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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926004/where-to-next-with-animal-health-in-latin-america-the-transition-from-endemic-to-disease-free-status
#1
H Rojas, J R Romero
The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922748/cesium-uptake-by-rice-roots-largely-depends-upon-a-single-gene-hak1-which-encodes-a-potassium-transporter
#2
Hiroki Rai, Saki Yokoyama, Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa, Jun Furukawa, Takiko Nomi, Yasuka Ito, Shigeto Fujimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryuichiro Suzuki, ELMannai Yousra, Akitoshi Goto, Shinichi Fuji, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Takuro Shinano, Nobuhiro Nagasawa, Hiroetsu Wabiko, Hiroyuki Hattori
Incidents at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power stations have resulted in widespread environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Among them, 137cesium has a 30 year half-life, and its persistence in soil raises serious food security issues. It is therefore important to prevent plants, especially crop plants, from absorbing radiocesium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cesium ions are transported into root cells by several different potassium transporters such as high-affinity K+ transporter 5 (AtHAK5)...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921873/diagnostic-specificity-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-antibody-detection-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-in-feral-and-domestic-pigs-in-the-united-states
#3
H C Bergeron, P S Glas, K R Schumann
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs that has the potential to cause mortality nearing 100% in naïve animals. While an outbreak of ASF in the United States' pig population (domestic and feral) has never been reported, an introduction of the disease has the potential to cause devastation to the pork industry and food security. During the recovery phase of an outbreak, an antibody detection diagnostic assay would be required to prove freedom of disease within the previously infected zone and eventually nationwide...
September 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921806/a-large-area-spatially-continuous-assessment-of-land-cover-map-error-and-its-impact-on-downstream-analyses
#4
Lyndon Estes, Peng Chen, Stephanie Debats, Tom Evans, Stefanus Ferreira, Tobias Kuemmerle, Gabrielle Ragazzo, Justin Sheffield, Adam Wolf, Eric Wood, Kelly Caylor
Land cover maps increasingly underlie research into socioeconomic and environmental patterns and processes, including global change. It is known that map errors impact our understanding of these phenomena, but quantifying these impacts is difficult because many areas lack adequate reference data. We used a highly accurate, high-resolution map of South African cropland to assess 1) the magnitude of error in several current generation land cover maps, and 2) how these errors propagate in downstream studies. We first quantified pixel-wise errors in the cropland classes of four widely used land cover maps at resolutions ranging from 1 to 100 km, then calculated errors in several representative "downstream" (map-based) analyses, including assessments of vegetative carbon stocks, evapotranspiration, crop production, and household food security...
September 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#5
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#6
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917170/how-do-climatic-and-management-factors-affect-agricultural-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-in-the-agro-pastoral-transitional-zone-of-northern-china
#7
Jianmin Qiao, Deyong Yu, Jianguo Wu
Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916095/review-novel-sensing-strategies-for-bacterial-detection-based-on-active-and-passive-methods-driven-by-external-field
#8
REVIEW
Shiho Tokonami, Takuya Iida
For sustainable human life, biosensing systems for contaminants or disease-causing bacteria are crucial for food security, environmental improvement, and disease prevention. With an aim of enhancing the sensitivity and detection speed, many researchers have developed efficient detection methods for target bacteria. In this review, we discuss recent topics related to active and passive bacterial detection methods, including (1) optical approaches with unique functional nano- and micro-structures, and (2) electrical approaches involving mechanical modulation and electrochemical reactions...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915461/forecasting-wheat-and-barley-crop-production-in-arid-and-semi-arid-regions-using-remotely-sensed-primary-productivity-and-crop-phenology-a-case-study-in-iraq
#9
Sarchil Hama Qader, Jadunandan Dash, Peter M Atkinson
Crop production and yield estimation using remotely sensed data have been studied widely, but such information is generally scarce in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, inter-annual variation in climatic factors (such as rainfall) combined with anthropogenic factors (such as civil war) pose major risks to food security. Thus, an operational crop production estimation and forecasting system is required to help decision-makers to make early estimates of potential food availability. Data from NASA's MODIS with official crop statistics were combined to develop an empirical regression-based model to forecast winter wheat and barley production in Iraq...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#10
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913791/enabling-molecular-technologies-for-trait-improvement-in-wheat
#11
Prem L Bhalla, Akanksha Sharma, Mohan B Singh
Wheat is the major staple food crop and a source of calories for humans worldwide. A steady increase in the wheat production is essential to meet the demands of an ever-increasing global population and to achieve food security. The large size and structurally intricate genome of polyploid wheat had hindered the genomic analysis. However, with the advent of new genomic technologies such as next generation sequencing has led to genome drafts for bread wheat and its progenitors and has paved the way to design new strategies for crop improvement...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910716/understanding-sustained-use-of-ecological-sanitation-in-rural-burkina-faso
#12
Sarah Dickin, Linus Dagerskog, Alejandro Jiménez, Kim Andersson, Karim Savadogo
Access to safe sanitation services is fundamental for healthy and productive lives, but in rural Burkina Faso only around 7% of the population uses improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) systems that allow safe agricultural reuse of nutrients in human waste have been promoted in these areas, as a way to meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. However, little is known about the success of these interventions in terms of both sustained use of the toilet and safe excreta reuse practices...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910256/an-introduction-to-the-healthy-corner-store-intervention-model-in-canada
#13
Catherine L Mah, Leia M Minaker, Kristie Jameson, Lissie Rappaport, Krystal Taylor, Marketa Graham, Natalie Moody, Brian Cook
SETTING: The majority of Canadians' food acquisition occurs in retail stores. Retail science has become increasingly sophisticated in demonstrating how consumer environments influence population-level diet quality and health status. The retail food environment literature is new but growing rapidly in Canada, and there is a relative paucity of evidence from intervention research implemented in Canada. INTERVENTION: The healthy corner store model is a comprehensive complex population health intervention in small retail stores, intended to transform an existing business model to a health-promoting one through intersectoral collaboration...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906569/prevalence-and-socio-demographic-predictors-of-food-insecurity-among-regional-and-remote-western-australian-children
#14
Stephanie Godrich, Johnny Lo, Christina Davies, Jill Darby, Amanda Devine
OBJECTIVE: Inequities can negatively impact the health outcomes of children. The aims of this study were to: i) ascertain the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children; and ii) determine which socio-demographic factors predicted child FI. METHODS: Caregiver-child dyads (n=219) completed cross-sectional surveys. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS version 23. RESULTS: Overall, 20...
September 14, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905461/assessment-of-ecosystem-resilience-to-hydroclimatic-disturbances-in-india
#15
Ashutosh Sharma, Manish Kumar Goyal
Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in hydroclimatic disturbances like droughts, which are anticipated to become more frequent and intense under global warming and climate change. Droughts adversely affect the vegetation growth and crop yield, which enhances the risks to food security for a country like India with over 1.2 billion people to feed. Here, we compared the response of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) to hydroclimatic disturbances in India at different scales (i.e., at river basins, land covers, and climate types) to examine the ecosystems' resilience to such adverse conditions...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904119/metrics-for-identifying-food-security-status-and-the-population-with-potential-to-benefit-from-nutrition-interventions-in-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#16
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Neff Walker, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted.Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904113/complementary-feeding-interventions-have-a-small-but-significant-impact-on-linear-and-ponderal-growth-of-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Anita Panjwani, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children <5 y old. Less is known about the potential of these interventions to prevent wasting.Objective: The aim of this article was to review and synthesize the current literature for the impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903614/context-specific-food-based-approach-for-ensuring-nutrition-security-in-developing-countries-a-review
#18
Jofrey Raymond, Neema Kassim, Jerman W Rose, Morris Agaba
Sustainable food strategies for meeting nutrient needs in developing countries are not well established. The available evidence shows that more than one-third of the world's population is facing under-nutrition, of which the most affected individuals are children and mothers from poor countries. In most developing countries, losses resulting from malnutrition are between 3 and 16% of the gross domestic product. This burden is far larger than the donor-driven and government programmes can tackle alone. As such, an innovative approach, which is independent and not donor-based, is needed to reduce the burden of malnutrition in low-income countries...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#19
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895008/spatial-downscaling-of-soil-prediction-models-based-on-weighted-generalized-additive-models-in-smallholder-farm-settings
#20
Yiming Xu, Scot E Smith, Sabine Grunwald, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Suhas P Wani, Vimala D Nair
Digital soil mapping (DSM) is gaining momentum as a technique to help smallholder farmers secure soil security and food security in developing regions. However, communications of the digital soil mapping information between diverse audiences become problematic due to the inconsistent scale of DSM information. Spatial downscaling can make use of accessible soil information at relatively coarse spatial resolution to provide valuable soil information at relatively fine spatial resolution. The objective of this research was to disaggregate the coarse spatial resolution soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) and soil total nitrogen (TN) base map into fine spatial resolution soil downscaled map using weighted generalized additive models (GAMs) in two smallholder villages in South India...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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