Xavier Nicol, Patricia Gaspar, Alexandra Rebsam
Neural activity is crucial for the refinement of neuronal connections during development, but the contribution of synaptic release mechanisms is not known. In the mammalian retina, spontaneous neural activity controls the refinement of retinal projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC) to form appropriate topographic and eye-specific maps. To evaluate the role of synaptic release, the rab-interacting molecules (RIMs), a family of active zone proteins that play a central role in calcium-triggered release, were conditionally ablated in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605641/spectral-and-temporal-auditory-processing-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-aged-rats
#5
Margarida Costa, Franco Lepore, Jean-Paul Guillemot
Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602919/the-fine-tuning-of-retinocollicular-topography-depends-on-reelin-signaling-during-early-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-visual-system
#6
Rachel Antonioli-Santos, Bruna Lanzillotta-Mattos, Cecília Hedin-Pereira, Claudio Alberto Serfaty
During postnatal development, neural circuits are extremely dynamic and develop precise connection patterns that emerge as a result of the elimination of synaptic terminals, a process instructed by molecular cues and patterns of electrical activity. In the rodent visual system, this process begins during the first postnatal week and proceeds during the second and third postnatal weeks as spontaneous retinal activity and finally use dependent fine tuning takes place. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein able to affect several steps of brain development, from neuronal migration to the maturation of dendritic spines and use-dependent synaptic development...
June 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600558/look-me-in-the-eyes-constraining-gaze-in-the-eye-region-provokes-abnormally-high-subcortical-activation-in-autism
#7
Nouchine Hadjikhani, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nicole R Zürcher, Amandine Lassalle, Quentin Guillon, Loyse Hippolyte, Eva Billstedt, Noreen Ward, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) seem to have difficulties looking others in the eyes, but the substrate for this behavior is not well understood. The subcortical pathway, which consists of superior colliculus, pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus, and amygdala, enables rapid and automatic face processing. A specific component of this pathway - i.e., the amygdala - has been shown to be abnormally activated in paradigms where individuals had to specifically attend to the eye-region; however, a direct examination of the effect of manipulating the gaze to the eye-regions on all the components of the subcortical system altogether has never been performed...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592684/trajectory-curvature-in-saccade-sequences-spatiotopic-influences-vs-residual-motor-activity
#8
Geoffrey Mégardon, Casimir Johannes Hendrikus Ludwig, Petroc Sumner
When decisions drive saccadic eye movements, traces of the decision process can be inferred from the movement trajectories. For example, saccades can curve away from distractor stimuli, which was thought to reflect cortical inhibition biasing activity in the Superior Colliculus. Recent neurophysiological work does not support this theory, and two recent models have replaced top-down inhibition with lateral interactions in the Superior Colliculus or neural fatigue in the brainstem Saccadic Burst Generator. All current models operate in retinotopic coordinates and are based on single saccade paradigms...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539242/manganese-enhanced-mr-imaging-memri-combined-with-electrophysiology-in-the-study-of-cross-modal-plasticity-in-binocularly-blind-rats
#9
Zuohua Tang, Lingjie Wu, Zebin Xiao, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Qian Chen, Jiawen Fan, Jie Wang, Wentao Wang, Jianfeng Luo, Lixin Jin
Our study aimed to determine and verify the establishment of visual to auditory cross-modal plasticity using manganese-enhanced MR imaging (MEMRI) combined with examinations of the visual evoked potential (VEP), auditory brainstem response (ABR) and bilateral visual cortex response to a bilateral auditory stimulus (AVR). Fourteen healthy male Sprague-Dawley newborn rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=7 per group). Optic nerve transection was performed in the 7 rats of Group A three weeks after birth to obtain binocularly blind models, and the 7 rats of Group B were maintained as the control group...
May 21, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533384/changes-in-perceptual-sensitivity-related-to-spatial-cues-depends-on-subcortical-activity
#10
Lee P Lovejoy, Richard J Krauzlis
Spatial cues allow animals to selectively attend to relevant visual stimuli while ignoring distracters. This process depends on a distributed neuronal network, and an important current challenge is to understand the functional contributions made by individual brain regions within this network and how these contributions interact. Recent findings point to a possible anatomical segregation, with cortical and subcortical brain regions contributing to different functional components of selective attention. Cortical areas, especially visual cortex, may be responsible for implementing changes in perceptual sensitivity by changing the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas other regions, such as the superior colliculus, may be involved in processes that influence selection between competing stimuli without regulating perceptual sensitivity...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528360/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-midbrain-superior-colliculus-that-generates-saccadic-motor-commands
#11
Bahadir Kasap, A John van Opstal
Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and velocity by the distribution of firing rates (temporal). The neurons' burst profiles vary systematically with their anatomical positions and intended saccade vectors, to account for the nonlinear main-sequence kinematics of saccades...
May 20, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521141/indirect-pathway-of-caudal-basal-ganglia-for-rejection-of-valueless-visual-objects
#12
Hyoung F Kim, Hidetoshi Amita, Okihide Hikosaka
The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe)...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498493/involvement-of-microglia-in-early-axoglial-alterations-of-the-optic-nerve-induced-by-experimental-glaucoma
#13
Melina P Bordone, María F González Fleitas, Laura A Pasquini, Alejandra Bosco, Pablo H Sande, Ruth E Rosenstein, Damián Dorfman
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve (ON) damage. Cumulative evidence suggests glial cell involvement in the degeneration of the ON and RGCs. We analyzed the contribution of microglial reactivity to early axoglial alterations of the ON in an induced model of ocular hypertension. For this purpose, vehicle or chondroitin sulfate (CS) were weekly injected into the eye anterior chamber from Wistar rats for different intervals. The amount of Brn3a(+) RGC significantly decreased in CS-injected eyes for 10 and 15 (but not 6) weeks...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487639/reticular-formation-connections-underlying-horizontal-gaze-the-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-cmrf-as-a-conduit-for-the-collicular-saccade-signal
#14
Niping Wang, Eddie Perkins, Lan Zhou, Susan Warren, Paul J May
The central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) occupies much of the core of the midbrain tegmentum. Physiological studies indicate that it is involved in controlling gaze changes, particularly horizontal saccades. Anatomically, it receives input from the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and it has downstream projections to the brainstem, including the horizontal gaze center located in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). Consequently, it has been hypothesized that the cMRF plays a role in the spatiotemporal transformation needed to convert spatially coded collicular saccade signals into the temporally coded signals utilized by the premotor neurons of the horizontal gaze center...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468998/rapid-accumulation-of-inhibition-accounts-for-saccades-curved-away-from-distractors
#15
Devin Heinze Kehoe, Mazyar Fallah
Saccades curved towards a distractor are accompanied by a burst of neuronal activation at the distractor locus in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (SCi) ~30 ms prior to the initiation of a saccade (McPeek et al., 2003; Port and Wurtz, 2003). Although saccades curve away from inactivated SCi loci (Aizawa and Wurtz, 1998), whether inhibition is restricted to a similar critical epoch for saccades curved away from a distractor remains unclear (White et al., 2012). We examined this possibility by modeling human saccade curvature as a function of the time between onset of a task irrelevant luminance- or color-modulated distractor and initiation of an impending saccade, referred to as saccade distractor onset asynchrony (SDOA)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466070/a-cre-mouse-line-for-probing-irradiance-and-direction-encoding-retinal-networks
#16
Shai Sabbah, Daniel Berg, Carin Papendorp, Kevin L Briggman, David M Berson
Cell type-specific Cre driver lines have revolutionized the analysis of retinal cell types and circuits. We show that the transgenic mouse Rbp4-Cre selectively labels several retinal neuronal types relevant to the encoding of absolute light intensity (irradiance) and visual motion. In the ganglion cell layer (GCL), most marked cells are wide-field spiking polyaxonal amacrine cells (ACs) with sustained irradiance-encoding ON responses that persist during chemical synaptic blockade. Their arbors spread about 1 mm across the retina and are restricted to the inner half of the ON sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461138/distribution-of-asic4-transcripts-in-the-adult-wild-type-mouse-brain
#17
M Hoshikawa, A Kato, H Hojo, Y Shibata, N Kumamoto, M Watanabe, S Ugawa
Acid-sensing ion channel 4 (ASIC4) belongs to the ASIC gene family of neuronal proton-gated cation channels, and is the least understood subtype among the members. Previous studies of ASIC4 expression in the mammalian central nervous system have shown that ASIC4 is abundantly expressed in the spinal cord and in various brain regions, such as the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum. However, the detailed distribution of ASIC4 transcripts in mammalian brains still remains to be elucidated. In the present study, radioactive in situ hybridization histochemistry with an ASIC4-specific cRNA probe was performed on wild-type mouse brains, followed by X-gal staining experiments with Asic4-lacZ reporter mice Asic4(tm1a(KOMP)Mbp)...
April 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458646/commentary-express-saccades-and-superior-colliculus-responses-are-sensitive-to-short-wavelength-cone-contrast
#18
COMMENT
Olivier A Coubard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450539/multisensory-integration-uses-a-real-time-unisensory-multisensory-transform
#19
Ryan L Miller, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The manner in which the brain integrates different sensory inputs to facilitate perception and behavior has been the subject of numerous speculations. By examining multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus, the present study demonstrated that two operational principles are sufficient to understand how this remarkable result is achieved: (1) unisensory signals are integrated continuously and in real time as soon as they arrive at their common target neuron and (2) the resultant multisensory computation is modified in shape and timing by a delayed, calibrating inhibition...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450538/modulation-of-illusory-reversal-in-tactile-temporal-order-by-the-phase-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm
#20
Toshimitsu Takahashi, Shigeru Kitazawa
The subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, delivered sequentially to each hand with an interval of 100-300 ms, is often inverted when the arms are crossed. Based on data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies, it has been proposed that the reversal is due to a conflict between anatomical and spatial representations of the tactile signal or to the production of an inverted apparent motion signal. Because the alpha rhythms, which consist of a few distinct components, reportedly modulate tactile perception and apparent motion and serve as a 10 Hz timer, we hypothesized that the illusory reversal would be regulated by some of the alpha rhythms...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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