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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215020/climate-change-and-national-crop-wild-relative-conservation-planning
#1
Jade Phillips, Joana Magos Brehm, Bob van Oort, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Nigel Maxted
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security...
February 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#2
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#3
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
February 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209326/ethnobotany-phylogeny-and-omics-for-human-health-and-food-security
#4
Teresa Garnatje, Josep Peñuelas, Joan Vallès
Here, we propose a new term, 'ethnobotanical convergence', to refer to the similar uses for plants included in the same node of a phylogeny. This phylogenetic approach, together with the 'omics' revolution, shows how combining modern technologies with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge could be used to identify potential new applications of plants.
February 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209154/factors-associated-with-child-hunger-among-food-insecure-households-in-bangladesh
#5
Md Ahshanul Haque, Fahmida Dil Farzana, Sabiha Sultana, Mohammad Jyoti Raihan, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Jillian L Waid, Nuzhat Choudhury, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children's health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. METHODS: Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6-59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208833/family-environment-and-childhood-obesity-a-new-framework-with-structural-equation-modeling
#6
Hui Huang, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed Radzi, Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi
The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child's food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207338/nutritional-economic-and-environmental-costs-of-milk-waste-in-a-classroom-school-breakfast-program
#7
Stacy A Blondin, Sean B Cash, Jeanne P Goldberg, Timothy S Griffin, Christina D Economos
OBJECTIVES: To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. METHODS: Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204896/detection-of-a-novel-gammaherpesvirus-genus-rhadinovirus-in-wild-muntjac-deer-in-northern-ireland
#8
John McKillen, Kayleigh Hogg, Paula Lagan, Cheryl Ball, Simon Doherty, Neil Reid, Lisa Collins, Jaimie T A Dick
This study represents the initial part of an investigation into the potential for non-native, wild, free-living muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) to carry viruses that could be a threat to livestock. A degenerate PCR assay was used to screen a range of tissues from muntjac deer culled in Northern Ireland for the presence of herpesviral nucleic acids. This was followed by sequencing of PCR amplicons and phylogenetic analysis. We report the detection of a novel gammaherpesvirus most closely related to a type 2 ruminant rhadinovirus from mule deer...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201940/food-insecurity-and-its-association-with-school-absenteeism-among-rural-school-adolescents-in-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#9
Dessalegn Tamiru, Yabsira Melaku, Tefera Belachew
Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism...
February 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197165/prevention-of-preharvest-sprouting-through-hormone-engineering-and-germination-recovery-by-chemical-biology
#10
Mariko Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Nonogaki
Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#11
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194318/cropping-system-diversification-for-food-production-in-mindanao-rubber-plantations-a-rice-cultivar-mixture-and-rice-intercropped-with-mungbean
#12
Rosa Fe Hondrade, Edwin Hondrade, Lianqing Zheng, Francisco Elazegui, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E Duque, Christopher C Mundt, Casiana M Vera Cruz, Karen A Garrett
Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191012/application-of-modified-small-bladder-patch-to-bladder-double-layer-sutures-to-improve-renal-transplantation-in-mice
#13
Chen Wenwei, Yang Yirong, Katarzyna M Stevens, Michal Heger, Xia Peng
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to introduce an improved surgical procedure to reduce the incidence of urinary tract complications after renal transplantation in mice using a modified bladder patch-to-bladder anastomosis technique. METHODS: Renal isotransplantation was performed in 28 male C57BL/6 mice. The urinary tract was reconstructed with a ureteral anastomosis between the donor's small bladder patch and the recipient's bladder. The bladder patch was secured through a cystotomy in the recipient's bladder mucosa and seromuscular layers, which were sutured in a double-layer manner...
2017: European Surgery: ACA: Acta Chirurgica Austriaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187722/effectiveness-of-differing-levels-of-support-for-family-meals-on-obesity-prevention-among-head-start-preschoolers-the-simply-dinner-study
#14
Holly E Brophy-Herb, Mildred Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Jean Kerver, Niko Kaciroti, Mara Stein, Hannah Jong Lee, Brittany Motz, Sheilah Hebert, Erika Prine, Candace Gardiner, Laurie A Van Egeren, Julie C Lumeng
BACKGROUND: Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals...
February 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179981/deep-assessment-of-genomic-diversity-in-cassava-for-herbicide-tolerance-and-starch-biosynthesis
#15
Jorge Duitama, Lina Kafuri, Daniel Tello, Ana María Leiva, Bernhard Hofinger, Sneha Datta, Zaida Lentini, Ericson Aranzales, Bradley Till, Hernán Ceballos
Cassava is one of the most important food security crops in tropical countries, and a competitive resource for the starch, food, feed and ethanol industries. However, genomics research in this crop is much less developed compared to other economically important crops such as rice or maize. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) maintains the largest cassava germplasm collection in the world. Unfortunately, the genetic potential of this diversity for breeding programs remains underexploited due to the difficulties in phenotypic screening and lack of deep genomic information about the different accessions...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178233/the-genome-of-chenopodium-quinoa
#16
David E Jarvis, Yung Shwen Ho, Damien J Lightfoot, Sandra M Schmöckel, Bo Li, Theo J A Borm, Hajime Ohyanagi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Craig T Michell, Noha Saber, Najeh M Kharbatia, Ryan R Rupper, Aaron R Sharp, Nadine Dally, Berin A Boughton, Yong H Woo, Ge Gao, Elio G W M Schijlen, Xiujie Guo, Afaque A Momin, Sónia Negrão, Salim Al-Babili, Christoph Gehring, Ute Roessner, Christian Jung, Kevin Murphy, Stefan T Arold, Takashi Gojobori, C Gerard van der Linden, Eibertus N van Loo, Eric N Jellen, Peter J Maughan, Mark Tester
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170407/spatial-heterogeneity-and-risk-factors-for-stunting-among-children-under-age-five-in-ethiopia-a-bayesian-geo-statistical-model
#17
Seifu Hagos, Damen Hailemariam, Tasew WoldeHanna, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district) scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167953/biofortification-in-millets-a-sustainable-approach-for-nutritional-security
#18
REVIEW
A Vinoth, R Ravindhran
Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world's population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#19
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#20
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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