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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133160/the-changes-of-red-blood-cell-viscoelasticity-and-sports-anemia-in-male-24-hr-ultra-marathoners
#1
Che-Hung Liu, Yen-Fang Tseng, Jiun-I Lai, Yin-Quan Chen, Shih-Hao Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Li-Hua Li, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chorng-Kuang How, Wen-Han Chang
BACKGROUND: In endurance sports, stress, dehydration and release of chemical factors have been associated with red blood cell (RBC) alterations of structure and function, which may contribute to sports anemia, a well-observed phenomenon during long-distance running. Until now, the investigation of the changes of viscoelastic properties of RBC membrane, a decisive factor of RBC deformability to avoid hemolysis, is lacking, especially in an Oriental population. METHODS: nineteen runners were prospectively recruited into our study...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070954/race-predictors-and-hemodynamic-alteration-after-an-ultra-trail-marathon-race
#2
Noppon Taksaudom, Natee Tongsiri, Amarit Potikul, Chawakorn Leampriboon, Apichat Tantraworasin, Anong Chaiyasri
OBJECTIVE: Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races. METHODS: We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859414/physiological-and-biomechanical-mechanisms-of-distance-specific-human-running-performance
#3
M A Thompson
Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790928/enhanced-right-chamber-remodeling-in-endurance-ultra-trail-athletes-compared-to-marathon-runners-detected-by-standard-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#4
Kristian Ujka, Luca Bastiani, Gennaro D'Angelo, Bruna Catuzzo, Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Guido Giardini, Lorenza Pratali
Background: Strenuous and endurance exercise training have been associated with morphological and functional heart remodeling. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel technique that allows an accurate quantification of global myocardium deformation. Our aim was to evaluate together left and right cardiac remodeling in different long-distance running athletes: marathon runners (42 km) (M) and endurance mountain runners (>300 Km) (UT). Methods: A total of 92 athletes (70 males, 76%) including 47 M [age 45 ± 7 years; training: 18 (9-53) years(*)days/week], 45 UT [age 42 ± 9, training: 30 (15-66) years(*)days/week] underwent conventional echocardiography and STE (Beyond Diogenes 2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674598/cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-changes-during-an-ultra-running-event
#5
Whitney P Deneen, Alexis B Jones
Elevated stress hormone concentrations can positively affect an athlete's overall performance during a competition, and in many cases, are necessary to be able to perform exercise. During extreme exercise, the body's ability to utilize energy efficiently can affect an athlete's performance. Elevated hormonal concentrations can have many benefits in regards to an athlete's overall performance during a competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long distance running, such as seen during an ultra-running event (distances beyond 26...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322630/energy-macronutrient-and-water-intake-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon-event-the-influence-of-distance
#6
Sonia Martinez, Antoni Aguilo, Lluis Rodas, Leticia Lozano, Carlos Moreno, Pedro Tauler
Adequate dietary strategies are essential for the successful participation in ultra-endurance races. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the energy and water intakes of participants during three different mountain ultra-endurance runs. The study took place at the "Ultra Mallorca Serra de Tramuntana" (Mallorca, Spain), an ultra-endurance mountain event with runners participating either in a 44-km (Marathon, n = 51), a 67-km (Trail, n = 109) or a 112-km (Ultra, n = 53) run competition. Participants in the study answered a questionnaire focused on the nutritional intake within an hour after finishing the competition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787469/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-10km-half-marathon-marathon-and-100km-ultra-marathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#7
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768506/changes-in-running-mechanics-during-a-six-hours-running-race
#8
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518889/changes-in-blood-morphology-and-chosen-biochemical-parameters-in-ultra-marathon-runners-during-a-100-km-run-in-relation-to-the-age-and-speed-of-runners
#9
Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Małgorzata Żychowska, Maria Jastrzębska, Krzysztof Prusik, Katarzyna Prusik, Jakub Kortas, Wojciech Ratkowski, Anna Konieczna, Łukasz Radzimiński
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to reveal morphology, electrolyte and chosen biochemical parameters in terms of health risk in runners in reference to their age and running speed in the case of running a distance of 100 km, which occur after 12 h or 24 h of recovery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen experienced, male, amateur, ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age and two speed groups took part in the 100-km run. Blood samples for analyses indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25 km, 50 km, 75 km and 100 km, as well as 12 h and 24 h after termination of the run...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350909/do-women-reduce-the-gap-to-men-in-ultra-marathon-running
#10
Beat Knechtle, Fabio Valeri, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Matthias A Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph A Rüst
The aim of the present study was to examine sex differences across years in performance of runners in ultra-marathons lasting from 6 h to 10 days (i.e. 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 144, and 240 h). Data of 32,187 finishers competing between 1975 and 2013 with 93,109 finishes were analysed using multiple linear regression analyses. With increasing age, the sex gap for all race durations increased. Across calendar years, the gap between women and men decreased in 6, 72, 144 and 240 h, but increased in 24 and 48 h...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#11
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853451/changes-in-the-markers-of-cardiac-damage-in-men-following-long-distance-and-ultra-long-distance-running-races
#12
Jin H Yoon, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Kyung A Shin, Young J Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare pre- and postcompetition markers of cardiac damage in ultraendurance athletes. METHODS: All the subjects had blood samples collected before starting and immediately after completing the running race, in order to analyze CK, hs-CRP, cTnI, and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Before starting the marathon, there were no differences between the groups for all of the tests. CK was significantly higher after the 308 km ultra-marathon than after the marathon and the 100 km ultra-marathon (P<0...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808845/similarities-and-differences-in-pacing-patterns-in-a-161-km-and-101-km-ultra-distance-road-race
#13
Philip L S Tan, Frankie H Y Tan, Andrew N Bosch
Tan, PLS, Tan, FHY, and Bosch, AN. Similarities and differences in pacing patterns in a 161-km and 101-km ultra-distance road race. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2145-2155, 2016-The purpose of this study was to establish and compare the pacing patterns of fast and slow finishers in a tropical ultra-marathon. Data were collected from the Craze Ultra-marathon held on the 22nd and 21st of September in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Finishers of the 161-km (N = 47) and 101-km (N = 120) categories of the race were divided into thirds (groups A-C) by merit of finishing time...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561864/sex-differences-in-participation-performance-and-age-of-ultramarathon-runners
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jonathon Senefeld, Carolyn Smith, Sandra K Hunter
The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45-160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix...
July 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540665/breath-activity-monitoring-with-wearable-uwb-radars-measurement-and-analysis-of-the-pulses-reflected-by-the-human-body
#15
Erika Pittella, Stefano Pisa, Marta Cavagnaro
OBJECTIVE: Measurements of ultrawideband (UWB) pulses reflected by the human body are conducted to evidence the differences in the received signal time behaviors due to respiration phases, and to experimentally verify previously obtained numerical results on the body's organs responsible for pulse reflection. METHODS: Two experimental setups are used. The first one is based on a commercially available impulse radar system integrated on a single chip, while the second one implements an indirect time-domain reflectometry technique using a vector network analyzer controlled by a LabVIEW virtual instrument running on a laptop...
July 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26480477/the-interconnectedness-of-diet-choice-and-distance-running-results-of-the-research-understanding-the-nutrition-of-endurance-runners-runner-study
#16
Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Wendy J Moore, Daheia Barr-Anderson
This study examined differences in diet, particularly vegetarian and vegan, among ultramarathon and other long distance runners. Participants who had completed a half- (HALF), full- (FULL), or ultramarathon (ULTRA) in the past 12 months were recruited to complete an online survey assessing current diet, reason for diet, and other dietary behaviors. A total of 422 participants completed the survey (n=125 ULTRA, n=152 FULL, n=145 HALF). More ULTRA participants were men (63%) (vs. FULL (37%) and HALF (23%)) and ULTRA participants reported significantly more years of running (16...
October 19, 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101730/the-aspect-of-experience-in-ultra-triathlon-races
#17
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26098073/-running-and-the-association-with-anthropometric-and-training-characteristics
#18
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Michael Stiefel, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Rüst, Matthias Zingg
Running can be performed as a sprint discipline on the track over a few meters up to 10 km to the marathon and ultramarathon running distances over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Running performance is influenced by a variety of anthropometric and training factors. Morphological features such as skin fold thickness, body fat percentage, circumferences and length of limbs, body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) seem to have an influence on the running performance. The training volume and running speed during training are also correlated with running performance...
May 2015: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056498/what-predicts-performance-in-ultra-triathlon-races-a-comparison-between-ironman-distance-triathlon-and-ultra-triathlon
#19
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Michael Stiefel, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "ultra", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "ultra-triathlon", and "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "Ironman triathlon"...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25964813/damage-to-liver-and-skeletal-muscles-in-marathon-runners-during-a-100-km-run-with-regard-to-age-and-running-speed
#20
Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Małgorzata Żychowska, Łukasz Radzimiński, Anna Konieczna, Jakub Kortas
The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2) whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3) whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners' health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run...
March 29, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
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