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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783265/-international-experience-in-the-legal-regulation-of-the-circulation-of-medicines-through-the-prism-of-the-law-of-the-world-trade-organization
#1
Olena V Pasechnyk, Nataliia V Hendel
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782528/threat-of-wheat-blast-to-south-asia-s-food-security-an-ex-ante-analysis
#2
Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Pawan Kumar Singh, Kai Sonder, Gideon Kruseman, Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Naresh C D Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker, Hans-Joachim Braun, Olaf Erenstein
New biotic stresses have emerged around the globe over the last decades threatening food safety and security. In 2016, scientists confirmed the presence of the devastating wheat-blast disease in Bangladesh, South Asia-its first occurrence outside South America. Severely blast-affected wheat fields had their grain yield wiped out. This poses a severe threat to food security in a densely-populated region with millions of poor inhabitants where wheat is a major staple crop and per capita wheat consumption has been increasing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779495/closing-the-phosphorus-cycle-in-a-food-system-insights-from-a-modelling-exercise
#3
H R J van Kernebeek, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, R Ripoll-Bosch, I J M de Boer
Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775834/association-between-food-insecurity-and-food-intake
#4
Melissa Luciana de Araújo, Raquel de Deus Mendonça, José Divino Lopes Filho, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
BACKGROUND: We aim to identify the prevalence of food insecurity and to ascertain the association between food insecurity and food intake. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: The study included users of a primary healthcare service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2013 to 2014. Socioeconomic, health, and food intake data were gathered using a questionnaire and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. SUBJECTS: Individuals 20 years old or older (n = 2817)...
March 28, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773962/discovery-and-validation-of-genomic-regions-associated-with-resistance-to-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-four-biparental-populations
#5
Manje Gowda, Yoseph Beyene, Dan Makumbi, Kassa Semagn, Michael S Olsen, Jumbo M Bright, Biswanath Das, Stephen Mugo, L M Suresh, Boddupalli M Prasanna
In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is the key determinant of food security for smallholder farmers. The sudden outbreak of maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is seriously threatening the maize production in the region. Understanding the genetic basis of MLN resistance is crucial. In this study, we used four biparental populations applied linkage mapping and joint linkage mapping approaches to identify and validate the MLN resistance-associated genomic regions. All populations were genotyped with low to high density markers and phenotyped in multiple environments against MLN under artificial inoculation...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773938/correlations-between-a1c-and-diabetes-knowledge-diabetes-numeracy-and-food-security-in-a-vulnerable-type-2-diabetes-population
#6
Clipper F Young, Kenneth Yun, Edward Kang, Jay H Shubrook, Joy A Dugan
Type 2 diabetes is over-represented in vulnerable populations. Vulnerable patients managing diabetes are challenged with less-than-optimal processes and outcomes of care; thus, Healthy People 2020 and the American Diabetes Association have renewed the focus on social determinants of health with regard to the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study explored the correlations between A1C and social and personal factors, including diabetes knowledge, diabetes numeracy, and food security. The Diabetes Numeracy Test-15, the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Diabetes Scale, and the U...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773744/worldwide-emergence-of-resistance-to-antifungal-drugs-challenges-human-health-and-food-security
#7
REVIEW
Matthew C Fisher, Nichola J Hawkins, Dominique Sanglard, Sarah J Gurr
The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing risk in human health care from naturally occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens that have acquired resistance to this broad class of chemicals...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#8
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769728/emerging-trends-in-global-freshwater-availability
#9
M Rodell, J S Famiglietti, D N Wiese, J T Reager, H K Beaudoing, F W Landerer, M-H Lo
Freshwater availability is changing worldwide. Here we quantify 34 trends in terrestrial water storage observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites during 2002-2016 and categorize their drivers as natural interannual variability, unsustainable groundwater consumption, climate change or combinations thereof. Several of these trends had been lacking thorough investigation and attribution, including massive changes in northwestern China and the Okavango Delta. Others are consistent with climate model predictions...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768609/-evaluation-of-the-national-school-food-program-review-of-the-literature
#10
Dixis Figueroa Pedraza, Nadinne Lívia Silva de Melo, Franciely Albuquerque Silva, Erika Morganna Neves Araujo
The National School Food Program (PNAE) constitutes an important strategy for the promotion of healthy eating. The objective was to perform a brief analysis of evaluative research on the PNAE. It involved a search of the literature from 2010 to 2015 in the Bireme and Scielo databases. Twelve articles were selected linked to the area, eight of which analyzed the insertion of the nutritionist in the PNAE; seven, to buy food from family farms; five, the implementation of School Food Councils; five, the compilation of menus; and four, funding destined for the PNAE...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768136/the-genome-biology-of-effector-gene-evolution-in-filamentous-plant-pathogens
#11
Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E Hartmann, Jessica L Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll
Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768127/an-evaluation-of-removal-trapping-to-control-rodents-inside-homes-in-a-plague-endemic-region-of-rural-northwestern-uganda
#12
Rebecca J Eisen, Linda A Atiku, Karen A Boegler, Joseph T Mpanga, Russell E Enscore, Katherine MacMillan, Kenneth L Gage
Rodents pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in rural subsistence farming communities in Africa, where rodents threaten food security and serve as reservoirs of human pathogens, including the agents of plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, Lassa fever, salmonellosis, and campylobacteriosis. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where a majority of residents live in Uganda government-defined poverty, rely on subsistence farming for a living, and frequently experience incursions of rodents into their homes...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767091/nutritional-modulation-of-health-egg-quality-and-environmental-pollution-of-the-layers
#13
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Hongyuan Yue, Shugeng Wu, Haijun Zhang, Guanghai Qi
World egg production and consumption have been increasing for the past decades. Traditional strategies in poultry nutrition have made vital contributions to this great growth in quantity. However, current global issues should be considered in modern egg production such as growing populations and food security, food safety and quality, limited resources and environmental problems. The development of knowledge of poultry nutrition and modern biotechnology provides novel nutritional approaches to closely fit the requirement of pullets and laying hens, which will consequently decrease the nutrition excretion and maintain the lower cost of feed...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766351/comparative-whole-genome-re-sequencing-analysis-in-upland-new-rice-for-africa-insights-into-the-breeding-history-and-respective-genome-compositions
#14
Naoki Yamamoto, Richard Garcia, Tomohiro Suzuki, Celymar Angela Solis, Yuichi Tada, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Ajay Kohli
BACKGROUND: Increasing rice demand is one of the consequences of the steadily improving socio-economic status of the African countries. New Rice for Africa (NERICA), which are interspecific hybrids between Asian and African rice varieties, are one of successful breeding products utilizing biodiversity across the two different rice crop species. Upland NERICA varieties (NU) exhibit agronomic traits of value for the harsh eco-geography, including shorter duration, higher yield and stress tolerance, compared to local African varieties...
May 15, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765385/optimizing-winter-wheat-resilience-to-climate-change-in-rain-fed-crop-systems-of-turkey-and-iran
#15
Marta S Lopes, Conxita Royo, Fanny Alvaro, Miguel Sanchez-Garcia, Emel Ozer, Fatih Ozdemir, Mehmet Karaman, Mozaffar Roustaii, Mohammad R Jalal-Kamali, Diego Pequeno
Erratic weather patterns associated with increased temperatures and decreasing rainfall pose unique challenges for wheat breeders playing a key part in the fight to ensure global food security. Within rain fed winter wheat areas of Turkey and Iran, unusual weather patterns may prevent attaining maximum potential increases in winter wheat genetic gains. This is primarily related to the fact that the yield ranking of tested genotypes may change from one year to the next. Changing weather patterns may interfere with the decisions breeders make about the ideotype(s) they should aim for during selection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764666/relevance-of-wild-and-managed-bees-for-human-well-being
#16
REVIEW
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764659/mechanisms-of-aphid-adaptation-to-host-plant-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Ashley D Yates, Andy Michel
Host-plant resistant (HPR) crops can play a major role in preventing insect damage, but their durability is limited due to insect adaptation. Research in basal plant resistance provides a framework to investigate adaptation against HPR. Resistance and adaptation are predicted to follow the gene-for-gene and zigzag models of plant defense. These models also highlight the importance of insect effectors, which are small molecules that modulate host plant defense signaling. We highlight research in insect adaptation to plant resistance, and then draw parallels to virulence adaptation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764322/biting-the-hands-that-feed-the-alligators-a-case-study-in-morbid-obesity-extremes-end-of-life-care-and-prohibitions-on-harming-and-accelerating-the-end-of-life
#18
Michael J Malinowski
Obesity, recognized as a disease in the U.S. and at times as a terminal illness due to associated medical complications, is an American epidemic according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC"), American Heart Association ("AHA"), and other authorities. More than one third of Americans (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of children) are medically obese. This article focuses on cases of "extreme morbid obesity" ("EMO")-situations in which death is imminent without aggressive medical interventions, and bariatric surgery is the only treatment option with a realistic possibility of success...
March 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763430/policosanol-fabrication-from-insect-wax-and-optimization-by-response-surface-methodology
#19
Jinju Ma, Liyi Ma, Hong Zhang, Zhongquan Zhang, Youqiong Wang, Kai Li, Xiaoming Chen
BACKGROUND: Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. RESULTS: The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758427/quantitative-assessment-of-soil-productivity-and-predicted-impacts-of-water-erosion-in-the-black-soil-region-of-northeastern-china
#20
Zhijia Gu, Yun Xie, Yuan Gao, Xiaoyu Ren, Congcong Cheng, Sichu Wang
As Northeastern China is the country's most significant grain production base, soil productivity in this region has consistently attracted attention. National food security is threatened by an ongoing drain of soil nutrients and decline in soil productivity. Black soil is the key natural resource in this region of China, which is thus known as the "black soil region". It is necessary to study the impact of soil erosion on black soil and its productivity to protect this important resource and ensure its sustainable productivity...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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