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Autophagy lung

Jiaqi Yao, Chi Ma, Wei Gao, Jinxiao Liang, Chang Liu, Hongfang Yang, Qiu Yan, Qingping Wen
Cancer pain is the most common complication of lung carcinoma. Opioid agonist fentanyl is widely used for relieving pain in cancer patients, and cisplatin (DDP)‑based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of advanced lung cancer; these two drugs are always used together in lung carcinoma patients. However, the mechanisms and related biological pathways by which fentanyl influences cisplatin sensitivity are relatively poorly reported. Here, we found that fentanyl reduces the sensitivity of cisplatin in human lung cancer cells and induces autophagy...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xin-Shuang Yu, Juan Du, Yu-Jun Fan, Feng-Jun Liu, Li-Li Cao, Ning Liang, De-Guo Xu, Jian-Dong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) on autophagy, apoptosis and chemoresistance of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. RESULTS: The expressions of ERS-related proteins (PEAK, eIF2α and CHOP) up-regulated, autophagy-related proteins (LC3, LC3-II and Beclin1) and apoptosis-related proteins (Bax and procaspase-3) down-regulated in NCI-H446 and H69 cells after tunicamycin treatment for 24 h...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Piotr T Filipczak, Cynthia L Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A Belinsky
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multi-organ disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK-dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Research
G H Ji, Y Cui, H Yu, X B Cui
Lung cancer is one of the most malignant tumors worldwide with a high mortality rate, which has not been improved since several decades ago. FOX gene family members have been reported to play extensive roles in regulating many biological processes and disorders. In order to clarify the contribution of FOX gene family members in lung cancer biology, we performed expression profiling analysis of FOX gene family members from FOXA to FOXR in lung cancer cell lines and tissue specimens by Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Debora L Oliveira, Fernanda L Fonseca, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Leonardo Nimrichter, Jéssica Rodrigues, Marcos D Pereira, Julia Cv Reuwsaat, Augusto Schrank, Charley Staats, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein, Marcio L Rodrigues
AIM: We investigated the involvement of the autophagy protein 7 (Atg7) in physiology and pathogenic potential of Cryptococcus neoformans. MATERIALS & METHODS: The C. neoformans gene encoding Atg7 was deleted by biolistic transformation for characterization of autophagy mechanisms, pigment formation, cell dimensions, interaction with phagocytes and pathogenic potential in vivo. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: ATG7 deletion resulted in defective autophagy mechanisms, enhanced pigmentation and increased cellular size both in vitro and in vivo...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Nargis Khan, Susanta Pahari, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Mohammad Aqdas, Javed N Agrewala
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all infectious diseases. Failure of Bacillus Calmette Guerin as a vaccine and serious side-effects and toxicity due to long-term TB drug regime are the major hurdles associated with TB control. The problem is further compounded by the emergence of drug-resistance strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Consequently, it demands a serious attempt to explore safer and superior treatment approaches. Recently, an improved understanding of host-pathogen interaction has opened up new avenues for immunotherapy for treating TB...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Miles Sanderson, Julie Allen, Ruoxi Zeng, Augustine Choi, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state...
October 10, 2016: Autophagy
Yoo Hong Min, Wootae Kim, Ja-Eun Kim
Mitotic progression is crucial for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. A proper progression is ensured by the activities of multiple kinases. One of these enzymes, the serine/threonine kinase Aurora A, is required for proper mitosis through the regulation of centrosome and spindle assembly. In this study, we functionally characterized a newly developed Aurora kinase A inhibitor, TC-A2317. In human lung cancer cells, TC-A2317 slowed proliferation by causing aberrant formation of centrosome and microtubule spindles and prolonging the duration of mitosis...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Bin Sun, Lei Gao, Anil Ahsan, Peng Chu, Yanlin Song, Hailong Li, Zonghui Zhang, Yuan Lin, Jinyong Peng, Zhicheng Song, Shisheng Wang, Zeyao Tang
Oleanolic acid (OA) and its several derivatives possess various pharmacological activities, such as antitumor and anti-inflammation. In present study, anticancer effect of SZC015, an OA derivative, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. We demonstrated that cell viability was significantly decreased in SZC015-treated lung cancer cells, but has less cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cell line. Further investigation verified that apoptosis and autophagy induction and G0/G1 phase arrest were observed in SZC015-treated H322 cells...
September 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Kalliopi Domvri, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Doxakis Anestakis, Lutz Freitag, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wilfried Eberhardt
Chemoresistance is a major challenge in lung cancer treatment. Recent findings have revealed that autophagic mechanism contributes significantly to immunosuppressive related chemoresistance. For that reason, targeting autophagy-related immunosuppression is an important approach to reverse tumor drug resistance. In this study, we report for the first time that autophagy inhibition triggers upregulation of CD4(+), Foxp3(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in late metastatic lung cancer tissues. Furthermore, autophagy blockage induces chemosensitization to carboplatin, immune activation and cell cycle arrest...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Oncology
George A Margaritopoulos, Ismini Lasithiotaki, Katerina M Antoniou
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) include a number of diseases whose pathogenesis still is not fully understood. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most frequent and severe form of ILDs is an epithelial-driven disease and the treatment consists of the use of antifibrotic agents. In the rest of ILDs an inflammation-driven pathway is believed to be the main pathogenetic mechanism and treatment consists of the use of immunomodulatory agents. In both groups it is believed that infection can play an important role in the development and progression of the diseases...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yuh-Feng Lin, I-Jen Chiu, Fong-Yu Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Jan Wang, Yung-Ho Hsu, Hui-Wen Chiu
BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an increasing number of products, including rubber manufacture, cosmetics, pigments, food additives, medicine, chemical fibers and electronics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ZnO NP nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs in kidney cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found that ZnO NPs were apparently engulfed by the HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells and then induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
September 27, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Curtis A Clark, Harshita Gupta, Gangadhara R Sareddy, Srilakshmi Pandeswara, Shunhua Lao, Bin Yuan, Justin M Drerup, Alvaro Padron, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Kruthi Murthy, Yang Liu, Mary Jo Turk, Kathrin Thedieck, Vincent Hurez, Rong Li, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Tyler J Curiel
PD-L1 antibodies produce efficacious clinical responses in diverse human cancers, but the basis for their effects remains unclear, leaving a gap in understanding of how to rationally leverage the therapeutic activity. PD-L1 is widely expressed in tumor cells but its contributions to tumor pathogenicity are incompletely understood. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that PD-L1 exerts tumor cell-intrinsic signals that are critical for pathogenesis. Using RNAi methodology, we attenuated PD-L1 in the murine ovarian cell line ID8agg and the melanoma cell line B16 (termed PD-L1lo cells), which express basal PD-L1...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Research
Qicheng Zhang, Ke Xu
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is a group of targeted-drugs which effectively inhibits the growth of tumor cells with sensitive mutations in EGFR. However, the innate and acquired resistance are major obstacles of the efficiency. Autophagy is a highly conserved self-digesting process in cells, which is considered to be associated with cancer development andchemoresistance. The activation of EGFR may regulate autophagy through multiple signal pathways. EGFR-TKIs can induce autophagy, however, the function of the inducted autophagy remains biphasic...
September 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Vivek Kaushik, Juan Sebastian Yakisich, Neelam Azad, Yogesh Kulkarni, Rajkumar Venkatadri, Clayton Wright, Yon Rojanasakul, Anand Krishnan V Iyer
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. While several drugs have been developed that target individual biomarkers, their success has been limited due to intrinsic or acquired resistance for the specific targets of such drugs. A more effective approach is to target multiple pathways that dictate cancer progression. Cardiac glycosides demonstrate such multimodal effects on cancer cell survival, and our aim was to evaluate the effect of two naturally occurring monosaccaridic cardiac glycosides - Convallatoxin and Peruvoside on lung cancer cells...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
TianJun Chen, Hui Ren, Asmitanand Thakur, Tian Yang, Yang Li, Shuo Zhang, Ting Wang, MingWei Chen
Klotho is originally discovered as an anti-aging gene and recently identified as a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to affect the treatment of chemotherapy. In the present study, we explore the role of klotho on drug resistance in human lung cancers and investigate the mechanism of klotho on drug resistance in lung cancer cells. First, we detected a panel of six human lung cancer cell lines, including H460, SK-MES-1, cisplatin (DDP)-resistant A549/DDP, its parental subline A549, docetaxel (DTX)-resistant SPC-A-1/DTX, and SPC-A-1 by western blotting analysis...
September 23, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Malgorzata Kucinska, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Natalia Lisiak, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska, Walter H Granig, Martina Höferl, Walter Jäger, Martin Zehl, Marek Murias, Thomas Erker
Previously, it has been reported that molecules built on the benzanilide and thiobenzanilide scaffold are the promising groups of compounds with several biological activities including antifungal, antimycotic, antibacterial, spasmolytic, and anticancer ones. In this study the mechanism of action of one selected thiobenzanilide derivative N,N'-(1,2-phenylene)bis3,4,5-trifluorobenzothioamide (63T) with strongest cytotoxic activity has been investigated for the first time in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and normal lung derived fibroblast (CCD39Lu) in a cell culture model...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Lin Li, Huanmin Niu, Bin Sun, Yanan Xiao, Wei Li, Huiqing Yuan, Hongxiang Lou
Lysosomes are important targets for anticancer drug discovery. Our previous study showed that Riccardin D-N (RD-N), a natural macrocylic bisbibenzyl derivative produced by Mannich reaction, induced cell death by accumulating in lysosomes. Experiments were performed on human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue from left inferior lobar bronchus of patient xenografts and H460 cells. RD-N was administrated for 25days. The specimens of xenografts in Balb/c athymic (nu+/nu+) male mice were removed for immunohistochemistry, subcellular fractionation, enzyme activities and Western blotting analysis...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sheng Liu, Jun Zhang, Bentong Yu, Lei Huang, Bin Dai, Jichun Liu, Jian Tang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation. METHODS: The rat orthotopic lung transplantation model was established to perform the level of autophagy in the cold I/R injury in this study. The pretreatment of inhibitor (3-Methyladenine [3-MA]) and activator (rapamycin [RAPA]) of autophagy were performed to assess the role of autophagy in the cold I/R injury following lung transplantation in rats...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Ann F Hubbs, Kara L Fluharty, Rebekah J Edwards, Jamie L Barnabei, John T Grantham, Scott M Palmer, Francine Kelly, Linda M Sargent, Steven H Reynolds, Robert R Mercer, Madhusudan P Goravanahally, Michael L Kashon, John C Honaker, Mark C Jackson, Amy M Cumpston, William T Goldsmith, Walter McKinney, Jeffrey S Fedan, Lori A Battelli, Tiffany Munro, Winnie Bucklew-Moyers, Kimberly McKinstry, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Sherri Friend, Alycia K Knepp, Samantha L Smith, Krishnan Sriram
Inhaled diacetyl vapors are associated with flavorings-related lung disease, a potentially fatal airway disease. The reactive α-dicarbonyl group in diacetyl causes protein damage in vitro. Dicarbonyl/l-xylulose reductase (DCXR) metabolizes diacetyl into acetoin, which lacks this α-dicarbonyl group. To investigate the hypothesis that flavorings-related lung disease is caused by in vivo protein damage, we correlated diacetyl-induced airway damage in mice with immunofluorescence for markers of protein turnover and autophagy...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
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