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rust resistance

Ebrahiem M Babiker, Tyler Gordon, Shiaoman Chao, Matthew N Rouse, Maricelis Acevedo, Gina Brown-Guedira, Ruth Wanyera, John Michael Bonman
Wheat landrace PI 177906 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici races TTKSK, TTKST, and BCCBC and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, 140 recombinant inbred lines, and 138 double haploid (DH) lines were evaluated for seedling resistance to races TTKSK and BCCBC. Parents and the DH population were evaluated for field resistance to Ug99 in Kenya. The 90K wheat SNP genotyping platform was used to genotype the parents and populations. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that two dominant genes in PI 177906 conditioned seedling resistance to TTKSK...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Justine Sucher, Rainer Boni, Ping Yang, Peter Rogowsky, Heike Büchner, Christine Kastner, Jochen Kumlehn, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Maize (corn) is one of the most widely grown cereal crops globally. Fungal diseases of maize cause significant economic damage by reducing maize yields and by increasing input costs for disease management. The most sustainable control of maize diseases is through the release and planting of maize cultivars with durable disease resistance. The wheat gene Lr34 provides durable and partial field resistance against multiple fungal diseases of wheat, including three wheat rust pathogens and wheat powdery mildew...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alagu Manickavelu, Reem Joukhadar, Abdulqader Jighly, Caixia Lan, Julio Huerta-Espino, Ahmad Shah Stanikzai, Andrzej Kilian, Ravi P Singh, Tomohiro Ban
Mining of new genetic resources is of paramount importance to combat the alarming spread of stripe rust disease and breakdown of major resistance genes in wheat. We conducted a genome wide association study on 352 un-utilized Afghan wheat landraces against stripe rust resistance in eight locations. High level of disease variation was observed among locations and a core-set of germplasm showed consistence performance. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed rapidly (R(2)≈0.16 at 0cM) due to germplasm peerless diversity...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Patrick J Vogan, Anna W Schoettle
Increasing the frequency of resistance to the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola (causative agent of white pine blister rust, WPBR) in limber pine populations is a primary management objective to sustain high-elevation forest communities. However, it is not known to what extent genetic disease resistance is costly to plant growth or carbon economy. In this study, we measured growth and leaf-level physiology in (1) seedling families from seed trees that have previously been inferred to carry or not carry Cr4, the dominant R gene allele conferring complete, gene-for-gene resistance to WPBR in limber pine, and (2) populations that were and were not infected with C...
2016: PloS One
Colin W Hiebert, Matthew N Rouse, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Tom Fetch
Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race TRTTF and the Ug99 group of races such as TTKSK. Several Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars, including the widely grown Canadian cultivar 'Harvest', are resistant to TRTTF. However, the genetic basis of resistance to TRTTF in Canadian and United States spring wheat cultivars is unknown...
October 5, 2016: Phytopathology
Dhananjay Kumar, Summi Dutta, Dharmendra Singh, Kumble Vinod Prabhu, Manish Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression...
October 3, 2016: Planta
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Mumta Chhetri, Harbans Bariana, Pakeerathan Kandiah, Urmil Bansal
The quantitative trait loci QYr.sun-3BS and QYr.sun-4DL were identified in the W195/BTSS recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in a previous study. QYr.sun-3BS explained 34 to 59% phenotypic variation in stripe rust response. We evaluated parental genotypes at different growth stages and temperature regimes to detect the critical stage for expression of QYr.sun-3BS. W195 expressed low infection type (IT) ;1C at the fourth leaf stage, when incubated at 21 ± 2°C and the alternate parent BTSS was susceptible (IT 3(+))...
September 26, 2016: Phytopathology
Zhi Li, Zhenglong Ren, Feiquan Tan, Zongxiang Tang, Shulan Fu, Benju Yan, Tianheng Ren
Secale cereale L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistance improvement. In this study, a stable wheat-rye substitution line and 3 primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the Chinese local rye Aigan variety and wheat cultivar Mianyang11. The substitution and translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, fluorescence in situ hybridization and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that there were a pair of 1R chromosomes in the substitution line which have been named RS1200-3, and a pair of 1RS...
2016: PloS One
Jun-Jun Liu, Anna W Schoettle, Richard A Sniezko, Rona N Sturrock, Arezoo Zamany, Holly Williams, Amanda Ha, Danelle Chan, Bob Danchok, Douglas P Savin, Angelia Kegley
BACKGROUND: Linkage of DNA markers with phenotypic traits provides essential information to dissect clustered genes with potential phenotypic contributions in a target genome region. Pinus flexilis E. James (limber pine) is a keystone five-needle pine species in mountain-top ecosystems of North America. White pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by a non-native fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.), has resulted in mortality in this conifer species and is still spreading through the distribution...
2016: BMC Genomics
Jyoti Singla, Linda Lüthi, Thomas Wicker, Urmil Bansal, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Here, we describe a strategy to improve broad-spectrum leaf rust resistance by marker-assisted combination of two partial resistance genes. One of them represents a novel partial adult plant resistance gene, named Lr75. Leaf rust caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina is a damaging disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The combination of several, additively-acting partial disease resistance genes has been proposed as a suitable strategy to breed wheat cultivars with high levels of durable field resistance...
September 22, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Liqiang Song, Yuqing Lu, Jinpeng Zhang, Cuili Pan, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Weihua Liu, Lihui Li
Agropyron cristatum (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) is a wild relative of common wheat and confers several desirable agronomic traits to wheat, such as high grain number per spike and enhanced resistance to certain diseases. Development of wheat - A. cristatum 6P translocation lines facilitates its utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, 26 wheat - A. cristatum 6P translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization (ISH) and 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers. These translocation lines carried different 6P chromosomal segments, which covered the whole 6P chromosome...
October 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Juan Wang, Yang Wang, Xinjie Liu, Yuanliu Xu, Qing Ma
The plant cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments, is one of the important factors in determining the polarity of cell division and growth, as well as the interaction of plants with invading pathogens. In defense responses of wheat against the stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) infection, hypersensitive response is the most crucial event to prevent the spread of pathogens. In order to reveal the effect of microtubules on the hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 accumulation in the interaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jagdeep Kaur, John Fellers, Alok Adholeya, Siva L S Velivelli, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, Natalya Nersesian, Thomas Clemente, Dilip Shah
Rust fungi of the order Pucciniales are destructive pathogens of wheat worldwide. Leaf rust caused by the obligate, biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) is an economically important disease capable of causing up to 50 % yield losses. Historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, but genetic resistance is ephemeral and breaks down with the emergence of new virulent Pt races. There is a need to develop alternative measures for control of leaf rust in wheat. Development of transgenic wheat expressing an antifungal defensin offers a promising approach to complement the endogenous resistance genes within the wheat germplasm for durable resistance to Pt...
August 31, 2016: Transgenic Research
Andrew T Wiersma, Linda K Brown, Elizabeth I Brisco, Tiffany L Liu, Kevin L Childs, Jesse A Poland, Sunish K Sehgal, Eric L Olson
SrTA10187 was fine-mapped to a 1.1 cM interval, candidate genes were identified in the region of interest, and molecular markers were developed for marker-assisted selection and Sr gene pyramiding. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) races belonging to the Ug99 (TTKSK) race group pose a serious threat to global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. To improve Pgt host resistance, the Ug99-effective resistance gene SrTA10187 previously identified in Aegilops tauschii Coss. was introgressed into wheat, and mapped to the short arm of wheat chromosome 6D...
August 31, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hongtao Zhang, Xiaojing Wang, Michael J Giroux, Li Huang
The COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenesis 9) signalosome (CSN) is a protein complex involved in the ubiquitin proteasome system and a common host target of diverse pathogens in Arabidopsis. The known derubylation function of the COP9 complex is carried out by subunit 5 encoded by AtCSN5A or AtCSN5B in Arabidopsis. A single CSN5-like gene (designated as TaCSN5) with three homeologues was identified on the long arms of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) group 2 chromosomes. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of TaCSN5 in response to infection by the leaf rust pathogen...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Benjamin Schwessinger
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: In the 21(st) century, the wheat stripe rust fungus has evolved to be the largest biotic limitation to global wheat production. New pathogen genotypes are more aggressive and able to infect previously resistant wheat varieties, leading to rapid pathogen migration across and between continents. We now know the full life cycle, microevolutionary relationships and past migration routes on a global scale. Current sequencing technologies have provided the first fungal draft genomes and simplified plant resistance gene cloning...
August 30, 2016: New Phytologist
Lidiane Leal Duarte, Fabiana Maria Coutinho Santos, Robert Weingart Barreto
Conyza canadensis is a noxious and notably problematic weed in Brazil whose control is greatly challenging due to the appearance, in the last years, of herbicide resistant populations. An investigation regarding the associated pathogenic fungi of this plant was conducted in Brazil aimed at starting a biological control program to help mitigate its economic impact. Ten fungal species were yielded and described: two ascomycetes (Leptosphaerulina conyzicola sp. nov. and Wentiomyces melioloides), five hyphomycete asexual morphs (Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora conyzicola sp...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Annamaria Halasz, Yuping Lu, Enwu Liu, Fanny Monteil-Rivera, Michele C Loewen
For almost a century, the wheat Lr34 gene has conferred durable resistance against fungal rust diseases. While sequence homology predicts a putative ATP binding cassette transporter, the molecules that are transported (allocrites) by the encoded LR34 variants, and any associated mechanism of resistance, remain enigmatic. Here, the in vitro transport characteristics of 2 naturally occurring Lr34 variants (that differ in their ability to mediate disease resistance; Lr34sus and Lr34res) are investigated. Initially, a method to express and purify recombinant LR34Sus and LR34Res pseudo half-molecules from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is described...
October 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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