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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142468/glucagon-like-peptide-2-modulates-the-nitrergic-neurotransmission-in-strips-from-the-mouse-gastric-fundus
#1
Rachele Garella, Eglantina Idrizaj, Chiara Traini, Roberta Squecco, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi, Maria Caterina Baccari
AIM: To investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) influences the neurally-induced responses in gastric strips from mice, since no data are available. METHODS: For functional experiments, gastric fundal strips were mounted in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Mechanical responses were recorded via force-displacement transducers, which were coupled to a polygraph for continuous recording of isometric tension. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied via two platinum wire rings through which the preparation was threaded...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#2
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101649/intestinal-incretins-and-the-regulation-of-bone-physiology
#3
Walter Ramsey, Carlos M Isales
Although originally identified as modulators of nutrient absorption, the gut hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have also been found to play an important role in the regulation of bone turnover. These "incretin" hormones promote bone anabolism by stimulating osteoblast differentiation as well as increasing osteoblast longevity. In addition, GIP and perhaps GLP-2 attenuate the activity of osteoclastic cells, leading to a net increase in bone deposition and ultimately increasing bone mass...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097359/customization-of-bilio-pancreatic-limb-length-to-modulate-and-sustain-anti-diabetic-effect-of-gastric-bypass-surgery
#4
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize Bilio-Pancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the anti-diabetic effect of RYGB. METHODS: Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb, and were compared to control animals...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074485/animal-models-of-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-translational-relevance-and-challenges
#5
Per T Sangild, René Liang Shen, Peter Erik Lotko Pontoppidan, Mathias Rathe
Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#6
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973164/differential-impact-of-glucose-administered-intravenously-and-orally-on-circulating-mir-375-levels-in-human-subjects
#7
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Sidse Westberg-Rasmussen, Marcel Tarbier, Thomas Rathjen, Sudhir G Tattikota, Bailey C E Peck, Matt Kanke, Claus Oxvig, Jan Frystyk, Jakob Starup-Linde, Praveen Sethupathy, Marc R Friedländer, Søren Gregersen, Matthew N Poy
Background: To date, numerous nucleic acid species have been detected in the systemic circulation including microRNAs (miRNAs); however, their functional role in this compartment remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic levels of miRNAs abundant in blood, including the neuroendocrine tissue-enriched miR-375, are altered in response to a glucose challenge. Design: Twelve healthy males were recruited for an acute crossover study that consisted of two tests each following an 8-hour fasting period...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948296/gip-3-30-nh2-is-an-efficacious-gip-receptor-antagonist-in-humans-a-randomised-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#8
Lærke S Gasbjerg, Mikkel B Christensen, Bolette Hartmann, Amalie R Lanng, Alexander H Sparre-Ulrich, Maria B N Gabe, Flemming Dela, Tina Vilsbøll, Jens J Holst, Mette M Rosenkilde, Filip K Knop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted postprandially from enteroendocrine K cells, but despite therapeutically interesting effects, GIP physiology in humans remains incompletely understood. Progress in this field could be facilitated by a suitable GIP receptor antagonist. For the first time in humans, we investigated the antagonistic properties of the naturally occurring GIP(3-30)NH2 in in vivo and in in vitro receptor studies...
September 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943949/sitagliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-suppresses-cxcl5-and-sdf-1-and-does-not-accelerate-intestinal-neoplasia-formation-in-apc-min-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#9
Kaori Fujiwara, Takuya Inoue, Yujiro Henmi, Yoshimasa Hirata, Yutaka Naka, Azusa Hara, Kazuki Kakimoto, Sadaharu Nouda, Toshihiko Okada, Ken Kawakami, Toshihisa Takeuchi, Kazuhide Higuchi
The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and intestinal neoplasia has been shown epidemiologically. A high-fat diet (HFD) is also known to promote insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for intestinal neoplasia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used in the clinic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and also to prolong the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, since the intestinotrophic hormone GLP-2 and chemokines, such as CXCL5 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), are also substrates of DPP-4, DPP-4 inhibitors may increase the risk of intestinal carcinogenesis...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888594/plasma-concentrations-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-in-calves-fed-calf-starters-containing-lactose
#10
Y Inabu, A Saegusa, K Inouchi, S Koike, M Oba, T Sugino
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactose inclusion in calf starters on plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 concentrations and gastrointestinal tract development in calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 45) were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 28.0% CP and 15.0% fat, and were fed a texturized calf starter containing 0 (control), 5.0 (LAC5), or 10.0% (LAC10; n = 15 for each treatment) lactose on a DM basis. Lactose was included in the starter by partially replacing dry ground corn in pelleted portion of the starter...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870797/detailed-characterisation-of-stc-1-cells-and-the-pgip-neo-sub-clone-suggests-the-incretin-hormones-are-translationally-regulated
#11
Anna L Gillespie, Xiaobei Pan, Anna Marco-Ramell, Caroline Meharg, Brian D Green
STC-1 is a heterogeneous plurihormonal cell line producing several prominent gut peptide hormones. pGIP/Neo is a genetically selected sub-clone of STC-1 with augmented levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Morphometric parameters, hormone concentrations, mRNA transcripts, hormone immunocytochemistry and nutrient utilisation/production of these two cell lines were compared. Proglucagon-derived peptides (Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and - 2(GLP-2)) were lower in sub-clone cells than progenitor cells...
October 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842383/glucagon-like-peptide-2-prevents-down-regulation-of-intestinal-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-and-p-glycoprotein-in-endotoxemic-rats
#12
Maite Rocío Arana, Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Felipe Zecchinati, Ana Sofía Londero, Camila Dominguez, Virginia Perdomo, Juan Pablo Rigalli, Silvina Stella Maris Villanueva, Aldo Domingo Mottino
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, ABCC2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) constitute essential components of the intestinal biochemical barrier that prevent incorporation of food contaminants, drugs or toxic metabolites into the blood stream. Endotoxemia induced in rats by administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in elevated intestinal permeability and toxicity of xenobiotics in part associated with down-regulation of expression and activity of Mrp2 and P-gp. We evaluated the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a peptide hormone with enterotrophic properties, on Mrp2 and P-gp alterations induced by single i...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808865/glucagon-like-peptides-1-and-2-are-involved-in-satiety-modulation-after-modified-biliopancreatic-diversion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#13
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of modified biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on the levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 and correlate them with satiety regulation. METHODS: This is a pilot prospective cohort study that evaluated six mildly obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which underwent modified BPD and were followed-up for 12 months. Levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 after a standard meal tolerance test were determined and correlated with satiety scores obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS)...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776152/glucose-metabolism-parameters-and-post-prandial-glp-1-and-glp-2-release-largely-vary-in-several-distinct-situations-a-controlled-comparison-among-individuals-with-crohn-s-disease-and-individuals-with-obesity-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery
#14
Daniéla Oliveira Magro, Everton Cazzo, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, Carlos Augusto Real Martinez, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the post-prandial curves of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GLP-2 among individuals with Crohn's disease (CD), obese individuals before and after bariatric surgery, and healthy controls. METHODS: This an exploratory cross-sectional study that involved five groups of patients (two groups of individuals with CD-active and inactive), bariatric patients (pre- and post-surgery, who were their own controls), and a distinct separated control group of healthy volunteers...
August 3, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755409/a-first-in-human-pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-a-fully-human-anti-glucagon-receptor-monoclonal-antibody-in-normal-healthy-volunteers
#15
Ana Kostic, Alexander T King, Feng Yang, Kuo-Chen Chan, George D Yancopoulos, Jesper Gromada, Joyce B Harp
AIMS: Glucagon receptor (GCGR) blockers are being investigated as potential therapeutics for type 1 and 2 diabetes. Here we report the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics [PK], and pharmacodynamics [PD] of REGN1193, a fully human glucagon receptor blocking monoclonal antibody from a first-in-human healthy volunteer randomized double blind trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy men and women received single ascending doses of REGN1193 ranging from 0.05 mg/kg to 0...
July 28, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746825/differential-expression-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-glp-2-is-involved-in-pancreatic-islet-cell-adaptations-to-stress-and-beta-cell-survival
#16
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
Recent studies have confirmed that locally released proglucagon derived gene products, other than glucagon, have a major influence on pancreatic endocrine function. We assessed the impact of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on beta-cell secretory function, proliferation and apoptosis, as well as glucose tolerance, feeding behaviour and islet adaptions to chemically-induced insulin deficiency and resistance. The GLP-2 receptor was evidenced on cultured rodent and human beta-cells, rodent alpha-cells and isolated mouse islets...
July 23, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#17
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724693/new-peptide-inhibitor-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-emdb-1-extends-the-half-life-of-glp-2-and-attenuates-colitis-in-mice-after-topical-administration
#18
Maciej Salaga, Anna Mokrowiecka, Marta Zielinska, Ewa Malecka-Panas, Radzislaw Kordek, Elzbieta Kamysz, Jakub Fichna
Protease inhibition has become a possible new approach in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. A serine exopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), is responsible for the inactivation of incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a potent stimulator of intestinal epithelium regeneration and growth. Recently, we showed that the novel peptide analog of endomorphin-2, Tyr-Pro-D-ClPhe-Phe-NH2 (EMDB-1) is a potent blocker of DPP IV and has an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle contractility...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702324/the-endogenous-preproglucagon-system-is-not-essential-for-gut-growth-homeostasis-in-mice
#19
Pernille Wismann, Pernille Barkholt, Thomas Secher, Niels Vrang, Henrik B Hansen, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Laurie L Baggio, Jacqueline A Koehler, Daniel J Drucker, Darleen A Sandoval, Jacob Jelsing
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities is reaching pandemic proportions. Today, the most effective obesity treatments are glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs and bariatric surgery. Interestingly, both intervention paradigms have been associated with adaptive growth responses in the gut; however, intestinotrophic mechanisms associated with or secondary to medical or surgical obesity therapies are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the local basal endogenous and pharmacological intestinotrophic effects of glucagon-like peptides and bariatric surgery in mice...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#20
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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