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Glucagon like peptide 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678867/effect-of-the-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-liner-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-with-obesity-a-meta-analysis-with-secondary-analysis-on-weight-loss-and-hormonal-changes
#1
REVIEW
Pichamol Jirapinyo, Andrea V Haas, Christopher C Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is an endoscopic device that may mimic small bowel mechanisms of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of DJBL at inducing weight loss. We assessed the effect of DJBL on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science through 1 July 2017. Included were published studies that assessed DJBL outcomes in obese T2D patients...
May 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678751/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling-attenuates-rsv-induced-type-2-responses-and-immunopathology
#2
Melissa H Bloodworth, Mark Rusznak, Connor C Pfister, Jian Zhang, Lisa Bastarache, Sandra Alvarez Calvillo, James D Chappell, Kelli L Boyd, Shinji Toki, Dawn C Newcomb, Matthew T Stier, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Martin L Moore, Tina V Hartert, Kevin D Niswender, R Stokes Peebles
GLP-1R signaling, an emerging anti-inflammatory therapeutic target, attenuated type 2-associated immunopathology in mice infected with a strain of RSV that was isolated from a hospitalized infant with severe lower respiratory tract infection and bronchiolitis.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677303/association-between-use-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-with-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Sean L Zheng, Alistair J Roddick, Rochan Aghar-Jaffar, Matthew J Shun-Shin, Darrel Francis, Nick Oliver, Karim Meeran
Importance: The comparative clinical efficacy of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To compare the efficacies of SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors on mortality and cardiovascular end points using network meta-analysis. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, and published meta-analyses from inception through October 11, 2017...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675798/a-systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis-comparing-once-weekly-semaglutide-with-other-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-previously-receiving-1-2-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#4
Michal Witkowski, Lars Wilkinson, Neil Webb, Alan Weids, Divina Glah, Hrvoje Vrazic
INTRODUCTION: Once-weekly semaglutide is a new glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue administered at a 1.0 or 0.5 mg dose. As head-to-head trials assessing once-weekly semaglutide as an add-on to 1-2 oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) vs other GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are limited, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed. The objective was to assess the relative efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide vs GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on 1-2 OADs...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675797/treatment-intensification-in-type-2-diabetes-a-real-world-study-of-2-oad-regimens-glp-1-ras-or-basal-insulin
#5
Lawrence Blonde, Denis Raccah, Elisheva Lew, Juliana Meyers, Elena Nikonova, Mayank Ajmera, Keith L Davis, Monica Bertolini, Bruno Guerci
INTRODUCTION: Treatment guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to glycemia management in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but this may result in uncontrolled glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) between steps. This retrospective analysis compared clinical and economic outcomes among patients with uncontrolled T2D initiating two oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), or basal insulin in a real-world setting. METHODS: Adults with T2D on OAD monotherapy were identified in the MarketScan claims database (2007-2014)...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672742/older-subjects-with-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-have-an-accentuated-incretin-release
#6
José de Jesús Garduno-Garcia, Amalia Gastaldelli, Ralph A DeFronzo, Raweewan Lertwattanarak, Jens J Holst, Nicolas Musi
Objective: Insulin secretion declines with age and this contributes to the increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older subjects. Insulin secretion is regulated by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Here we tested the hypotheses that incretin release is reduced in older subjects, and that this decline is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Research Design: 40 young (25±3 y) and 53 older (74±7 y) lean non-diabetic subjects underwent a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672196/the-effects-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-body-mass-index-metabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-appetite-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-triple-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Samira Rabiei, Mehdi Hedayati, Bahram Rashidkhani, Navid Saadat, Rahebeh Shakerhossini
It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. In this triple-blinded clinical trial, 46 Iranian patients with metabolic syndrome, from both sexes, aged 25-70 years, who fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomly categorized to receive either the synbiotic or a placebo capsule, twice a day for three months, plus a weight-loss diet using stratified random sampling based on body mass index (BMI)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671912/a-surface-plasmon-resonance-assay-for-characterisation-and-epitope-mapping-of-anti-glp-1-antibodies
#8
Lasse Thomsen, Leonid Gurevich
The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been subject to substantial pharmaceutical research regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, quantification of GLP-1 levels remains complicated due to the low circulation concentration and concurrent existence of numerous metabolites, homologous peptides, and potentially introduced GLP-1 receptor agonists. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) facilitates real-time monitoring allowing a more detailed characterisation of the interaction compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671019/lixisenatide-a-novel-glp-1-analog-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-rats
#9
Rania G Abdel-Latif, Gehan H Heeba, Ashraf Taye, Mohamed M A Khalifa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke accompanied by vascular dysfunction and poor cerebrovascular outcome. Lixisenatide is a glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that is recently used for T2DM treatment with established neuroprotective properties. This study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effect of lixisenatide against glimepiride on diabetic rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. T2DM-induced adult male Wistar rats were administered lixisenatide or glimepiride prior to induction of global cerebral I/R-induced injury...
April 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668928/akkermansia-muciniphila-can-reduce-the-damage-of-gluco-lipotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-and-normalize-intestine-microbiota-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Ling Zhang, Qianqian Qin, Manni Liu, Xiangling Zhang, Fang He, Guoqing Wang
This study aimed to investigate how Akkermansia muciniphila can implicate type 2 diabetes mellitus and the mechanisms underlying the effects Akkermansia muciniphila on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with Akkermansia muciniphila and solvent. After four weeks of treatment, diabetic rats orally administered with live or pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila exhibited significant increase in the blood concentration of high-density lipoprotein, and decrease in the hepatic glycogen, serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide, malondialdehyde, and total glucagon-like peptide-1...
April 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668601/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Fang-Hong Shi, Hao Li, Min Cui, Zai-Li Zhang, Zhi-Chun Gu, Xiao-Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: It is a great challenge for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to maintain optimal glycemia, control body weight, blood pressure, and avoiding hypoglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin while inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, reduce appetite, and energy intake. Recently, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RAs, semaglutide, has been registered to treat patients with T2DM. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the ClinicalTrials...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667232/the-pleiotropic-cardiovascular-effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes have an excess risk for cardiovascular disease. One of the several approaches, included in the Guidelines for the management of Type 2 Diabetes, is based on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4; also termed CD26) inhibitors (DPP-4-I), also called gliptins. Gliptins inhibit the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1RA: this effect is associated with increased circulating insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and a consequent reduction of HbA1c. Beside incretin hormones, there are several proteins that may be affected by DPP-4 and its inhibition: among these some are relevant for the cardiovascular system homeostasis such as SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4, brain natriuretic peptides, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663628/exenatide-effects-on-gastric-emptying-and-oral-glucose-appearance-in-plasma-a-quantitative-assessment-using-an-integrative-systems-pharmacology-model
#13
Veronika Voronova, Kirill Zhudenkov, Robert C Penland, David W Boulton, Gabriel Helmlinger, Kirill Peskov
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and synthetic GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) slow gastric emptying rate (GER), thereby decreasing the Glucose Rate of Appearance (GluRA) in plasma, which may contribute to postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) stabilization under GLP-1RA treatment. A quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) approach was used to evaluate the effect of exenatide immediate release (IR), a short-acting GLP-1RA, on GER and GluRA. The proposed model is based on the data from multiple published sources including: (1) GLP-1 and exenatide plasma concentration-time profiles; (2) GER estimates under placebo, GLP-1 or exenatide IR dosing; (3) GluRA measurements upon food intake...
April 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659969/aspartame-consumption-for-12-weeks-does-not-affect-glycemia-appetite-or-body-weight-of-healthy-lean-adults-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Kelly A Higgins, Robert V Considine, Richard D Mattes
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims. Objective: The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims. Methods: One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659358/-role-of-the-enterocyte-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-associated-dyslipidemia
#15
Cecilia I Closs, Martín A Ruiz Diaz, Alberto M Cafferata, Damasia Becú-Villalobos, Juan P Nogueira
In type 2 diabetes mellitus there is an overproduction of chylomicron in the postprandial state that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Current evidence points out a leading role of enterocyte in dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus, since it increases the production of apolipoprotein B-48 in response to a raise in plasma free fatty acids and glucose. The chylomicron metabolism is regulated by many factors apart from ingested fat, including hormonal and metabolic elements. More recently, studies about the role of gut hormones, have demonstrated that glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases the production of apolipoprotein B-48 and glucagon-like peptide-2 enhances it...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655980/evaluation-of-novel-tgr5-agonist-in-combination-with-sitagliptin-for-possible-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Sameer Agarwal, Santosh Sasane, Jeevan Kumar, Prashant Deshmukh, Hitesh Bhayani, Poonam Giri, Suresh Giri, Shubhangi Soman, Neelima Kulkarni, Mukul Jain
TGR5 is a member of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, a promising molecular target for metabolic diseases. Activation of TGR5 promotes secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which activates insulin secretion. A series of 2-thio-imidazole derivatives have been identified as novel, potent and orally efficacious TGR5 agonists. Compound 4d, a novel TGR5 agonist, in combination with Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has demonstrated an adequate GLP-1 secretion and glucose lowering effect in animal models, suggesting a potential clinical option in treatment of type-2 diabetes...
April 5, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651202/a-narrative-review-of-potential-future-antidiabetic-drugs-should-we-expect-more
#17
REVIEW
Gaurav Chikara, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Pradeep Dwivedi, Jaykaran Charan, Sneha Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, is growing worldwide. The majority of the cases belong to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Globally, India ranks second in terms of diabetes prevalence among adults. Currently available classes of therapeutic agents are used alone or in combinations but seldom achieve treatment targets. Diverse pathophysiology and the need of therapeutic agents with more favourable pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics profile make newer drug discoveries in the field of T2DM essential...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644751/disease-modification-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-approaches-challenges-and-future-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Anthony E Lang, Alberto J Espay
The greatest unmet therapeutic need in Parkinson's disease is the development of treatment that slows the relentless progression of the neurodegenerative process. The concept of "disease modification" encompasses intervention types ranging from those designed to slow the underlying degeneration to treatments directed at regenerating or replacing lost neurons. To date all attempts to develop effective disease-modifying therapy have failed. Many reasons have been proposed for these failures including our rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis and the assumption that each targeted mechanisms of disease apply to most patients with the same clinical diagnosis...
April 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628139/drug-repurposing-in-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Usha Panchapakesan, Carol Pollock
Drug repurposing, is the re-tasking of known medications for new clinical indications. Advantages, compared to de novo drug development, include reduced cost and time to market plus the added benefit of a known pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Suitable drug candidates are identified through serendipitous observations, data mining, or increased understanding of disease mechanisms. This review highlights drugs suited for repurposing in kidney disease. The main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease...
April 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#20
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
April 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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