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Food security

Arthur M Lee, Rebecca J Scharf, Mark D DeBoer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if food insecurity is an independent risk factor for obesity in U.S. children. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate longitudinal associations between food security and body mass index (BMI) z-score. All regression models included race/ethnicity, household income, and parental education...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Melissa D Olfert
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Erica Reynolds, Christine Johnson, Jennifer A Jamieson, Hannah Mawhinney
PURPOSE: University students may be at risk for food insecurity (FI) due to low income coupled with rising tuition, housing, and food costs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FI and potential correlates among students at a small, rural Canadian university. METHODS: Health Canada's 10-item household food security survey module (HFSSM) was adapted to assess food security status within the postsecondary student population. An additional 11 items measured food access and demographics...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Lucy M Butcher, Therese A O'Sullivan, Maria M Ryan, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Currently, two food sufficiency questions are utilised as a proxy measure of national food security status in Australia. These questions do not capture all dimensions of food security and have been attributed with underreporting of the problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate food security using the short form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) within an Australian context; and explore the relationship between food security status and multiple socio-demographic variables...
March 15, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
A Jacobs, C Doran, D S Murray, J Duffill Telsnig, K L Laskowski, N A R Jones, S K Auer, K Praebel
Many fish species face increasing challenges associated with climate change and overfishing. At the same time, aquaculture is becoming vital for food security. Gaining a deeper understanding of the basic biology of fish is therefore more important than ever. Here we synthesize and summarize key questions, opportunities and challenges in fish biology highlighted during a round-table discussion at the 50th Anniversary Symposium of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles, held at the University of Exeter, U...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Suresh Neethirajan, Vasanth Ragavan, Xuan Weng, Rohit Chand
Current food production faces tremendous challenges from growing human population, maintaining clean resources and food qualities, and protecting climate and environment. Food sustainability is mostly a cooperative effort resulting in technology development supported by both governments and enterprises. Multiple attempts have been promoted in tackling challenges and enhancing drivers in food production. Biosensors and biosensing technologies with their applications, are being widely applied to tackling top challenges in food production and its sustainability...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors
Dylan B Jackson, Kellie R Lynch, Jesse J Helton, Michael G Vaughn
Children experiencing or witnessing violence in the home are at risk of a number of cognitive, social, and behavioral challenges as they age. A handful of recent studies have suggested that food insecurity may be one factor associated with violence against children in the home. The present study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to explore the link between household food insecurity during the first three waves of data collection (i.e., the first few years of life) and witnessing or being the victim of violence in the home among very young children (~ age 4)...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Bryony Sands, Neludo Mgidiswa, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Richard Wall
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Shannon E Majowicz, E Jane Parmley, Carolee Carson, Katarina Pintar
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical public health issue that involves interrelationships between people, animals, and the environment. Traditionally, interdisciplinary efforts to mitigate AMR in the food chain have involved public health, human and veterinary medicine, and agriculture stakeholders. Our objective was to identify a more diverse range of stakeholders, beyond those traditionally engaged in AMR mitigation efforts, via diagramming both proximal and distal factors impacting, or impacted by, use and resistance along the Canadian food chain...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Pauline Gulliver, Janet Fanslow, Theresa Fleming, Mathijs Lucassen, Robyn Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To explore trends, and identify risk factors, that may explain changes in adolescent exposure to family violence over time. METHODS: Data for this study was drawn from the Youth 2000 series of cross-sectional surveys, carried out with New Zealand high school students in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Latent class analysis was used to understand different patterns of exposure to multiple risks for witnessing violence at home among adolescents. RESULTS: Across all time periods, there was no change in witnessing emotional violence and a slight decline in witnessing physical violence at home...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Andrew Spriggs, Steven T Henderson, Melanie L Hand, Susan D Johnson, Jennifer M Taylor, Anna Koltunow
Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1...
February 9, 2018: Gates Open Res
Nada Zaanouni, Mariem Gharssallaoui, Mabrouk Eloussaief, Slimane Gabsi
Due to constraints of fresh water for agricultural irrigation, wastewater was used for irrigation of agricultural land as alternative water resources in arid and semi-arid Tunisian regions. However, long-term irrigation may cause contamination by heavy metals in the soil as well as for crops, thus becoming a threat to humans. To understand the effect of irrigation with wastewater on the concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb, in soil and plants, soil samples and plants were collected and analyzed...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A E Johnston, P R Poulton
Long-term field experiments that test a range of treatments and are intended to assess the sustainability of crop production, and thus food security, must be managed actively to identify any treatment that is failing to maintain or increase yields. Once identified, carefully considered changes can be made to the treatment or management, and if they are successful yields will change. If suitable changes cannot be made to an experiment to ensure its continued relevance to sustainable crop production, then it should be stopped...
January 2018: European Journal of Soil Science
S Rebekah Burket, Yelena Sapozhnikova, Shan S Chung, Bryan W Brooks
Aquaculture, which is growing 3-5 times faster than terrestrial agriculture, will play an important role to meet future global food production needs. However, over 80% of global sewage production is returned to the environment untreated or poorly treated. In developing nations, these non-traditional waters of diverse quality are being recycled for aquaculture, yet chemical residues are differentially studied. Here, we examined pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, PAHs and flame retardants in marine bivalves using isotope dilution LC-MS/MS and low pressure (LP)GC-MS/MS...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Heng Ye, Manish Roorkiwal, Babu Valliyodan, Lijuan Zhou, Pengyin Chen, Rajeev Varshney, Henry T Nguyen
Climate changes increase the occurrence of extreme weather patterns globally, cause significant reduction in crop production and hence threatening the food security. In order to meet the food demand of growing world population, faster rate of genetic gains leading to productivity enhancement for major crops is required. Grain legumes are an essential commodity in optimal human diets and animal feed because of their unique nutritional composition. Currently, limited water is a major constraint in grain legume production...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Denise C Tahara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Mouna Lamaoui, Martin Jemo, Raju Datla, Faouzi Bekkaoui
Drought and heat are major abiotic stresses that reduce crop productivity and weaken global food security, especially given the current and growing impacts of climate change and increases in the occurrence and severity of both stress factors. Plants have developed dynamic responses at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels allowing them to escape and/or adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. Nevertheless, even the mildest heat and drought stress negatively affects crop yield. Further, several independent studies have shown that increased temperature and drought can reduce crop yields by as much as 50%...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Anna Lartey, Janice Meerman, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni
BACKGROUND: The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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