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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472527/hints-on-atgl-implications-in-cancer-beyond-bioenergetic-clues
#1
REVIEW
Rolando Vegliante, Luca Di Leo, Fabio Ciccarone, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
Among metabolic rearrangements occurring in cancer cells, lipid metabolism alteration has become a hallmark, aimed at sustaining accelerated proliferation. In particular, fatty acids (FAs) are dramatically required by cancer cells as signalling molecules and membrane building blocks, beyond bioenergetics. Along with de novo biosynthesis, free FAs derive from dietary sources or from intracellular lipid droplets, which represent the storage of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis, catalysing the first step of intracellular TAGs hydrolysis in several tissues...
February 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470986/silencing-of-lncrna-hotair-decreases-drug-resistance-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-inactivating-autophagy-via-suppressing-the-phosphorylation-of-ulk1
#2
Yan Yang, Caiyu Jiang, Yang Yang, Lu Guo, Jiang Huang, Xingren Liu, Chi Wu, Jun Zou
Drug resistance is an important factor leading to the recurrence and metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play important roles in drug resistance of tumor cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of LncRNA-HOTAIR in regulating drug resistance of NSCLC cells. Our data indicated that HOTAIR was overexpressed in NSCLC cell lines. Silencing of HOTAIR decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of NSCLC cells (A549). Besides that, HOTAIR shRNA transfection suppressed drug resistance of A549 cells to Crizotinib by more effectively inhibiting cell viability and promoting apoptosis compared with HOTAIR scramble group...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468481/licarin-a-induces-cell-death-by-activation-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Uma Maheswari, Krishna Ghosh, Sudha Rani Sadras
Lung cancer has a relatively poor prognosis with a low survival rate and drugs that target other cell death mechanism like autophagy may help improving current therapeutic strategy. This study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Licarin A (LCA) from Myristica fragrans in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines-A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H520 and NCI-H460. LCA inhibited proliferation of all the four cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner with minimum IC50 of 20.03 ± 3.12, 22.19 ± 1.37 µM in NCI-H23 and A549 cells respectively...
February 21, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466698/erk1-2-mtor-stat3-pathway-mediated-autophagy-alleviates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-acute-lung-injury
#4
Xiupeng Xu, Tongle Zhi, Zhongyuan Bao, Kuan Jiang, Yinlong Liu, Honglu Chao, Liang Fan, Dong Wang, Zheng Li, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of several complications in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autophagy is a primary homeostatic process that promotes cell survival under stress. Accumulating evidence implicates autophagy in the pathogenesis of ALI under various conditions. However, the role of autophagy in TBI-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to adjust autophagy with pharmacological agents to determine its functional significance in TBI-induced ALI. Rats were preconditioned with autophagy promoter rapamycin or inhibitor 3-methyladenine before they were challenged with TBI...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463101/autophagy-a-lysosome-dependent-process-with-implications-in-cellular-redox-homeostasis-and-human-disease
#5
Stefan W Ryter, Divya Bhatia, Mary E Choi
SIGNIFICANCE: Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent homeostatic process inherent to cells and tissues, has emerging significance in the pathogenesis of human disease. This process enables the degradation and turnover of cytoplasmic substrates via membrane-dependent sequestration in autophagic vesicles (autophagosomes) and subsequent lysosomal delivery of cargo. Recent Advances: Selective forms of autophagy can target specific substrates (e.g., organelles, protein aggregates, lipids) for processing...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454863/potentially-functional-variants-of-atg16l2-predict-radiation-pneumonitis-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-definitive-radiotherapy
#6
Juyi Wen, Hongliang Liu, Lili Wang, Xiaomeng Wang, Ning Gu, Zhensheng Liu, Ting Xu, Daniel R Gomez, Ritsuko Komaki, Zhongxing Liao, Qingyi Wei
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy not only plays an important role in the progression of cancer but also is involved in tissue inflammatory response. However, few published studies have investigated associations between functional genetic variants of autophagy-related genes and radiation pneumonitis (RP) as well as clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after definitive radiotherapy. METHODS: We genotyped nine potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four autophagy-related genes (ATG2B, ATG10, ATG12 and ATG16L2) in 393 North American NSCLC patients treated by definitive radiotherapy and assessed their associations with RP, local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453279/il-12-il-18-cosignaling-in-human-macrophages-and-lung-epithelial-cells-activates-cathelicidin-and-autophagy-inhibiting-intracellular-mycobacterial-growth
#7
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449540/s100a4-promotes-lung-tumor-development-through-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-mediated-autophagy-inhibition
#8
Shasha Hou, Tian Tian, Dianwen Qi, Kaiji Sun, Qi Yuan, Ziling Wang, Zhihai Qin, Zhenlong Wu, Zhinan Chen, Jinhua Zhang
Autophagy has emerged as a critical pathway in tumor development. S100A4 plays important roles in tumor metastasis, but its role in regulating autophagy has not been well characterized. In this study, we found that S100A4 was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Clinical investigation demonstrated that high expression level of S100A4 was associated with tumor size and advanced tumor grades of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Moreover, our results revealed that extracellular S100A4 or overexpression of S100A4 inhibited starvation-induced autophagy and promoted cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro; whereas small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of S100A4 increased autophagy and reduced cell viability in both A549 and LLC cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442720/ceria-oxide-nanoparticles-an-ideal-carrier-given-little-stress-to-cells-and-rats
#9
Tongwang Yang, Tao Wu, Liping Lv, Zhiqiang Zhang, Dongjie Liu, Jianji Xu, Dexi Chen, Gang Wu
Nanoparticles were used as ideal carrier for its passive and active targeting property. Unfortunately, many of them were failed for its biotoxicology. Thus, find a safe and targeted drug delivery was the new goal of pharmaceutical industries. Here, A549 and H1299 cells were exposed to ceria oxide nanoparticles, silicon oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h to induce autophagy and late apoptosis. Rats were exposed to ceria oxide nanoparticles (20 mg/kg · bw) for 1, 7, 14 or 28 days to induce lung injury and cytokines change...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440631/inhibition-of-kras-dependent-lung-cancer-cell-growth-by-deltarasin-blockage-of-autophagy-increases-its-cytotoxicity
#10
Elaine Lai Han Leung, Lian Xiang Luo, Zhong Qiu Liu, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Lin Lin Lu, Ying Xie, Ni Zhang, Yuan Qing Qu, Xing Xing Fan, Ying Li, Min Huang, Dai Kai Xiao, Jun Huang, Yan Ling Zhou, Jian Xing He, Jian Ding, Xiao Jun Yao, David C Ward, Liang Liu
Deltarasin is a recently identified small molecule that can inhibit KRAS-PDEδ interactions by binding to a hydrophobic pocket on PDEδ, resulting in the impairment of cell growth, KRAS activity, and RAS/RAF signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Since KRAS mutations are the most common oncogene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, implicated in over 30% of all lung cancer cases, we examined the ability of deltarasin to inhibit KRAS-dependent lung cancer cell growth. Here, for the first time, we document that deltarasin produces both apoptosis and autophagy in KRAS-dependent lung cancer cells in vitro and inhibits lung tumor growth in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439314/effects-of-malat1-on-proliferation-and-apo-ptosis-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a549-cells-in-vitro-and-tumor-xenograft-growth-in-vivo-by-modulating-autophagy
#11
Jun Ma, Kaiming Wu, Kuanzhi Liu, Rong Miao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the ability of MALAT1 to influence non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo by modulating autophagy. METHODS: LncRNA MALAT-1 in normal HBE cells and human NSCLC cells was measured. A549 cells were treated with si-MALAT-1, negative control and si-MALAT-1 + rapamycin. The mRNA levels of MALAT-1, P62 and LC3 was determined by the qRT-PCR and the protein levels of autophagy-related proteins by the western blotting...
January 29, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436654/tetrahydrocurcumin%C3%A2-induced-autophagy-via-suppression-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-in-non%C3%A2-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-cells
#12
Guoqiang Song, Honghui Lu, Fei Chen, Youmei Wang, Weibin Fan, Weifang Shao, Huoquan Lu, Bin Lin
Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of mortality due to cancer worldwide. Autophagy has a significant role in the development and progression of non‑small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). A previous study has revealed that tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a traditional Chinese medicine isolated from Curcuma wenyujin (Chen & Ling, 1981), induces autophagy in human A549 NSCLC cells. The present study evaluated THC‑induced autophagy in A549 cells using various assays, including the Cell Counting Kit‑8, acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR), and western blot analysis of the markers of autophagy...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435112/lncrna-malat1-regulates-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-via-activation-of-autophagy
#13
Tie-Feng Song, Li-Wen Huang, Ying Yuan, Hui-Qin Wang, Hong-Peng He, Wen-Jian Ma, Li-Hong Huo, Hao Zhou, Nan Wang, Tong-Cun Zhang
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), switching from a differentiated to a proliferative phenotype, contribute to various vascular diseases. However, the role of long noncoding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 MALAT1 in the phenotype switching of VSMCs remains unclear. Here, we report that the knockdown of MALAT1 promotes the transformation of smooth muscle cells from a proliferative phenotype to a differentiated phenotype. MALAT1 knockdown inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, leading to significant cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433677/a-hybrid-of-coumarin-and-phenylsulfonylfuroxan-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-and-cytoprotective-autophagy-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#14
Qian Wang, Yalan Guo, Shanshan Jiang, Mengxue Dong, Kudelaidi Kuerban, Jiyang Li, Meiqing Feng, Ying Chen, Li Ye
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the most primary histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Compound 8b, a novel coumarin derivative with phenylsulfonylfuroxan group, shows significant antiproliferation activity against lung adenocarcinoma cell with low toxicity. PURPOSE: This study aims to uncover the potential of compound 8b in relation to apoptosis as well as autophagy induction in lung adenocarcinoma cells. STUDY DESIGN: The cytotoxicity and apoptosis of A549 and H1299 cells induced by compound 8b were detected by MTT, microscope and western blot analysis...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423112/ophiopogonin-b-sensitizes-trail-induced-apoptosis-through-activation-of-autophagy-flux-and-downregulates-cellular-flice-like-inhibitory-protein
#15
Uddin Md Nazim, Jae-Kyo Jeong, Sang-Youel Park
Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a type II transmembrane protein, belongs to the TNF superfamily. Compared to other family members, TRAIL is a promising anti-cancer agent that can selectively induce apoptosis of various types of transformed cells and xenografts, with negligible cytotoxicity against normal tissues. Ophiopogonin B is a bioactive ingredient of Radix Ophiopogon japonicus , which is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cancer. In this study, we report that Cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is the key determinant mediating TRAIL resistance in A549 cells and Ophiopogonin B downregulates c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activating autophagy flux...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416717/phosphorylated-heat-shock-protein-27-as-a-potential-biomarker-to-predict-the-role-of-chemotherapy-induced-autophagy-in-osteosarcoma-response-to-therapy
#16
Janice M Santiago-O'Farrill, Eugenie S Kleinerman, Mario G Hollomon, Andrew Livingston, Wei-Lien Wang, Jen-Wei Tsai, Nancy B Gordon
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is increased above homeostatic levels by chemotherapy, and this can either promote or inhibit tumor growth. We previously demonstrated that aerosol gemcitabine (GCB) has a therapeutic effect against osteosarcoma (OS) lung metastases. However, some tumor cells failed to respond to the treatment and persisted as isolated lung metastasis. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying the dual role of chemotherapy-induced autophagy in OS and sought to identify biomarkers to predict OS response to treatment...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409529/the-jak2-pathway-is-activated-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#17
Javier Milara, Gracia Hernandez, Beatriz Ballester, Anselm Morell, Inés Roger, P Montero, Juan Escrivá, José M Lloris, Maria Molina-Molina, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most rapidly progressive and fatal fibrotic disorder, with no curative therapies. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is activated in lung fibroblasts and alveolar type II cells (ATII), thereby contributing to lung fibrosis in IPF. Although activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) has been implicated in proliferative disorders, its role in IPF is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze JAK2 activation in IPF, and to determine whether JAK2/STAT3 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease...
February 6, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407486/antiviral-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-budesonide-against-human-rhinovirus-infection-mediated-via-autophagy-activation
#18
Seong-Ryeol Kim, Jae-Hyoung Song, Jae-Hee Ahn, Geun-Shik Lee, Huijeong Ahn, Sung-Il Yoon, Seung Goo Kang, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Sang-Min Jeon, Eun-Ji Choi, Sooyoung Shin, Younggil Cha, Sungchan Cho, Dong-Eun Kim, Sun-Young Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection causes more than 80% of all common colds and is associated with severe complications in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To identify antiviral drug against HRV infection, we screened 800 FDA-approved drugs and found budesonide as one of the possible drug candidates. Budesonide is a corticosteroid, which is commonly used to prevent exacerbation of asthma and symptoms of common cold. Budesonide specifically protects host cells from cytotoxicity following HRV infection, which depend on the expression of glucocorticoid receptor...
February 1, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405784/carvacrol-nanoemulsion-evokes-cell-cycle-arrest-apoptosis-induction-and-autophagy-inhibition-in-doxorubicin-resistant-a549-cell-line
#19
Imran Khan, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Monika Bhardwaj, Tejinder Pal Khaket, Sun Chul Kang
Carvacrol is a monoterpenoid flavonoid found abundantly in thyme plants. Its physiochemical instability and partial solubility in water is the principal limitation for its industrial use. Hence, we made a carvacrol nanoemulsion (CANE) using ultrasonication method and characterized it by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique which revealed a negative surface charge (-29.89 mV) with 99.1 nm average droplet size. CANE effectively induced apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant A549 lung carcinoma cells (A549 DR ) evident by the elevated expression of apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Cytochrome C, and Cleaved caspase 3 and 9...
February 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402743/formoxanthone-c-isolated-from-cratoxylum-formosum-ssp-pruniflorum-reverses-anticancer-drug-resistance-by-inducing-both-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Chutima Kaewpiboon, Nawong Boonnak, Sirichat Kaowinn, Young-Hwa Chung
Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy...
July 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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