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Glucagon like peptide 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053203/preoperative-weight-loss-with-glp-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-predicts-greater-weight-loss-achieved-by-the-combination-of-medical-weight-management-and-bariatric-surgery-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-longitudinal-analysis
#1
Tien Tang, Sally Abbott, Carel W le Roux, Violet Wilson, Rishi Singhal, Srikanth Bellary, Abd Tahrani
We examined the relationship between weight changes following preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) till 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with Type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. Forty-five patients (64.4% women, median age 49 (IQR 45-60) years) were included. The median weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1 RA during MWM resulted in 5...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050859/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-triple-glp-1-gip-glucagon-receptor-agonist-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jingjing Tai, Weizhen Liu, Yanwei Li, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) that have anti-diabetic properties show very promising effects in animal models of AD. Glucagon (Gcg) is a hormone and growth-factor, and the Gcg receptor is expressed in the brain. Here we test the effects of a triple receptor agonist (TA), which activates GIP-1, GIP and glucagon receptors at the same time...
October 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049653/effect-of-oral-semaglutide-compared-with-placebo-and-subcutaneous-semaglutide-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Melanie Davies, Thomas R Pieber, Marie-Louise Hartoft-Nielsen, Oluf K H Hansen, Serge Jabbour, Julio Rosenstock
Importance: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are all currently available as an injection. Objectives: To compare the effects of oral semaglutide with placebo (primary) and open-label subcutaneous semaglutide (secondary) on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Patients: Phase 2, randomized, parallel-group, dosage-finding, 26-week trial with 5-week follow-up at 100 sites (hospital clinics, general practices, and clinical research centers) in 14 countries conducted between December 2013 and December 2014...
October 17, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047219/addition-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-to-insulin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-meta-analysis
#4
Wenjia Yang, Xiaoling Cai, Xueying Gao, Yifei Chen, Chen Ling, Linong Ji
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining insulin therapy with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors compared to combining insulin therapy with placebo or other antihyperglycaemic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted via electronic databases. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to insulin with the addition of placebo or other active hypoglycaemic agents to insulin therapy, study duration of no less than 12 weeks performed in type 2 diabetes patients, and the availability of outcome data to evaluate a change in the HbA1c ...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045658/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-attenuates-breast-cancer-growth-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#5
Chikayo Iwaya, Takashi Nomiyama, Shiho Komatsu, Takako Kawanami, Yoko Tsutsumi, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Horikawa, Yasuteru Yoshinaga, Shinichi Yamashita, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuichi Terawaki, Makito Tanabe, Kazuki Nabeshima, Akinori Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yanase
Incretin therapies have received significant attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. We previously reported anti-prostate cancer effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer...
October 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044799/insulin-secretory-defect-in-familial-partial-lipodystrophy-type-2-and-successful-long-term-treatment-with-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist
#6
F Banning, M Rottenkolber, I Freibothe, J Seissler, A Lechner
BACKGROUND: Familial partial lipodystrophies are rare monogenic disorders that are often associated with diabetes. In such cases, it can be difficult to achieve glycaemic control. CASE REPORT: We report a 34-year old woman with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Dunnigan) and diabetes; her hyperglycaemia persisted despite metformin treatment. A combined intravenous glucose tolerance-euglycaemic clamp test showed severe insulin resistance, as expected, but also showed strongly diminished first-phase insulin secretion...
October 17, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040429/the-role-of-glp-1-in-the-metabolic-success-bariatric-surgery
#7
Chelsea R Hutch, Darleen Sandoval
Two of the most popular bariatric procedures, vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), are commonly considered 'metabolic surgeries' because they are thought to impact metabolism in a weight loss-independent manner. In support of this, improvements in glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and even discontinuation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication can occur before substantial postoperative weight loss. The mechanisms that underlie this effect are unknown. However, one of the common findings after VSG and RYGB in both animal models and in humans is the sharp postprandial rise in several gut peptides, including the incretin and satiety peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#9
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033597/reasons-for-discontinuation-of-glp1-receptor-agonists-data-from-a-real-world-cross-sectional-survey-of-physicians-and-their-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Mirko V Sikirica, Alan A Martin, Robert Wood, Andrea Leith, James Piercy, Victoria Higgins
AIM: Nonadherence to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1 RAs) is relatively common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study sought to identify reasons why patients discontinue GLP1 RAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data from the Adelphi Diabetes Disease Specific Programme were used. Physicians managing patients with T2DM were surveyed via face-to-face interviews, and patients treated for T2DM were surveyed via self-completed questionnaires...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#11
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031770/effects-of-three-major-amino-acids-found-in-japanese-broth-on-glucose-metabolism-and-gastric-emptying
#12
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Erina Joo, Shunsuke Yamane, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, the effect of the broth of dried kelp and dried bonito, dashi, on glucose metabolism and digestion has rarely been studied. Based on the component analysis of three actual broths served in traditional restaurants, a chemically synthesized broth with three free amino acids (histidine, glutamate, aspartate) and salt was prepared to investigate their effect on glucose metabolism, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, and digestion...
August 10, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031728/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-distinct-population-of-proglucagon-expressing-cells-specific-to-the-mouse-upper-small-intestine
#13
Leslie L Glass, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Wajid Jawaid, Pierre Larraufie, Richard G Kay, Berthold Göttgens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
OBJECTIVES: To identify sub-populations of intestinal preproglucagon-expressing (PPG) cells producing Glucagon-like Peptide-1, and their associated expression profiles of sensory receptors, thereby enabling the discovery of therapeutic strategies that target these cell populations for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. METHODS: We performed single cell RNA sequencing of PPG-cells purified by flow cytometry from the upper small intestine of 3 GLU-Venus mice. Cells from 2 mice were sequenced at low depth, and from the third mouse at high depth...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028177/postmeal-increment-in-intact-glucagon-like-peptide-1-level-but-not-intact-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-levels-is-inversely-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Soyeon Yoo, Eun-Jin Yang, Sang Ah Lee, Gwanpyo Koh
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists proved to be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of blood incretin levels with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 334 people with type 2 diabetes. Intact GLP-1 (iGLP-1) and intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (iGIP) levels were measured in a fasted state and 30 min after ingestion of a standard mixed meal...
October 13, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024408/effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonists-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-narrative-review-of-head-to-head-comparisons
#15
REVIEW
Niels B Dalsgaard, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Five CV risk factors (blood pressure, resting heart rate [HR], body weight, cholesterol levels and blood glucose) are monitored routinely as safety and efficacy endpoints in randomised clinical trials for diabetes therapies. To determine if different glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) had varying effects on these CV risk factors, we reviewed 16 head-to-head trials directly comparing GLP-1RAs that included at least one of the five factors...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022064/proinflammatory-switch-from-g%C3%AE-s-to-g%C3%AE-i-signaling-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-murine-splenic-monocyte-following-burn-injury
#16
Qing-Hong Zhang, Ji-Wei Hao, Guang-Lei Li, Xiao-Jing Ji, Xu-Dong Yao, Ning Dong, Yong-Ming Yao
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy via G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GLP-1R, to attenuate hyperglycemia in critical care has attracted great attention. However, the exaggerated inflammation by GLP-1R agonist, Exendin-4, in a mouse model of burn injury was quite unexpected. Recent studies found that GPCR might elicit proinflammatory effects by switching from Gαs to Gαi signaling in the immune system. Thus, we aimed to investigate the possible Gαs to Gαi switch in GLP-1R signaling in monocyte following burn injury...
October 11, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991933/addressing-unmet-needs-with-injectable-medications-in-type-2-diabetes-treatment-using-combinations-of-a-basal-insulin-and-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist
#17
Helen L Baron
This article presents the rationale and data for combining a basal insulin with a GLP-1RA, including as fixed-ratio products.
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991932/addressing-unmet-needs-with-injectable-medications-in-type-2-diabetes-treatment-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#18
Steve V Edelman
Since 2005, four new GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and lixisenatide) and a once-weekly formulation of exenatide were approved for the treatment of persons with T2DM. Another GLP-1RA, semaglutide, is under review by the FDA, as is exenatide administered via an osmotic mini-pump.
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991675/sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effect-against-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice-via-stimulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#19
Jiaming Liu, Fangyan Wang, Suzhi Liu, Jimei Du, Xuezhen Hu, Jiaojiao Xiong, Renchi Fang, Wenqian Chen, Jing Sun
Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited protective activity in neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanisms of NaB in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A mouse was intraperitoneally treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce PD model and NaB (200mg/kg) was intragastrically treated for 3weeks. The behavioral tests were then conducted. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990512/fighting-type-2-diabetes-present-and-future-perspectives
#20
Cai-Guo Yu, Ying Fu, Yuan Fang, Ning Zhang, Rong-Xin Sun, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng, Bao-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 80-90% of diabetic patients. So far, the treatment of diabetes mainly aims at elevating insulin level and lowering glucose level in the peripheral blood and mitigating insulin resistance. Physiologically, insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is delicately regulated. Thus, how insulin-related therapies could titrate blood glucose appropriately and avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia remains an important issue for decades. Similar question is addressed on how to attenuate vascular complication in diabetic subjects...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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