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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#1
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158914/effect-of-porcine-glucagon-like-peptides-2-on-tight-junction-in-glp-2r%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ipec-j2-cell-through-the-pi3-k-akt-mtor-p70-s6k-signalling-pathway
#2
K K Qi, Y Q Sun, J Wan, B Deng, X M Men, J Wu, Z W Xu
Because of rare glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor (+) cells within the gut mucosa, the molecular mechanisms transducing the diverse actions of GLP-2 remain largely obscure. This research identified the naturally occurring intestinal cell lines that endogenously express GLP-2R and determined the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of GLP-2-mediated tight junctions (TJ) in GLP-2R (+) cell line. (i) Immunohistochemistry results showed that GLP-2R is localised to the epithelia, laminae propriae and muscle layers of the small and large bowels of newborn piglets...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131587/reducing-gut-effects-from-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-dairy-calves-through-prophylactic-glucagon-like-peptide-2-therapy-or-feeding-of-an-artificial-sweetener
#3
E E Connor, E H Wall, D M Bravo, C M Evock-Clover, T H Elsasser, R L Baldwin, M Santín, B T Vinyard, S Kahl, M P Walker
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) therapy was shown previously to reduce inflammation-related gut damage from coccidiosis in dairy calves, and feeding of artificial sweetener stimulates GLP-2 secretion from intestinal L cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GLP-2 treatment or artificial sweetener feeding beginning 1 wk before an experimental inoculation with the coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum can reduce infection-related intestinal damage in Holstein bull calves. Newborn calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 6 calves each, including noninfected control calves injected s...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126633/differential-impact-of-glucose-administered-intravenously-or-orally-on-bone-turnover-markers-in-healthy-male-subjects
#4
Sidse Westberg-Rasmussen, Jakob Starup-Linde, Kjeld Hermansen, Jens Juul Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Peter Vestergaard, Søren Gregersen
BACKGROUND: Patients with type-1 (T1D) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of hip fracture. The underlying mechanisms may involve disturbances in the incretin hormones. Our aim was to clarify if glucose administration i.e. orally or intravenously differentially affects bone turnover markers in healthy males. METHODS: 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed...
January 23, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121365/research-on-the-role-of-glp-2-in-the-central-nervous-system-epk-signal-transduction-pathway-of-mice-with-vascular-dementia
#5
C-L Chi, S-A Zhang, Z Liu, M-X Chang, H Wang, Y Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in the central nervous system eukaryotic protein kinase (EPK) signal transduction pathway of mice with vascular dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We take the 3-week-old mice raised in the laboratory as the object of study in this research and then divide them into four groups in random, including sham operation group, control group, GLP-2 group, and GLP-2+ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) inhibitor intervention group, with 30 in each group...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104586/synergy-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-epidermal-growth-factor-co-administration-on-intestinal-adaptation-in-neonatal-piglets-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#6
David W Lim, Crystal L Levesque, Donna F Vine, Mitsuru Muto, Jacob R Koepke, Patrick N Nation, Pamela R Wizzard, Julang Li, David L Bigam, Patricia L Brubaker, Justine M Turner, Paul W Wales
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment enhance intestinal adaptation. To determine whether these growth factors exert synergistic effects on intestinal growth and function, GLP-2 and EGF-containing media (EGF-cm) were administered, alone and in combination, in neonatal piglet with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Neonatal Landrace/Large White piglets were block-randomized to 75% mid-intestinal (JI group) or distal-intestinal (JC group) resection or sham control, with 7-d infusion of saline (control), intravenous human GLP-2 (11 nmol/kg/day) alone, enteral EGF-cm (80 μg/kg/day) alone, or GLP-2 and EGF-cm in combination...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101843/postprandial-glp-2-levels-are-increased-after-biliopancreatic-diversion-in-diabetic-individuals-with-class-i-obesity-a-prospective-study
#7
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a predominantly malabsorptive procedure. Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) plays predominantly trophic effects on the gut. A significant increase in GLP-2 after BPD in rats was previously observed, but there are no studies investigating the effect of BPD in GLP-2 levels in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of BPD on the release of GLP-2. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study that evaluated diabetic individuals with class I obesity which underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed up for 12 months...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#8
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076481/correlation-between-pre-and-postoperative-levels-of-glp-1-glp-2-and-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-prospective-study
#9
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Background: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods: An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046174/porcine-glucagon-like-peptide-2-microspheres-ameliorate-inflammation-in-lipopolysaccharide-challenged-weaning-piglets
#10
J Wu, K K Qi, Z W Xu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of porcine [gly2] glucagon-like peptide-2 (p[gly2]GLP-2) microspheres on lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets and to evaluate efficacy of microspheres for administration compared with more conventional administration. Eighteen 21-d-old Duroc female piglets were randomly assigned into 3 groups: the control group (intraperitoneal injection with 3 mL saline solution daily), the glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) group (intraperitoneal injection with 3 mL p[gly2]GLP-2 at 20 nmol/kg BW daily), and the microsphere (MS) group (intraperitoneal injection with 100 mg p[gly2]GLP-2 microsphere suspension at Day 1)...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041739/short-communication-promotion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-secretion-in-dairy-calves-with-a-bioactive-extract-from-olea-europaea
#11
S Y Morrison, J J Pastor, J C Quintela, J J Holst, B Hartmann, J K Drackley, I R Ipharraguerre
Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation during the neonatal phase is the nutrient-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and associated effects on mucosal cell proliferation, barrier function, and inflammatory response. Bioactive molecules found in Olea europaea have been shown to induce the release of regulatory peptides from model enteroendocrine cells...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979490/is-om-3-synergistic-with-glp-2-in-intestinal-failure
#12
Avik Karmaker, Caitlyn M Costanzo, Marshall Z Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a known intestinal growth factor that enhances mucosal mass and function in residual small intestine after massive small bowel resection (MSBR). Luminal omega-3 (OM-3) has been shown to have some growth factor properties. It is possible that their mechanisms of action differ. Thus, we hypothesized that administering these two substances together may have a synergistic effect. METHODS: A total of 60 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 80% MSBR and divided as follows (n = 15/group): Saline (Control) + regular feeds; GLP-2 + regular feeds; Saline + OM-3 enriched feeds; and GLP-2 + OM-3 enriched feeds...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894924/antidepressant-like-effects-exerted-by-the-intranasal-administration-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-2-derivative-containing-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-a-penetration-accelerating-sequence-in-mice
#13
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Ryuji Nakamura, Yusuke Nakao, Toshiki Akimoto, Emi Sanai, Mio Nagai, Michiko Horiguchi, Chikamasa Yamashita, Jun-Ichiro Oka
The intracerebroventicular (i.c.v.) administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) to rodents was shown to have antidepressant-like effects in imipramine-resistant depression-model mice. In order to utilize GLP-2 as a clinical treatment tool for depression, we herein focused on the intranasal delivery that is non-invasive approach, because the i.c.v. administration is invasive and impractical. In the present study, we prepared a GLP-2 derivative containing cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and a penetration accelerating sequence (PAS) (PAS-CPPs-GLP-2) for the intranasal (i...
January 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892685/gut-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773841/purification-partial-characterization-and-bioactivity-of-sulfated-polysaccharides-from-grateloupia-livida
#15
Liu Tang, Yicun Chen, Zebin Jiang, Shuping Zhong, Weizhou Chen, Fuchun Zheng, Ganggang Shi
Purification, preliminary characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Grateloupia livida (GL) were investigated. Three water-soluble sulfated polysaccharide fractions (GLP-1, GLP-2 and GLP-3) were isolated and purified from the edible and medicinal red seaweed, Grateloupia livida (Harv.) Yamada by DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and chemical characterization was performed by HPGPC, GC-MS, FT-IR and SEM. In addition, anticoagulant activities were determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using normal human plasma in vitro...
January 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770239/irinotecan-induced-mucositis-the-interactions-and-potential-role-of-glp-2-analogues
#16
REVIEW
Bronwen J Mayo, Andrea M Stringer, Joanne M Bowen, Emma H Bateman, Dorothy M Keefe
PURPOSE: A common side effect of irinotecan administration is gastrointestinal mucositis, often manifesting as severe diarrhoea. The damage to the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract caused by this cytotoxic agent is debilitating and often leads to alterations in patients' regimens, hospitalisation or stoppage of treatment. The purpose of this review is to identify mechanisms of irinotecan-induced intestinal damage and a potential role for GLP-2 analogues for intervention...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-mechanistic-and-clinical-relevance
#17
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729007/intestinal-microbiota-could-transfer-host-gut-characteristics-from-pigs-to-mice
#18
H Diao, H L Yan, Y Xiao, B Yu, J Yu, J He, P Zheng, B H Zeng, H Wei, X B Mao, D W Chen
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to compare the differences in gut microbiota composition and gut-phenotypes among pig breeds, and determine whether these differences would transmit to mice colonized with fecal microbiota of different pig breeds. A total of 24 1-day-old germ-free BALB/C mice were divided into 3 groups (TFM, YFM and RFM), which were transplanted with intact fecal microbiota of Tibetan pig (TP), Yorkshire pig (YP) and Rongchang pig (RP), respectively. RESULTS: Results showed that different pig breeds exhibited distinct gut microbiota profile based on high-throughput pyrosequencing...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720872/lareth-25-and-%C3%AE-cd-improve-central-transitivity-and-central-pharmacological-effect-of-the-glp-2-peptide
#19
Yusuke Nakao, Michiko Horiguchi, Ryuji Nakamura, Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Chihiro Ozawa, Taichi Funane, Ryo Ozawa, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Chikamasa Yamashita
Depression is a common mental disorder. More than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression worldwide. Although a number of antidepressants are available, >20% of patients with major depressive disorder suffer from treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, development of novel therapeutics to overcome this condition is required. We reported that intracerebroventricular administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) exerts antidepressant-like effects treated with or without adrenocorticotropic hormone...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716276/elevations-in-growth-hormone-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-levels-on-admission-are-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-trauma-patients
#20
Matthew P Rowan, Darrick J Beckman, Julie A Rizzo, Claire L Isbell, Christopher E White, Stephen M Cohn, Kevin K Chung
BACKGROUND: Burn and trauma patients present a clinical challenge due to metabolic derangements and hypermetabolism that result in a prolonged catabolic state with impaired healing and secondary complications, including ventilator dependence. Previous work has shown that circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) are predictive of mortality in critically ill adults, but few studies have examined the prognostic potential of GH levels in adult trauma patients. METHODS: To investigate the utility of GH and other endocrine responses in the prediction of outcomes, we conducted a prospective, observational study of adult burn and trauma patients...
October 4, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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