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Superior colliculus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766038/frontal-eye-field-inactivation-reduces-saccade-preparation-in-the-superior-colliculus-but-does-not-alter-how-preparatory-activity-relates-to-saccades-of-a-given-latency
#1
Suryadeep Dash, Tyler R Peel, Stephen G Lomber, Brian D Corneil
A neural correlate for saccadic reaction times (SRTs) in the gap saccade task is the level of low-frequency activity in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (iSC) just before visual target onset: greater levels of such preparatory iSC low-frequency activity precede shorter SRTs. The frontal eye fields (FEFs) are one likely source of iSC preparatory activity, since FEF preparatory activity is also inversely related to SRT. To better understand the FEF's role in saccade preparation, and the way in which such preparation relates to SRT, in two male rhesus monkeys, we compared iSC preparatory activity across unilateral reversible cryogenic inactivation of the FEF...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747701/astrocyte-remodeling-without-gliosis-precedes-optic-nerve-axonopathy
#2
Melissa L Cooper, John W Collyer, David J Calkins
Astroyctes serve myriad functions but are especially critical in white matter tracts, where energy-demanding axons propagate action potentials great distances between neurons. Axonal dependence on astrocytes for even normal function accentuates the critical role astrocytes serve during disease. In glaucoma, the most common optic neuropathy, sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) challenges RGC axons early, including degradation of anterograde transport to the superior colliculus (SC). Astrocyte remodeling presages overt axon degeneration in glaucoma and thus may present a therapeutic opportunity...
May 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747036/-18-f-ge-179-positron-emission-tomography-pet-tracer-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-one-pot-synthesis-and-preliminary-micro-pet-study-in-a-rat-model-of-mcao
#3
Weiyan Zhou, Weiqi Bao, Donglang Jiang, Yanyan Kong, Fengchun Hua, Xiuhong Lu, Yihui Guan
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to synthesize an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) radiotracer [18 F]-GE-179 in one-pot and evaluate its in vivo binding for NMDAR activation after brain ischemia reperfusion injury. METHODS: [18 F]-GE-179 was auto-synthesized using a quick one-pot method from a stable disulfide precursor and purified using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ethanol/aqueous NaH2 PO4 as the eluent...
April 25, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746557/optic-tract-injury-after-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-a-model-of-indirect-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#4
Nathan K Evanson, Fernanda Guilhaume-Correa, James P Herman, Michael D Goodman
Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction in these animals. Accordingly, we undertook a histologic analysis of mice after TBI. Gross pathology and histologic analysis using Nissl stain and NeuN immunohistochemistry demonstrated no obvious tissue damage or neuron loss...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737578/neuronal-connections-of-direct-and-indirect-pathways-for-stable-value-memory-in-caudal-basal-ganglia
#5
Hidetoshi Amita, Hyoung F Kim, Mitchell Smith, Atul Gopal, Okihide Hikosaka
Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729391/in-vivo-quantitative-structural-imaging-of-the-human-midbrain-and-the-superior-colliculus-at-9-4t
#6
Joana R Loureiro, Marc Himmelbach, Thomas Ethofer, Rolf Pohmann, Pascal Martin, Jonas Bause, Klaus Scheffler, Wolfgang Grodd, Gisela E Hagberg
We explored anatomical details of the superior colliculus (SC) by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9.4T. The high signal-to-noise ratio allowed the acquisition of high resolution, multi-modal images with voxel sizes ranging between 176 × 132 × 600 μm and (800)3 μm. Quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rate R1, the effective transverse relaxation rate R2*, and the magnetic susceptibility QSM was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. The images were analyzed in native space as well as after normalization to a common brain space (MNI)...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703770/visual-stimulation-leads-to-activation-of-the-nociceptive-trigeminal-nucleus-in-chronic-migraine
#7
Laura H Schulte, Angie Allers, Arne May
OBJECTIVE: The visual system has often been described to be sensitized in migraineurs, with light being perceived as aversive or even painful. One possible explanation for this altered perception is crosslinks between the visual and the trigeminonociceptive system. Visual stimulation in chronic migraineurs on the level of the brainstem might lead to enhanced activity within the spinal trigeminal nucleus (sTN) as the main site of trigeminal pain processing within this area. METHODS: Eighteen episodic migraineurs (EM), 17 chronic migraineurs (CM), and 19 healthy controls (HC) underwent one session of high-resolution brainstem imaging during which a rotating checkerboard was presented repeatedly as a visual stimulus...
April 27, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668383/neural-mechanisms-of-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-saccade-vigor-the-origin-of-targeting-errors-and-comparison-of-superior-colliculus-and-frontal-eye-field
#8
Thomas R Reppert, Mathieu Servant, Richard P Heitz, Jeffrey D Schall
Balancing the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is necessary for successful behavior. Using a visual search task with interleaved cues emphasizing speed or accuracy, we recently reported diverse contributions of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons instantiating salience evidence and response preparation. Here we report replication of visual search SAT performance in two macaque monkeys, new information about variation of saccade dynamics with SAT, extension of the neurophysiological investigation to describe processes in the superior colliculus, and description of the origin of search errors in this task...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658111/architectonic-characteristics-of-the-visual-thalamus-and-superior-colliculus-in-titi-monkeys
#9
Mary Kl Baldwin, Leah Krubitzer
Titi monkeys are arboreal, diurnal New World monkeys whose ancestors were the first surviving branch of the New World radiation. In the current study, we use cytoarchtectonic and immunohistochemical characteristics to compare subcortical structures associated with visual processing with those of other well-studied primates. Our goal was to appreciate features that are similar across all New World monkeys, and primates in general, versus those features that are unique to titi monkeys and other primate taxa. We examined tissue stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin (Cb), parvalbumin (Pv), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to characterize the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual pulvinar...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652210/idiopathic-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-disease-in-the-setting-of-hla-b27-uveitis
#10
Eric L Crowell, Margaret L Pfeiffer, Ankur A Kamdar, Mary K Koenig, Susan E Wittenberg, Emilio P Supsupin, Ore-Ofe O Adesina
PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to describe a novel case of idiopathic central nervous system inflammatory disease with bilateral human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-positive anterior uveitis. METHODS/RESULTS: A 15-year-old African American boy with bilateral HLA-B27-positive anterior uveitis controlled with topical and oral steroids for 8 months acutely developed headaches, left eyelid ptosis, and binocular diplopia. Imaging showed lesions in the right midbrain, superior colliculus, cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellar vermis and leptomeningeal enhancement along the vermian foliae...
April 13, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610441/modified-origins-of-cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-deaf-dispersion-of-auditory-efferents
#11
Blake E Butler, Julia K Sunstrum, Stephen G Lomber
Following the loss of a sensory modality, such as deafness or blindness, crossmodal plasticity is commonly identified in regions of the cerebrum that normally process the deprived modality. It has been hypothesized that significant changes in the patterns of cortical afferent and efferent projections may underlie these functional crossmodal changes. However, studies of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections have refuted this hypothesis, instead revealing a profound resilience of cortical afferent projections following deafness and blindness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608478/sex-difference-in-the-morphology-of-pineal-gland-in-adults-based-on-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Qing Han, Youqiong Li, Jincheng Wang, Xue Zhao
PURPOSE: We aimed to figure out the anatomical features of pineal gland region on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to explore the sex difference in pineal gland-related parameters with increasing age. METHODS: We measured the pineal gland on MRI images from 198 healthy adults (96 males and 102 females). Included subjects were divided into 4 age groups. After 3-dimensional reconstruction, the anatomic features of pineal gland and its distances to superior colliculus and splenium of corpus callosum were analyzed in each group...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581428/divergent-midbrain-circuits-orchestrate-escape-and-freezing-responses-to-looming-stimuli-in-mice
#13
Congping Shang, Zijun Chen, Aixue Liu, Yang Li, Jiajing Zhang, Baole Qu, Fei Yan, Yaning Zhang, Weixiu Liu, Zhihui Liu, Xiaofei Guo, Dapeng Li, Yi Wang, Peng Cao
Animals respond to environmental threats, e.g. looming visual stimuli, with innate defensive behaviors such as escape and freezing. The key neural circuits that participate in the generation of such dimorphic defensive behaviors remain unclear. Here we show that the dimorphic behavioral patterns triggered by looming visual stimuli are mediated by parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) projection neurons in mouse superior colliculus (SC). Two distinct groups of SC PV+ neurons form divergent pathways to transmit threat-relevant visual signals to neurons in the parabigeminal nucleus (PBGN) and lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LPTN)...
March 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555856/robust-visual-responses-and-normal-retinotopy-in-primate-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-long-term-lesions-of-striate-cortex
#14
Hsin-Hao Yu, Nafiseh Atapour, Tristan A Chaplin, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello G P Rosa
Lesions of striate cortex (V1) trigger massive retrograde degeneration of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In primates, these lesions also lead to scotomas within which conscious vision is abolished. Mediation of residual visual capacity within these regions (blindsight) has been traditionally attributed to an indirect visual pathway to the extrastriate cortex, which involves the superior colliculus and pulvinar complex. However, recent studies have suggested that preservation of the LGN is critical for behavioral evidence of blindsight, raising the question of what type of visual information is channeled by remaining neurons in this structure...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536310/audiogenic-epilepsy-and-structural-features-of-superior-colliculus-in-km-rats
#15
A V Revishchin, G M Solus, I I Poletaeva, G V Pavlova
Using immunoblotting, we showed that in rats of audiogenic epilepsy (AE) prone strain (Krushinsky- Molodkina, KM) the superior colliculus tissue (SC) contains significantly less quantity of glial neurotrophic factor (GDNF), beta-tubulin and actin in comparison to the same brain region in "0" rats, nonprone to AE. This fact led to the suggestion that the histological structure of the SC in KM rats could differ significantly from that of the "0" strain. Using neuromorphologу technique, we demonstrated that the total number of SC cells, as well as the number of neurons were significantly less in KM rats than in the "0" strain rats...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520444/sensory-adaptation-and-inhibition-of-return-dissociating-multiple-inhibitory-cueing-effects
#16
Alfred Lim, Vivian Eng, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in reaction times to targets that appeared at a previously cued location relative to an uncued location, often investigated using a spatial cueing paradigm. Despite numerous studies that have examined many aspects of IOR, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying IOR are still in dispute. The objective of the current research is to investigate the plausible mechanisms by manipulating the cue and target types between central and peripheral stimuli in a traditional cue-target paradigm with saccadic responses to targets...
May 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502952/stress-accelerates-defensive-responses-to-looming-in-mice-and-involves-a-locus-coeruleus-superior-colliculus-projection
#17
Lei Li, Xiaolong Feng, Zheng Zhou, Huiqi Zhang, Qianqian Shi, Zhuogui Lei, Peilei Shen, Qingning Yang, Binghao Zhao, Shuran Chen, Lin Li, Yulin Zhang, Pengjie Wen, Zhonghua Lu, Xiang Li, Fuqiang Xu, Liping Wang
Defensive responses to threatening stimuli are crucial to the survival of species. While expression of these responses is considered to be instinctive and unconditional, their magnitude may be affected by environmental and internal factors. The neural circuits underlying this modulation are still largely unknown. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are mediated by the superior colliculus (SC), a subcortical sensorimotor integration center. We found that repeated stress caused an anxiety-like state in mice and accelerated defensive responses to looming...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496891/development-of-the-mechanisms-governing-midbrain-multisensory-integration
#18
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of crossmodal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant crossmodal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492518/-superior-colliculus-pulvinar-amygdala-subcortical-visual-pathway-and-its-biological-significance
#19
Lei Wang, Li-Chuan Yang, Qian-Li Meng, Yuan-Ye Ma
Superior colliculus-pulvinar-amygdala pathway is one of the subcortical visual pathways in mammalian brain. Some recent studies suggest that this pathway is involved in processing emotion-related visual information. This review discusses the possibility that this pathway is more related to visual alert rather than simply the early visual information processing. The biological significance of this pathway is also discussed. Instead of detecting "where" or "what" the visual target is, the task of this early visual stage is to send out a warning signal, i...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488007/tinnitus-and-temporary-hearing-loss-result-in-differential-noise-induced-spatial-reorganization-of-brain-activity
#20
Antonela Muca, Emily Standafer, Aaron K Apawu, Farhan Ahmad, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Mirabela Hali, James Warila, Bruce A Berkowitz, Avril Genene Holt
Loud noise frequently results in hyperacusis or hearing loss (i.e., increased or decreased sensitivity to sound). These conditions are often accompanied by tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and changes in spontaneous neuronal activity (SNA). The ability to differentiate the contributions of hyperacusis and hearing loss to neural correlates of tinnitus has yet to be achieved. Towards this purpose, we used a combination of behavior, electrophysiology, and imaging tools to investigate two models of noise-induced tinnitus (either with temporary hearing loss or with permanent hearing loss)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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