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Glucagon like peptide 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453982/glucagon-like-peptide-1-contributes-to-increases-abca1-expression-by-downregulating-mir-758-to-regulate-cholesterol-homeostasis
#1
Yue Yao, Qiang Li, Ping Gao, Wei Wang, Lili Chen, Jinchao Zhang, Yi Xu
Abnormal regulation of lipid metabolism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 as a new treatment for T2DM, has unique effects in modulating cholesterol homeostasis. However, the mechanism of this effect is largely missing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes and examine the underlying mechanisms. The cell viability was determined, and caspase-3 was used to detect the effects of GLP-1 on cholesterol-induced apoptosis...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453463/impact-of-gastric-emptying-and-small-intestinal-transit-on-blood-glucose-intestinal-hormones-glucose-absorption-in-the-morbidly-obese
#2
Nam Q Nguyen, Tamara L Debreceni, Jenna E Burgess, Max Bellon, Judith Wishart, Scott Standfield, Charles-Henri Malbert, Michael Horowitz
This study evaluated gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal (SI) transit in people with morbid obesity and their relationships to glycaemia, incretin hormones, and glucose absorption METHODS: GE and caecal arrival time (CAT) of a mixed meal were assessed in 22 morbidly obese (50.2 ± 2.5 years; 13 F:9 M; BMI: 48.6 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ) and 10 lean (38.6 ± 8.4 years; 5 F:5 M; BMI: 23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) subjects, using scintigraphy. Blood glucose, plasma 3-O-methylglucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450114/flavonoid-rich-extract-of-chromolaena-odorata-modulate-circulating-glp-1-in-wistar-rats-computational-evaluation-of-tgr5-involvement
#3
Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, Olumide Kayode Inyang, Joyce Ogidigo, Ojochenemi Enejoh, Okiemute Okpalefe, Tsuyoshi Hamada
Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449951/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-are-not-associated-with-retinal-adverse-events-in-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system
#4
Gian Paolo Fadini, Mayur Sarangdhar, Angelo Avogaro
Objectives: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In large trials, the GLP-1RAs liraglutide and semaglutide improved cardiovascular outcomes, but semaglutide was associated with an increased risk of retinopathy progression. We herein evaluated the association between GLP-1RA and retinal adverse events (AE) in the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Research design and methods: We mined the FAERS between 2004q1 and 2017q1 (for a total of 9 217 555 AE reports) to analyze disproportionality and evaluate the association between GLP-1RAs and AEs involving the retina...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444223/glp-1-receptor-expression-within-the-human-heart
#5
Laurie L Baggio, Bernardo Yusta, Erin E Mulvihill, Xiemin Cao, Catherine J Streutker, Jagdish Butany, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity, reduce rates of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. The GLP-1R has been localized to the human sinoatrial node; however, its expression in ventricular tissue remains uncertain. Here we studied GLP-1R expression in the human heart using GLP-1R-directed antisera, quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR to detect full length mRNA transcripts, and in situ hybridization. GLP1R mRNA transcripts, encompassing the entire open reading frame, were detected in all four cardiac chambers from 15 hearts at levels approximating those detected in human pancreas...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440961/acute-pancreatitis-during-glp-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-a-case-report
#6
Bogdan Augustin Chis, Daniela Fodor
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are the newest treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM). These drugs can down-regulate fasting glucose more than oral drugs and lead to more constant glucose levels compared to regular insulin. Acute pancreatitis is a serious condition that may have a fatal outcome. It has been shown that long term and high doses of GLP-1RA can cause pancreatic changes in animals, but no connection has been proven in humans. We present the case of a 67 years old man with DM treated with oral drugs for 10 years until 3 months before, when GLP-1RA was added...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439603/semaglutide-in-type-2-diabetes-is-it-the-best-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-glp-1r-agonist
#7
Sheila A Doggrell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, and in a glucose-dependent manner stimulates insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion, reduces appetite and energy intake, and delays gastric emptying. The GLP-1R agonist semaglutide has recently been registered for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Area covered: This review is of semaglutide in type 2 diabetes, and considers which properties of this GLP-1R agonist, may be responsible for its clinical outcome benefits in this condition...
February 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#8
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435980/the-diabetes-drug-liraglutide-reverses-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-attenuates-insulin-receptor-and-synaptic-pathology-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Andre F Batista, Leticia Forny-Germano, Julia R Clarke, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Jordano Brito-Moreira, Susan E Boehnke, Andrew Winterborn, Brian C Coe, Ann Lablans, Juliana F Vital, Suelen A Marques, Ana M B Martinez, Matthias Gralle, Christian Holscher, William L Klein, Jean-Christophe Houzel, Sergio T Ferreira, Douglas P Munoz, Fernanda G De Felice
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder that still lacks an effective treatment, and this has stimulated an intense pursuit of disease-modifying therapeutics. Given the increasingly recognized link between AD and defective brain insulin signaling, we investigated the actions of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for treatment of type 2 diabetes, in experimental models of AD. Insulin receptor pathology is an important feature of AD brains that impairs the neuroprotective actions of central insulin signaling...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433086/potential-roles-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-7-36-amide-and-cholecystokinin-in-anorectic-response-to-the-trichothecene-mycotoxin-t-2-toxin
#10
Wenda Wu, Kun Sheng, Xinglian Xu, Haibin Zhang, Guanghong Zhou
Anorexia is a hallmark of animal and human exposed to T-2 toxin, a most poisonous trichothecene mycotoxins contaminating various cereal grains including wheat, corn and barley. Although this adverse effect has been well characterized in several animal species, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The goal for this study was to elucidate the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucagon-like peptide-17-36amide (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in T-2 toxin-evoked anorectic response using a mouse anorexia bioassay...
February 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432586/effects-of-different-starch-source-of-starter-on-small-intestinal-growth-and-endogenous-glp-2-secretion-in-pre-weaned-lambs
#11
Daming Sun, Hongwei Li, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu, Junhua Liu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different source of starch in starter feed on small intestinal growth and endogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) secretion in pre-weaned lambs. Twenty-four 10-day-old lambs were divided into three groups that were treated with different iso-starch diets containing purified cassava starch (CS, n = 8), maize starch (MS, n = 8) and pea starch (PS, n = 8). At 56 days old, there was no significant difference in final body weight (BW) of lambs among the three groups...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432213/regulation-of-intestinal-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-by-the-proglucagon-derived-peptides-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2
#12
Erin E Mulvihill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestine is highly efficient at absorbing and packaging dietary lipids onto the structural protein apoB48 for distribution throughout the body. Here, we summarize recent advances into understanding the physiological and pharmacological actions of the proglucagon-derived peptides: glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on intestinal lipoprotein secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms underlying the paradoxical effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on intestinal production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431535/differences-in-the-postprandial-release-of-appetite-related-hormones-between-active-and-inactive-men
#13
Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F Rehfeld, Linda Morgan, Catia Martins
Active, as opposed to inactive, individuals are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content. The mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. This study examined differences in plasma concentration of appetite-related hormones in response to breakfasts of different energy content, between active and inactive men. 16 healthy non-obese (BMI 18.5-27 kg/m 2 ) adult males (9 active, 7 inactive), participated in the study. Participants were given a high- (HE, 570 kcal) or a low-energy (LE, 205 kcal) breakfast in random order...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430842/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-based-therapeutics-current-status-and-future-opportunities-beyond-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jia Ying Cheang, Peter Michael Moyle
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by intestinal L-cells following food intake, and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis due to its stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Further, GLP-1 is also associated with protective effects on pancreatic β-cells and the cardiovascular system, reduced appetite, and weight loss, making GLP-1 derivatives an exciting treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Despite these benefits, wild-type GLP-1 exhibits a short circulation time, due to its poor metabolic stability and rapid renal clearance, and needs to be administered by injection, making it a poor therapeutic agent...
February 11, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429477/-novel-antidiabetic-drugs-and-cardiovascular-complications
#15
Manan Pareek, Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Bo Løfgren, Mette Lundgren Nielsen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Niels Holmark Andersen
This review summarizes the cardiovascular non-inferiority trials of novel antidiabetic drugs performed since 2008, when regulatory agencies started mandating thorough examination of their cardiovascular safety. So far, eight randomized trials on three different drug classes have been completed. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may reduce cardiovascular risk and possibly mortality, while dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 inhibitors may increase the risk of heart failure...
February 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429476/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-type-3
#16
Kathrine Rose, Alexander Sidelmann Christensen, Heidi Storgaard, Sofie Hædersdal, Torben Hansen, Filip Krag Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is the most prevalent type of monogenetic diabetes. Treatment guidelines differ from both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. First-line treatment is a long-acting sulphonylurea, which lowers the plasma glucose level effectively, however with the risk of hypoglycaemia. When hypoglycaemia is a problem, short-acting sulphonylureas, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors may be used as alternatives. Metformin, glitazones and sodium glucose transporter 2-inhibitors have only limited applicability in MODY3...
February 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428999/prospective-evaluation-of-insulin-and-incretin-dynamics-in-obese-adults-with-and-without-diabetes-for-2-years-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#17
Jonathan Q Purnell, Geoffrey S Johnson, Abdus S Wahed, Chiara Dalla Man, Francesca Piccinini, Claudio Cobelli, Ronald L Prigeon, Bret H Goodpaster, David E Kelley, Myrlene A Staten, Karen E Foster-Schubert, David E Cummings, David R Flum, Anita P Courcoulas, Peter J Havel, Bruce M Wolfe
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In this prospective case-control study we tested the hypothesis that, while long-term improvements in insulin sensitivity (S I ) accompanying weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) would be similar in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, stimulated-islet-cell insulin responses would differ, increasing (recovering) in those with diabetes but decreasing in those without. We investigated whether these changes would occur in conjunction with favourable alterations in meal-related gut hormone secretion and insulin processing...
February 10, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427024/comparison-of-the-effects-of-linagliptin-and-voglibose-on-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-artery-disease-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-effort
#18
Taku Koyama, Atsushi Tanaka, Hisako Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Shigeru Toyoda, Masashi Sakuma, Teruo Inoue, Yoritaka Otsuka, Koichi Node
Endothelial dysfunction contributes to poor cardiovascular prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on endothelial function remains controversial. We sought to compare the effects of linagliptin and voglibose on endothelial function, as assessed by reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). Sixteen patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and CAD were randomized 1:1 to linagliptin (5 mg, once-daily) or voglibose (0...
February 9, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424239/assessment-of-cardiovascular-risk-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-using-an-alternative-measure-to-the-hazard-ratio
#19
Masayuki Kaneko, Mamoru Narukawa
BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials with the aim of evaluating the cardiovascular risks associated with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, lixisenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, and exenatide, have been conducted. They showed different results among the agents, but the reason has not been explained. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular risks associated with GLP-1 receptor agonists by using an alternative measure to the hazard ratio. METHODS: We used the difference in restricted mean survival time (RMST) as a measure of cardiovascular risks...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421245/effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-on-cognitive-functions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-possible-modulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-brain-visfatin
#20
O M Abdelwahed, O M Tork, M M Gamal El Din, L Rashed, M Zickri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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