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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741675/the-intestinotrophic-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-glp-2-in-relation-to-intestinal-neoplasia
#1
Adile Orhan, Ismail Gögenur, Hannelouise Kissow
Context: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone with intestinotrophic and anti-apoptotic effects. The hormone's therapeutic potential in intestinal diseases and relation to intestinal neoplasia have raised great interest among researchers. This paper reviews and discusses published experimental and clinical studies concerning the growth-stimulating and anti-apoptotic effects of GLP-2 in relation to intestinal neoplasia. Evidence acquisition: The data used in this narrative review were collected through literature research in PubMed using English keywords...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703428/effects-of-centrally-administered-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-blood-pressure-and-barosensitive-neurons-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#2
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Koji Narusawa, Ryuji Nakamura, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro Oka
The central administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) decreases blood pressure in rats. In the present study, we investigated the hypotensive effects of GLP-2 using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of hypertension. The central administration of GLP-2 (0.6 μg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in SHRs (-24.1 ± 4.5%; P < 0.05), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (-10.6 ± 7.4%; P > 0.05), whereas GLP-2 (6 μg) decreased MAP in WKY rats (-23...
April 18, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702489/what-s-new-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#3
Lore Billiauws, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease but with many complications due to intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition and underlying disease. A better prevention, comprehension and treatment could improve the outcome of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been published on acute intestinal failure, first cause of SBS, and gives us strategy to avoid extended intestinal resection and thus SBS. There has been progress in the comprehension of intestinal adaptation, characterized by improvements in intestinal absorption, changes on hormonal secretion, development of a hyperphagia and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680641/short-communication-the-effect-of-delayed-colostrum-feeding-on-plasma-concentrations-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-in-newborn-calves
#4
Y Inabu, A Fischer, Y Song, L L Guan, M Oba, M A Steele, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is involved in glucose homeostasis via its role in stimulating insulin secretion, whereas GLP-2 increases mucosal growth of the small intestine. To our knowledge, the effect of delayed colostrum feeding on plasma GLP-1 and GLP-2 in neonatal calves has not been evaluated. To investigate the effect of delayed colostrum feeding on plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GLP-2 in newborn calves, we randomly assigned 27 Holstein bull calves to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those fed colostrum within 1 h after birth (control), 6 h after birth (6H), and 12 h after birth (12H; n = 9 for each treatment)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561982/comparison-of-the-levels-of-c-reactive-protein-glp-1-and-glp-2-among-individuals-with-diabetes-morbid-obesity-and-healthy-controls-an-exploratory-study
#5
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2) are gut hormones that may directly affect the glucose homeostasis and their activity seems to be significantly affected by chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the postprandial glucose and insulin levels among individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and healthy controls. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study, which involved individuals awaiting for bariatric/metabolic surgery and healthy controls...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540315/novel-glp-1-glp-2-co-agonists-display-marked-effects-on-gut-volume-and-improves-glycemic-control-in-mice
#6
Pernille Wismann, Søren L Pedersen, Gitte Hansen, Karin Mannerstedt, Philip J Pedersen, Palle B Jeppesen, Niels Vrang, Keld Fosgerau, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: Analogues of several gastrointestinal peptide hormones have been developed into effective medicines for treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and short bowel syndrome (SBS). In this study, we aimed to explore whether the combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) into a potent co-agonist could provide additional benefits compared to existing monotherapies. METHODS: A short-acting (GUB09-123) and a half-life extended (GUB09-145) GLP-1/GLP-2 co-agonist were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis and tested for effects on food intake, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut proliferation in lean mice and in diabetic db/db mice...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528634/stapled-long-acting-glucagon-like-peptide-2-analog-with-efficacy-in-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-mouse-colitis-models
#7
Peng-Yu Yang, Huafei Zou, Candy Lee, Avinash Muppidi, Elizabeth Chao, Qiangwei Fu, Xiaozhou Luo, Danling Wang, Peter G Schultz, Weijun Shen
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a hormone that has been shown to stimulate intestinal growth and attenuate intestinal inflammation. Despite being efficacious in a variety of animal models of disease, its therapeutic potential is hampered by the short half-life in vivo. We now describe a highly potent, stapled long-acting GLP-2 analog, peptide 10, that has a more than 10-fold longer half-life than teduglutide and improved intestinotrophic and anti-inflammatory effects in mouse models of DSS-induced colitis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523359/the-glucagon-like-peptide-2-axis-capacity-for-production-and-response-following-intestinal-resection-or-repair-of-gastroschisis-in-infants
#8
David L Sigalet, Viona Lam, Mary Brindle, Dana Boctor, Laurie Wallace, Elaine de Heuval, Bollette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
PURPOSE: This study investigates the relationship between the enteric hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) production, sensitivity, and intestinal adaptation in infants following resection or repair of gastroschisis. METHODS: With IRB approval (UCalgary #10656), consent was obtained from families of infants undergoing surgery for prospective monitoring of nutritional status, GLP-2 levels, and where possible, tissue sampling. RESULTS: Infants who adapted and weaned from parenteral nutrition (PN) had increased GLP-2 (86±32) n=24 vs...
May 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510149/diversification-of-the-functions-of-proglucagon-and-glucagon-receptor-genes-in-fish
#9
David M Irwin, Svetlana Mojsov
The teleost fish-specific genome duplication gave rise to a great number of species inhabiting diverse environments with different access to nutrients and life histories. This event produced duplicated gcg genes, gcga and gcgb, for proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon and GLP-1 and duplicated gcgr receptor genes, gcgra and gcgrb, which play key roles connecting the consumption of nutrients with glucose metabolism. We conducted a systematic survey of the genomes from 28 species of fish (24 bony (Superclass Osteichthyes), 1 lobe-finned (Class Sarcoperygii), 1 cartilaginous (Superclass Chondrichthyes), and 2 jawless (Superclass Agnatha)) and find that almost all surveyed ray-finned fish contain gcga and gcgb genes with different coding potential and duplicated gcgr genes, gcgra and gcgrb that form two separate clades in the phylogenetic tree consistent with the accepted species phylogeny...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505151/single-center-experience-with-the-use-of-teduglutide-in-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#10
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502360/glucagon-like-peptide-2-a-potential-role-in-equine-insulin-dysregulation
#11
M A de Laat, D M Fitzgerald, M N Sillence, R J Spence
BACKGROUND: Equine insulin dysregulation (ID) is a common and poorly understood disorder that increases the risk of laminitis. Recent data show that the condition may be associated with alteration of the enteroinsular axis and enhanced glucose bioavailability. Upregulation of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), an intestinotrophic peptide, leads to enhanced nutrient uptake and metabolic dysfunction in other species. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to 1) determine whether GLP-2 is differentially expressed in insulin-dysregulated ponies, compared with healthy ponies, and 2) confirm intestinal expression of the GLP-2 receptor in horses (eGLP-2R)...
March 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454696/the-effect-of-tube-versus-bottle-feeding-colostrum-on-immunoglobulin-g-absorption-abomasal-emptying-and-plasma-hormone-concentrations-in-newborn-calves
#12
M Desjardins-Morrissette, J K van Niekerk, D Haines, T Sugino, M Oba, M A Steele
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding colostrum to newborn calves through an esophageal tube, compared with a nipple bottle, would delay abomasal emptying, which would in turn decrease passive transfer of IgG and plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and GLP-2 concentrations. Twenty newborn Holstein bull calves were fed 3 L of colostrum replacer (200 g of IgG) through either an esophageal tube or nipple bottle at 2 h after birth followed by feeding pooled whole milk every 12 h after birth...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445110/promising-biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-pakistani-children
#13
Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Kamran Sadiq, Sana Syed, Tauseefullah Akhund, Fayyaz Umrani, Sheraz Ahmed, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Najeeb Rahman, Shahida Qureshi, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Molly Hughes, Syed Asad Ali
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED), a syndrome characterized by chronic gut inflammation, contributes towards stunting and poor response to enteric vaccines in children in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated major putative biomarkers of EED using growth faltering as its clinical proxy. Newborns (n = 380) were enrolled and followed till 18 months with monthly anthropometry. Biomarkers associated with gut and systemic inflammation were assessed at 6 and 9 months. Linear mixed effects model was used to determine the associations of these biomarkers with growth faltering between birth and 18 months...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432586/effects-of-different-starch-source-of-starter-on-small-intestinal-growth-and-endogenous-glp-2-secretion-in-preweaned-lambs
#14
Daming Sun, Hongwei Li, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu, Junhua Liu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of starch in starter feed on small intestinal growth and endogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) secretion in preweaned lambs. Twenty-four 10-d-old lambs were divided into three groups that were treated with different iso-starch diets containing purified cassava starch (CS, n = 8), maize starch (MS, n = 8), and pea starch (PS, n = 8). At 56 d old, there was no significant difference in final body weight (BW) of lambs among the three groups...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432213/regulation-of-intestinal-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-by-the-proglucagon-derived-peptides-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2
#15
Erin E Mulvihill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestine is highly efficient at absorbing and packaging dietary lipids onto the structural protein apoB48 for distribution throughout the body. Here, we summarize recent advances into understanding the physiological and pharmacological actions of the proglucagon-derived peptides: glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on intestinal lipoprotein secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms underlying the paradoxical effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on intestinal production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420993/glucagon-like-peptide-2-improves-intestinal-immune-function-and-diminishes-bacterial-translocation-in-a-mouse-model-of-parenteral-nutrition
#16
Qiucheng Lei, Jingcheng Bi, Huanwei Chen, Feng Tian, Xuejin Gao, Ning Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with increased infectious risks due to impaired intestinal immunity. Although glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances the gut barrier function, it is uncertain whether it improves mucosal immunologic barrier function. We hypothesized that injecting the PN mouse model with GLP-2 improved innate and acquired immunity, and prevented bacterial translocation. Forty-eight hours after venous cannulation, male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into 3 groups based on their diet: chow with saline (n = 10), PN (n = 9), or PN + GLP-2 (30 μg bid per mouse, n = 10) provided for 5 days...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329748/oral-bifidobacterium-longum-expressing-glp-2-improves-nutrient-assimilation-and-nutritional-homeostasis-in-mice
#17
Qian Zhang, Mengge Liu, Shiyu Li, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Yuzhe Wang, Zhengbin Fei, Wenhua Huang, Hanxiao Sun
Bifidobacterium has been developed for the oral delivery of peptides and has the added beneficial effect on our bodies through its probiotic properties. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We constructed vector derived from pET-31b(+) to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing GLP-2. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in Caco-2 cells. Finally, we quantified newly synthesized ApoB48 and chylomicron production in mice infused with exogenous GLP-2 or Bifidobacterium expressing GLP-2...
February 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#18
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered: The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
March 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202475/discovery-characterization-and-clinical-development-of-the-glucagon-like-peptides
#19
REVIEW
Daniel J Drucker, Joel F Habener, Jens Juul Holst
The discovery, characterization, and clinical development of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) spans more than 30 years and includes contributions from multiple investigators, science recognized by the 2017 Harrington Award Prize for Innovation in Medicine. Herein, we provide perspectives on the historical events and key experimental findings establishing the biology of GLP-1 as an insulin-stimulating glucoregulatory hormone. Important attributes of GLP-1 action and enteroendocrine science are reviewed, with emphasis on mechanistic advances and clinical proof-of-concept studies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177486/glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-prandial-gastrointestinal-motility-through-myenteric-neuronal-mechanisms-in-humans
#20
Md Abdul Halim, Marie Degerblad, Magnus Sundbom, Urban Karlbom, Jens Juul Holst, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström
Context: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from l-cells and postprandial inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Objective: Investigate whether physiological plasma concentrations of GLP-1 inhibit human postprandial motility and determine mechanism of action of GLP-1 and analog ROSE-010 action. Design: Single-blind parallel study. Setting: University hospital laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers investigated with antroduodenal manometry...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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