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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342369/added-sugar-consumption-and-chronic-oral-disease-burden-among-adolescents-in-brazil
#1
C D S Carmo, M R C Ribeiro, J X P Teixeira, C M C Alves, M M Franco, A K T C França, B B Benatti, J Cunha-Cruz, C C C Ribeiro
Chronic oral diseases are rarely studied together, especially with an emphasis on their common risk factors. This study examined the association of added sugar consumption on "chronic oral disease burden" among adolescents, with consideration of obesity and systemic inflammation pathways through structural equation modeling. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a complex random sample of adolescent students enrolled at public schools in São Luís, Brazil ( n = 405). The outcome was chronic oral disease burden, a latent variable based on the presence of probing depth ≥4 mm, bleeding on probing, caries, and clinical consequences of untreated caries...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337679/the-effects-of-physical-activity-on-chronic-subclinical-systemic-inflammation
#2
Alba Maria Dalbello Tir, Marina Labor, Davor Plavec
Chronic subclinical systemic inflammation (CSSI) is a pathogenic event and a common risk factor for many noncommunicable diseases like atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, cancer, and obstructive lung disease. On the other hand, regular physical activity has been found to reduce this risk. Many studies of different design were conducted to assess the association between inflammatory mediators as markers of CSSI and regular physical activity. The aim of this review was to present the current level of evidence and understanding of potential mechanisms by which physical activity reduces inflammatory mediators involved in CSSI and the types of physical activity required for the expected effect...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333149/a-summary-of-worldwide-national-activities-in-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-testing
#3
Roberto Ruiz-Arenas, Rosa Sierra-Amor, David Seccombe, Stella Raymondo, Maria Stella Graziani, Mauro Panteghini, Tewogbade A Adedeji, Shanthi Naidu Kamatham, Vanja Radišić Biljak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue worldwide and is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In a cash limited healthcare system, guidelines that improve the efficiency of health care free up resources needed for other healthcare services. This short review presents some examples from national acitivities in CKD testing, including countries throughout the globe: Mexico in North America, Uruguay in South America, Italy in Europe, Nigeria in Africa and India in Asia...
December 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328870/agent-based-modeling-in-public-health-current-applications-and-future-directions
#4
Melissa Tracy, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes
Agent-based modeling is a computational approach in which agents with a specified set of characteristics interact with each other and with their environment according to predefined rules. We review key areas in public health where agent-based modeling has been adopted, including both communicable and noncommunicable disease, health behaviors, and social epidemiology. Wealso describe the main strengths and limitations of this approach for questions with public health relevance. Finally, we describe both methodologic and substantive future directions that we believe will enhance the value of agent-based modeling for public health...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322622/ten-years-of-clinical-trial-registration-in-a-resource-limited-setting-experience-of-the-sri-lanka-clinical-trials-registry
#5
Udaya K Ranawaka, Ashwini de Abrew, Manu Wimalachandra, Nithushi Samaranayake, Colvin Goonaratna
AIM: We describe our experience of the first 10 years at the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR). METHODS: We analyzed all trial records of the SLCTR over the study period. We collected information regarding trial characteristics and completeness of data entry in the SLCTR data set. RESULTS: During the study period, 210 trials (63% of all applications) were registered with the SLCTR. The number of registered trials showed an increasing trend over the years...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318924/how-to-live-a-good-life-aging-and-hiv-testing-in-rural-south-africa
#6
Enid Schatz, Brian Houle, Sanyu A Mojola, Nicole Angotti, Jill Williams
OBJECTIVE: The African HIV epidemic is aging, yet HIV testing behavior studies either exclude older persons or include too few to say much about age differences. METHOD: Strategically combining focus group interviews (participants in 40s/50s/60s-plus age groups) and survey data from rural South Africa (where HIV prevalence peaks in the late 30s, but continues to be over 10% into the late 60s), we examine gender and life course variation, motivations, and barriers in HIV testing...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302534/exercise-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-facilitators-and-barriers-a-qualitative-study
#7
T S Advika, Jyothi Idiculla, S Jaya Kumari
Introduction: Diabetes is a major noncommunicable disease affecting more than 65 million Indians. Although treatment algorithms suggest lifestyle measures (diet and exercise) along with medications data regarding adherence to exercise as well as facilitators and barriers to the practice of physical activity in such patients are limited. Hence, this qualitative study was conducted. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the factors which (1) Facilitated and (2) hindered the practice of regular exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300982/gender-and-schooling-inequalities-in-risk-and-protective-factors-for-chronic-diseases-among-brazilian-adults
#8
Carla C Enes, Luciana B Nucci
Background: There is consistent evidence showing that low socioeconomic level, both at the individual and contextual levels, is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality due to noncommunicable diseases. Objective: To identify gender and schooling inequalities in the distribution of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases among Brazilian adults. Methods: This study included data from 97 468 individuals interviewed in 2012 and 2013 from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290444/milk-from-cows-fed-a-diet-with-a-high-forage-concentrate-ratio-improves-inflammatory-state-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#9
Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Nadia Musco, Federico Infascelli, Chiara De Filippo, Vincenzo Mastellone, Valeria Maria Morittu, Pietro Lombardi, Raffaella Tudisco, Micaela Grossi, Vincenzo Monda, Monica I Cutrignelli, Antonietta Messina, Serena Calabrò, Heleena B Moni, Luigi Stradella, Giovanni Messina, Marcellino Monda, Marianna Crispino, Maria Pina Mollica
Excessive energy intake may evoke complex biochemical processes characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial function that represent the main factors underlying noncommunicable diseases. Because cow milk is widely used for human nutrition and in food industry processing, the nutritional quality of milk is of special interest with respect to human health. In our study, we analyzed milk produced by dairy cows fed a diet characterized by a high forage:concentrate ratio (high forage milk, HFM)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289903/intracerebroventricular-administration-of-cigarette-smoke-condensate-induced-generalized-seizures-reduced-by-muscarinic-receptor-antagonist-in-rats
#10
Jawad Laadraoui, Kenza Bezza, Zineb El Gabbas, Fatimazahra Marhoume, El Mehdi Wakrim, Hind Ferehan, Rachida Aboufatima, Zahra Sokar, Najib Kissani, Abderrahman Chait
Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for early death caused by noncommunicable diseases. Currently, there are more than one billion tobacco smokers in the world predisposed to many diseases including heart attack, stroke, cancer, and premature birth or birth defects related to the consumption of cigarettes. However, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient and not well documented. In the present study, the authors examined the convulsive effects of the intracerebroventricular administration of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, 2μl/Rat) in rats and compared it with the intensity of seizures in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model of epilepsy...
December 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278043/physical-environment-correlates-of-physical-activity-in-developing-countries-a-review
#11
Kristen Day
BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are considered problems of wealthy, developed countries. These conditions are rising dramatically in developing countries. Most existing research on the role of the physical environment to support physical activity examines developed countries only. OBJECTIVES: This review identifies physical environment factors that are associated with physical activity in developing countries. METHODS: This review is modeled on a highly cited review by Saelens and Handy in 2008...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262289/excess-clinical-comorbidity-among-hiv-infected-patients-accessing-primary-care-in-us-community-health-centers
#12
Kenneth H Mayer, Stephanie Loo, Phillip M Crawford, Heidi M Crane, Michael Leo, Paul DenOuden, Magda Houlberg, Mark Schmidt, Thu Quach, Sebastian Ruhs, Meredith Vandermeer, Chris Grasso, Mary Ann McBurnie
OBJECTIVES: As the life expectancy of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has increased, the spectrum of illness has evolved. We evaluated whether people living with HIV accessing primary care in US community health centers had higher morbidity compared with HIV-uninfected patients receiving care at the same sites. METHODS: We compared data from electronic health records for 12 837 HIV-infected and 227 012 HIV-uninfected patients to evaluate the relative prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and malignancies by HIV serostatus...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251606/issues-in-access-to-end-of-life-care-in-low-resource-areas
#13
Yogesh Jain, Gajanan Phutke
Even though 1% of people require palliative and end-of-life care in low-resource situations, it remains an uncharted arena. Yet it is as important as curative care to alleviate suffering. Palliative care is not only a need in cancer and HIV disease; but is needed in a diverse group of illnesses ranging from tuberculosis, renal failures, paraplegia to chronic lung diseases. In a lower resource setting, the gaps in palliation may be the need for more technology and interventions or more healthcare professionals...
October 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244111/serum-albumin-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-serious-non-aids-endpoints-in-the-strategic-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-start-study
#14
Andreas Ronit, Shweta Sharma, Jason V Baker, Rosie Mngqibisa, Tristan Delory, Luis Caldeira, Nicaise Ndembi, Jens D Lundgren, Andrew N Phillips
Background: Serum albumin may be used to stratify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with high CD4 count according to their risk of serious non-AIDS endpoints. Methods: Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the risk of serious non-AIDS events in the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) study (NCT00867048) with serum albumin as a fixed and time-updated predictor. Models with exclusion of events during initial follow-up years were built to assess the ability of serum albumin to predict beyond shorter periods of time...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239470/nutritional-knowledge-and-body-mass-index-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Julia Luzzi Valmórbida, Maíra Ribas Goulart, Fernanda Michielin Busnello, Lúcia Campos Pellanda
OBJECTIVE: To verify the knowledge about food and nutrition and its association with the nutritional status of obese patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and to identify the relationship between information sources and level of knowledge. METHOD: Cross-sectional study that included 263 outpatients of a cardiology referral hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants filled out a questionnaire on socioeconomic data and knowledge about food and nutrition and had their nutritional status evaluated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#16
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238497/the-role-of-anxiety-and-depression-on-acceptance-and-action-considering-emotional-schemas-in-diabetics-of-birjand-iran
#17
Elham Imani, Fatemeh Shahabizadeh, Alireza Mahmoodirad
Background: Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases around the world that accompanies assorted psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression due to being chronic. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anxiety and depression on acceptance and action, considering emotional schemas of diabetics referring to diabetes clinics of health centers in Birjand, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016 and was a correlational study with a structural equation modeling approach...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237278/book-review-textbook-of-noncommunicable-diseases-the-health-challenge-of-21st-century-narain-jp-kumar-r-eds-textbook-of-noncommunicable-diseases-the-health-challenge-of-21st-century-new-delhi-india-jaypee-2015-isbn-978-93-5250-043-7
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234483/the-influence-of-emerging-markets-on-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#19
REVIEW
Maya Tannoury, Zouhair Attieh
Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234181/urban-rural-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-self-reported-diabetes-and-its-risk-factors-the-who-steps-iranian-noncommunicable-disease-risk-factor-surveillance-in-2011
#20
Zahra Khorrami, Shahin Yarahmadi, Koorosh Etemad, Soheila Khodakarim, Mohammad Esmaeil Kameli, Ali Reza Mahdavi Hazaveh
The high prevalence of diabetes in Iran and other developing countries is chiefly attributed to urbanization. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and to determine its associated risk factors. This study is a part of the national noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance, conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2011. First, 10069 individuals, between 20 and 70 years old (3036 individuals from rural and 7033 from urban areas), were recruited. The major risk factors were studied using a modified WHO STEPS approach...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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