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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#1
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413961/incretins-and-lipid-metabolism
#2
Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Moses S Elisaf
Backgound: Recent findings indicate that incretin hormones and incretin-based therapies may affect the metabolism of lipoproteins, although the corresponding mechanisms are not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the available data on the mechanisms linking incretins with the characteristics of serum lipoproteins and discuss the clinical implications of these relationships. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "incretins", "GLP-1", "GIP" and "lipids", "dyslipidemia", "triglycerides", "apolipoprotein B48"...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385175/on-the-role-of-the-gut-in-diabetic-hyperglucagonaemia
#3
Asger Lund
Patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised not only by compromised insulin secretion and action, but also by elevated plasma concentrations of the 29-amino acid peptide hormone glucagon, which generally is thought of as a pancreas-derived hormone (produced in and secreted from alpha cells in the islet of Langerhans). In patients with diabetes, circulating glucagon concentrations are elevated in the fasting state and fail to decrease appropriately or even increase in response to ingestion of nutrients. Glucagon is known to be a potent stimulator of hepatic glucose production, and, thus, the elevated glucagon concentrations in diabetes contribute decisively to the predominating trait of patients with diabetes namely hyperglycaemia...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363795/glucagon-like-petide-2-acts-on-colon-cancer-myofibroblasts-to-stimulate-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-both-myofibroblasts-and-cancer-cells-via-the-igf-pathway
#4
Marianne Shawe-Taylor, J Dinesh Kumar, Whitney Holden, Steven Dodd, Akos Varga, Olivier Giger, Andrea Varro, Graham J Dockray
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 stimulates intestinal epithelial proliferation by acting, in part, via IGF release from sub-epithelial myofibroblasts. The response of myofibroblasts to GLP-2 remains incompletely understood. We studied the action of GLP-2 on myofibroblasts from colon cancer and adjacent tissue, and the effects of conditioned medium from these cells on epithelial cell proliferation, migration and invasion. GLP-2 stimulated proliferation, migration and invasion of myofibroblasts and the proliferative and invasive responses of cancer-associated myofibroblasts were greater than those of myofibroblasts from adjacent tissue...
March 29, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337026/increased-glp2r-expression-in-gastric-chief-cells-of-patients-with-severe-obesity-regardless-of-diabetes-status
#5
F Li, L Lu, Y Peng, Y Zhang, J Gao, D Zhou, D Zhou, H Sheng, S Qu
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) affects multiple facets of gastrointestinal physiology and have been used to treat patients with short bowel syndrome, but the distribution of its receptor (GLP2R) in human remains poorly understood. Gastric tissue samples of non-obese patients (NOB, n=10) and obese patients without diabetes (OB, n=31) and with diabetes (OWD, n=12) were used to evaluate GLP2R expression and distribution. Immunostaining with a validated antibody, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, showed that GLP2R expression was significantly increased in gastric chief cells in OB and OWD patients...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282323/growth-factors-and-their-use-in-short-bowel
#6
Siddhartha Oke, Merlin N M Walter, Tahera Ansari, Simon M Gabe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the most recent literature on the clinical trials associated with the relevant growth factors that have been of interest in the treatment of short bowel. RECENT FINDINGS: Short bowel is a rare but devastating condition that condemns patients to lifelong parenteral support. Historically, treatment options negating the need for parenteral support were limited. Therapeutic growth factor use is of interest, but the clinical trial data are inconclusive...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271031/enteroendocrine-derived-glucagon-like-peptide-2-controls-intestinal-amino-acid-transport
#7
Jennifer Lee, Jacqueline Koehler, Bernardo Yusta, Jasmine Bahrami, Dianne Matthews, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is co-secreted with GLP-1 from gut endocrine cells, and both peptides act as growth factors to expand the surface area of the mucosal epithelium. Notably, GLP-2 also enhances glucose and lipid transport in enterocytes; however, its actions on control of amino acid (AA) transport remain unclear. Here we examined the mechanisms linking gain and loss of GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) signaling to control of intestinal amino acid absorption in mice. METHODS: Absorption, transport, and clearance of essential AAs, specifically lysine, were measured in vivo by Liquid Chromatography triple quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and ex vivo with Ussing chambers using intestinal preparations from Glp2r(+/+) and Glp2r(-/-) mice...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266749/the-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-microcirculation-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Nikolaj Nerup, Rikard Ambrus, Joanna Lindhe, Michael P Achiam, Palle B Jeppesen, Lars B Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the potential effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on microcirculation...
March 7, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265960/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-profile-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Dimitrios E Magouliotis, Vasiliki S Tasiopoulou, Eleni Sioka, Christina Chatedaki, Dimitrios Zacharoulis
We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with bariatric procedures, in order to assess their effect on the metabolic and gut microbiota profiles. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies (562 patients) met the inclusion criteria. This study points to significant amelioration of postoperative levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HOMA-IR, food intake, and diabetes remission...
March 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235974/acute-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-19-36-amide-and-exenatide-on-mesenteric-blood-flow-cardiovascular-parameters-and-biomarkers-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Lasse Bremholm, Ulrik B Andersen, Mads Hornum, Linda Hilsted, Simon Veedfald, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, GLP-17-36amide) and its sister peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) influence numerous intestinal functions and GLP-2 greatly increases intestinal blood flow. We hypothesized that GLP-1 also stimulates intestinal blood flow and that this would impact on the overall digestive and cardiovascular effects of the hormone. To investigate the influence of GLP-1 receptor agonism on mesenteric and renal blood flow and cardiovascular parameters, we carried out a double-blinded randomized clinical trial...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#11
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158914/effect-of-porcine-glucagon-like-peptides-2-on-tight-junction-in-glp-2r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ipec-j2-cell-through-the-pi3-k-akt-mtor-p70-s6k-signalling-pathway
#12
K K Qi, Y Q Sun, J Wan, B Deng, X M Men, J Wu, Z W Xu
Because of rare glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor (+) cells within the gut mucosa, the molecular mechanisms transducing the diverse actions of GLP-2 remain largely obscure. This research identified the naturally occurring intestinal cell lines that endogenously express GLP-2R and determined the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of GLP-2-mediated tight junctions (TJ) in GLP-2R (+) cell line. (i) Immunohistochemistry results showed that GLP-2R is localised to the epithelia, laminae propriae and muscle layers of the small and large bowels of newborn piglets...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131587/reducing-gut-effects-from-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-dairy-calves-through-prophylactic-glucagon-like-peptide-2-therapy-or-feeding-of-an-artificial-sweetener
#13
E E Connor, E H Wall, D M Bravo, C M Evock-Clover, T H Elsasser, R L Baldwin, M Santín, B T Vinyard, S Kahl, M P Walker
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) therapy was shown previously to reduce inflammation-related gut damage from coccidiosis in dairy calves, and feeding of artificial sweetener stimulates GLP-2 secretion from intestinal L cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GLP-2 treatment or artificial sweetener feeding beginning 1 wk before an experimental inoculation with the coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum can reduce infection-related intestinal damage in Holstein bull calves. Newborn calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 6 calves each, including noninfected control calves injected s...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126633/differential-impact-of-glucose-administered-intravenously-or-orally-on-bone-turnover-markers-in-healthy-male-subjects
#14
Sidse Westberg-Rasmussen, Jakob Starup-Linde, Kjeld Hermansen, Jens Juul Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Peter Vestergaard, Søren Gregersen
BACKGROUND: Patients with type-1 (T1D) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of hip fracture. The underlying mechanisms may involve disturbances in the incretin hormones. Our aim was to clarify if glucose administration i.e. orally or intravenously differentially affects bone turnover markers in healthy males. METHODS: 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed...
January 23, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121365/research-on-the-role-of-glp-2-in-the-central-nervous-system-epk-signal-transduction-pathway-of-mice-with-vascular-dementia
#15
C-L Chi, S-A Zhang, Z Liu, M-X Chang, H Wang, Y Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in the central nervous system eukaryotic protein kinase (EPK) signal transduction pathway of mice with vascular dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We take the 3-week-old mice raised in the laboratory as the object of study in this research and then divide them into four groups in random, including sham operation group, control group, GLP-2 group, and GLP-2+ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) inhibitor intervention group, with 30 in each group...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104586/synergy-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-epidermal-growth-factor-co-administration-on-intestinal-adaptation-in-neonatal-piglets-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
David W Lim, Crystal L Levesque, Donna F Vine, Mitsuru Muto, Jacob R Koepke, Patrick N Nation, Pamela R Wizzard, Julang Li, David L Bigam, Patricia L Brubaker, Justine M Turner, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment enhance intestinal adaptation. To determine whether these growth factors exert synergistic effects on intestinal growth and function, GLP-2 and EGF-containing media (EGF-cm) were administered, alone and in combination, in neonatal piglet with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Neonatal Landrace/Large White piglets were block-randomized to 75% mid-intestinal (JI group) or distal-intestinal (JC group) resection or sham control, with 7-d infusion of saline (control), intravenous human GLP-2 (11 nmol/kg/day) alone, enteral EGF-cm (80 μg/kg/day) alone, or GLP-2 and EGF-cm in combination...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101843/postprandial-glp-2-levels-are-increased-after-biliopancreatic-diversion-in-diabetic-individuals-with-class-i-obesity-a-prospective-study
#17
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a predominantly malabsorptive procedure. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) plays predominantly trophic effects on the gut. A significant increase in GLP-2 after BPD in rats was previously observed, but there are no studies investigating the effect of BPD in GLP-2 levels in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of BPD on the release of GLP-2. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study that evaluated diabetic individuals with class I obesity which underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed up for 12 months...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076481/correlation-between-pre-and-postoperative-levels-of-glp-1-glp-2-and-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-prospective-study
#19
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Background: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods: An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046174/porcine-glucagon-like-peptide-2-microspheres-ameliorate-inflammation-in-lipopolysaccharide-challenged-weaning-piglets
#20
J Wu, K K Qi, Z W Xu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of porcine [gly2] glucagon-like peptide-2 (p[gly2]GLP-2) microspheres on lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets and to evaluate efficacy of microspheres for administration compared with more conventional administration. Eighteen 21-d-old Duroc female piglets were randomly assigned into 3 groups: the control group (intraperitoneal injection with 3 mL saline solution daily), the glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) group (intraperitoneal injection with 3 mL p[gly2]GLP-2 at 20 nmol/kg BW daily), and the microsphere (MS) group (intraperitoneal injection with 100 mg p[gly2]GLP-2 microsphere suspension at Day 1)...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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