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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642692/beyond-neuronal-activity-markers-select-immediate-early-genes-in-striatal-neuron-subtypes-functionally-mediate-psychostimulant-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo
Immediate early genes (IEGs) were traditionally used as markers of neuronal activity in striatum in response to stimuli including drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants. Early studies using these neuronal activity markers led to important insights in striatal neuron subtype responsiveness to psychostimulants. Such studies have helped identify striatum as a critical brain center for motivational, reinforcement and habitual behaviors in psychostimulant addiction. While the use of IEGs as neuronal activity markers in response to psychostimulants and other stimuli persists today, the functional role and implications of these IEGs has often been neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642282/kappa-opioid-receptors-mediate-heterosynaptic-suppression-of-hippocampal-inputs-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum
#2
Julie Brooks, Patricio O'Donnell
Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are highly enriched within the ventral striatum (VS) and are thought to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This includes presynaptic inhibition of local glutamatergic release from excitatory inputs to the VS. However, it is not known which inputs drive this modulation and what impact they have on the local circuit dynamics within the VS. Individual medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the VS serve as a site of convergence for glutamatergic inputs arising from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and limbic regions, such as the hippocampus (HP)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638318/maturation-behavioral-activation-and-connectivity-of-adult-born-medium-spiny-neurons-in-a-striatal-song-nucleus
#3
Jennifer Kosubek-Langer, Lydia Schulze, Constance Scharff
Neurogenesis continues in the adult songbird brain. Many telencephalic song control regions incorporate new neurons into their existing circuits in adulthood. One song nucleus that receives many new neurons is Area X. Because this striatal region is crucial for song learning and song maintenance the recruitment of new neurons into Area X could influence these processes. As an entry point into addressing this possibility, we investigated the maturation and connectivity within the song circuit and behavioral activation of newly generated Area X neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623807/hiv-tat-excites-d1-receptor-like-expressing-neurons-from-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#4
G Cristina Brailoiu, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Linda M Console-Bram, Alexandra M Ciuciu, Mary E Abood, Ellen M Unterwald, Eugen Brailoiu
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection and drug abuse are frequently co-morbid and their association greatly increases the severity of HIV-1-induced neuropathology. While nucleus accumbens (NAcc) function is severely perturbed by drugs of abuse, little is known about how HIV-1 infection affects NAcc. METHODS: We used calcium and voltage imaging to investigate the effect of HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) on rat NAcc. Based on previous neuronal studies, we hypothesized that Tat modulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis of NAcc neurons...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607946/it-s-only-a-matter-of-time-longevity-of-cocaine-induced-changes-in-dendritic-spine-density-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#5
Ethan M Anderson, David W Self
Many reports show that repeated cocaine administration increases dendritic spine density in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens, but there is less agreement regarding the persistence of these changes. In this review we examine these discrepancies by systematically categorizing papers that measured cocaine-induced changes in accumbal spine density. We compare published reports based on withdrawal time, short versus long duration of cocaine administration, environmental pairing with cocaine, and core/shell subregion specificity...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603486/comparison-of-sirtuin-3-levels-in-als-and-huntington-s-disease-differential-effects-in-human-tissue-samples-vs-transgenic-mouse-models
#6
Eva Buck, Hanna Bayer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Johannes Hanselmann, Noemi Pasquarelli, Albert C Ludolph, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington's disease (HD) medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593442/remodeling-of-heterochromatin-structure-slows-neuropathological-progression-and-prolongs-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#7
Junghee Lee, Yu Jin Hwang, Yunha Kim, Min Young Lee, Seung Jae Hyeon, Soojin Lee, Dong Hyun Kim, Sung Jae Jang, Hyoenjoo Im, Sun-Joon Min, Hyunah Choo, Ae Nim Pae, Dong Jin Kim, Kyung Sang Cho, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant inherited neurological disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Altered histone modifications and epigenetic mechanisms are closely associated with HD suggesting that transcriptional repression may play a pathogenic role. Epigenetic compounds have significant therapeutic effects in cellular and animal models of HD, but they have not been successful in clinical trials. Herein, we report that dSETDB1/ESET, a histone methyltransferase (HMT), is a mediator of mutant HTT-induced degeneration in a fly HD model...
June 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590448/striatal-vulnerability-in-huntington-s-disease-neuroprotection-versus-neurotoxicity
#8
REVIEW
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding an abnormally long polyglutamine tract (PolyQ) in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. In HD, striking neuropathological changes occur in the striatum, including loss of medium spiny neurons and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons accompanied by neurodegeneration of the striosome and matrix compartments, leading to progressive impairment of reasoning, walking and speaking abilities...
June 7, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589967/in-vivo-fiber-photometry-reveals-signature-of-future-stress-susceptibility-in-nucleus-accumbens
#9
Jessie Muir, Zachary S Lorsch, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Erin S Calipari, Rosemary C Bagot
Recognizing why chronic stress causes only a subset of individuals to become depressed is critical to understanding depression on a basic level and, also to developing treatments that increase resilience. Stress-induced alterations in the activity of reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are linked to the pathophysiology of depression. However, it has been difficult to determine if differences in stress susceptibility are pre-existing or merely an effect of chronic stress. The NAc consists largely of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), distinguished by their predominant expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577753/cocaine-induced-chromatin-modifications-associate-with-increased-expression-and-three-dimensional-looping-of-auts2
#10
Olivia Engmann, Benoit Labonté, Amanda Mitchell, Pavel Bashtrykov, Erin S Calipari, Chaggai Rosenbluh, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Deena M Walker, Dominika Burek, Peter J Hamilton, Orna Issler, Rachael L Neve, Gustavo Turecki, Yasmin Hurd, Andrew Chess, Li Shen, Isabelle Mansuy, Albert Jeltsch, Schahram Akbarian, Eric J Nestler
BACKGROUND: Exposure to drugs of abuse alters the epigenetic landscape of the brain's reward regions, such as the nucleus accumbens. We investigated how combinations of chromatin modifications affect genes that regulate responses to cocaine. We focused on Auts2, a gene linked to human evolution and cognitive disorders, which displays strong clustering of cocaine-induced chromatin modifications in this brain region. METHODS: We combined chromosome conformation capture, circularized chromosome conformation capture, and related approaches with behavioral paradigms relevant to cocaine phenotypes...
May 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576941/reduced-slc6a15-in-nucleus-accumbens-d2-neurons-underlies-stress-susceptibility
#11
Ramesh Chandra, T Chase Francis, Hyungwoo Nam, Lace M Riggs, Michel Engeln, Sarah Rudzinskas, Prasad Konkalmatt, Scott J Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Sergio Iniguez, Mary Kay Lobo
Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, NAc) in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine-receptor-2 (D2)-neuron enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576726/nicotine-induced-and-d1-receptor-dependent-dendritic-remodeling-in-a-subset-of-dorsolateral-striatum-medium-spiny-neurons
#12
Daniel G Ehlinger, Julian C Burke, Craig G McDonald, Robert F Smith, Hadley C Bergstrom
Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, targeting multiple memory systems, including the ventral and dorsal striatum. One form of neuroplasticity commonly associated with nicotine is dendrite remodeling. Nicotine-induced dendritic remodeling of ventral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is well-documented. Whether MSN dendrites in the dorsal striatum undergo a similar pattern of nicotine-induced structural remodeling is unknown. A morphometric analysis of Golgi-stained MSNs in rat revealed a natural asymmetry in dendritic morphology across the mediolateral axis, with larger, more complex MSNs found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555077/the-dendritic-spine-morphogenic-effects-of-repeated-cocaine-use-occur-through-the-regulation-of-serum-response-factor-signaling
#13
M E Cahill, D M Walker, A M Gancarz, Z J Wang, C K Lardner, R C Bagot, R L Neve, D M Dietz, E J Nestler
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a primary brain reward region composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In response to early withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration, de novo dendritic spine formation occurs in NAc MSNs. Much evidence indicates that this new spine formation facilitates the rewarding properties of cocaine. Early withdrawal from repeated cocaine also produces dramatic alterations in the transcriptome of NAc MSNs, but how such alterations influence cocaine's effects on dendritic spine formation remain unclear...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552232/pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-transplantation-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
Meng Li, Anne E Rosser
Pluripotent stem cells present a potentially unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine, providing that they can be efficiently and accurately differentiated to the target cell type. The principle target cell for Huntington's disease is the striatal medium spiny neuron. In this chapter, we review strategies for directing medium spiny neuron differentiation, based on known developmental principles, and we discuss the remaining hurdles on the road to engineering such cells for therapeutic application in Huntington's disease...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#15
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531297/mechanisms-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-potentiation-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-function-in-quinpirole-induced-locomotor-sensitization-in-rats
#16
Angélica P Escobar, Marcela P González, Rodrigo C Meza, Verónica Noches, Pablo Henny, Katia Gysling, Rodrigo A España, José A Fuentealba, María E Andrés
Background: Increased locomotor activity in response to the same stimulus is an index of behavioral sensitization observed in preclinical models of drug addiction and compulsive behaviors. Repeated administration of Quinpirole (QNP), a D2/D3 dopamine agonist, induces locomotor sensitization. This effect is potentiated and accelerated by co-administration of U69593, a kappa opioid receptor agonist (KOR). The mechanism underlying KOR potentiation of QNP-induced locomotor sensitization remains to be elucidated...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#17
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
Alcohol abuse causes major social, economic and health-related problems worldwide. Alcohol, like other drugs of abuse, increases levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, facilitating behavioural reinforcement and substance abuse. Previous studies suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. Here, we investigated the presence of GlyRs in accumbal dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of C57BL/6J mice, analyzing mRNA expression-levels and immunoreactivity of GlyR subunits, as well as ethanol sensitivity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#18
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497110/accumbal-cholinergic-interneurons-differentially-influence-motivation-related-to-satiety-signaling
#19
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Benjamin U Phillips, Elpiniki Pappa, Y Audrey Hay, Fiona Harnischfeger, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Tim J Bussey, John Apergis-Schoute
Satiety, rather than all or none, can instead be viewed as a cumulative decrease in the drive to eat that develops over the course of a meal. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a critical role in this type of value reappraisal, but the underlying circuits that influence such processes are unclear. Although NAc cholinergic interneurons (CINs) comprise only a small proportion of NAc neurons, their local impact on reward-based processes provides a candidate cell population for investigating the neural underpinnings of satiety...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487497/the-involvement-of-darpp-32-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Mohd Farhan, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia based on neurochemical evidences of elevated brain striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release in response to stress. Dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of relative molecular mass 32,000 (DARPP-32) is a cytosolic protein highly enriched in the medium spiny neurons of the neostriatum, considered as the most important integrator between the cortical input and the basal ganglia, and associated with motor control...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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