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rust resistance

Jagdeep Kaur, Dilip Shah, John Fellers
Leaf rust (LR) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Puccinia triticina and Fusarium graminearum, respectively, are among the most damaging fungal diseases challenging wheat production worldwide. Genetic resistance in combination with fungicide application has been the most widely employed approach to combat these fungal pathogens. Alternative approaches that could augment current practices are needed for the control of these devastating pathogens. To that end, we have recently shown that the extracellular expression of antifungal defensin MtDEF4...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Firdissa E Bokore, Richard D Cuthbert, Ron E Knox, Harpinder S Randhawa, Colin W Hiebert, Ron M DePauw, Asheesh K Singh, Arti Singh, Andrew G Sharpe, Amidou N'Diaye, Curtis J Pozniak, Curt McCartney, Yuefeng Ruan, Samia Berraies, Brad Meyer, Catherine Munro, Andy Hay, Karim Ammar, Julio Huerta-Espino, Sridhar Bhavani
Quantitative trait loci controlling stripe rust resistance were identified in adapted Canadian spring wheat cultivars providing opportunity for breeders to stack loci using marker-assisted breeding. Stripe rust or yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss., is a devastating disease of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in many regions of the world. The objectives of this research were to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with stripe rust resistance in adapted Canadian spring wheat cultivars that are effective globally, and investigate opportunities for stacking resistance...
September 14, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Tuo Qi, Xiaoguo Zhu, Chenlong Tan, Peng Liu, Jia Guo, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and cause a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. To overcome this rapidly loss of varieties resistance, we generated stable transgenic wheat plants expressing short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting potentially vital genes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Protein kinase A (PKA) has been proved to play important roles in regulating the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi. PsCPK1, a PKA catalytic subunit gene from Pst, is highly induced at the early infection stage of Pst...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Caixia Lan, Iago L Hale, Sybil A Herrera-Foessel, Bhoja R Basnet, Mandeep S Randhawa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Jorge Dubcovsky, Ravi P Singh
Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR) and stripe rust (YR) diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750) and an adapted common wheat line (cv. "UC1110") were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR) locus, QLr...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Congying Yuan, Meinan Wang, Daniel Z Skinner, Deven R See, Chongjing Xia, Xinhong Guo, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the wheat stripe rust pathogen, is a dikaryotic, biotrophic, and macrocyclic fungus. Genetic study of Pst virulence was not possible until the recent discovery of Berberis spp. and Mahonia spp. as alternate hosts. To determine inheritance of virulence and map virulence genes, a segregating population of 119 isolates was developed by self-fertilizing Pst isolate 08-220 (race PSTv-11) on barberry leaves under controlled greenhouse conditions. The progeny isolates were phenotyped on a set of 29 wheat lines with single genes for race-specific resistance and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, simple sequence repeat derived from secreted protein genes (SP-SNP), and SNP markers from genotyping- by-sequencing (GBS)...
September 6, 2017: Phytopathology
Arthur Agnello, Kerik Cox, Jaume Lordan, Poliana Francescatto, Terence Robinson
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York...
September 4, 2017: Insects
Jun-Jun Liu, Holly Williams, Xiao Rui Li, Anna W Schoettle, Richard A Sniezko, Michael Murray, Arezoo Zamany, Gary Roke, Hao Chen
RNA-seq analysis on whitebark pine needles demonstrated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-triggered transcriptome re-programming substantially overlapped with defense responses against insects and fungal pathogens in Pinus species, increasing current knowledge regarding induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens and pests in whitebark pine. Many whitebark pine populations are in steep decline due to high susceptibility to mountain pine beetle and the non-native white pine blister rust (WPBR). Resistance, including induced systemic resistance (ISR), is not well characterized in whitebark pine, narrowing the current options for increasing the success of restoration and breeding programs...
August 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Ricky J Milne, Katherine E Dibley, Evans S Lagudah
Recently, the Lr67 resistance gene was identified as a hexose transporter variant which confers adult plant rust and mildew resistance in wheat. Methodologies used to characterize the protein encoded by Lr67 may be of use to non-transporter experts conducting similar experiments with other hexose transporters. Hence, in this chapter, we detail a protocol for the functional characterization of hexose transporter proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system. We also provide guidance on the use of metabolic inhibitors and competing sugars to probe transporter structural features, energization, and specificity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Li Huang
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used reverse genetics tool to knock down genes in plants transiently without transformation. The assay has been successfully used to downregulate the transcript abundance of a target gene at almost any plant developmental stages in any tissues. Here, we describe the VIGS assay using a barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) for functional genomics analysis in wheat with the focus on genes involved in rust resistance.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anupriya K Thind, Thomas Wicker, Simon G Krattinger
"Map-based cloning" is a frequently used approach to isolate rust resistance genes. A critical step during map-based cloning is the transition from genetic information, i.e., a genetic map, to physical sequence information. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones are often used to establish sequence information spanning a genetic interval. However, a major limitation of BAC clones consists in their small insert size of 100-200 kb. Targeted chromosome-based cloning via long-range assembly (TACCA) is a method that can replace BAC library screening...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rohit Mago, Bradley Till, Sambasivam Periyannan, Guotai Yu, Brande B H Wulff, Evans Lagudah
One of the most important tools to identify and validate rust resistance gene function is by producing loss-of-function mutants. Mutants can be produced using irradiation, chemicals, and insertions. Among all the mutagens, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and sodium azide are most favored because of the ease of use and generation of random point mutations in the genome. The mutants so produced facilitate the isolation, identification and cloning of rust resistance genes. In this chapter we describe a protocol for seed mutagenesis of wheat with EMS and sodium azide...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adnan Riaz, Lee T Hickey
Stem rust (SR) or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most common diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops globally. Among the various control measures, the most efficient and sustainable approach is the deployment of genetically resistant cultivars. Traditionally, wheat breeding programs deployed genetic resistance in cultivars, but unknowingly this is often underpinned by a single seedling resistance gene, which is readily overcome by the pathogen. Nowadays, adult plant resistance (APR) is a widely adopted form of rust resistance because more durable mechanisms often underpin it...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leonardo Ornella, Juan Manuel González-Camacho, Susanne Dreisigacker, Jose Crossa
There are a lot of methods developed to predict untested phenotypes in schemes commonly used in genomic selection (GS) breeding. The use of GS for predicting disease resistance has its own particularities: (a) most populations shows additivity in quantitative adult plant resistance (APR); (b) resistance needs effective combinations of major and minor genes; and (c) phenotype is commonly expressed in ordinal categorical traits, whereas most parametric applications assume that the response variable is continuous and normally distributed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peng Zhang, Ian S Dundas, Steven S Xu, Bernd Friebe, Robert A McIntosh, W John Raupp
Hexaploid wheat has relatively narrow genetic diversity due to its evolution and domestication history compared to its wild relatives that often carry agronomically important traits including resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many genes have been introgressed into wheat from wild relatives using various strategies and protocols. One of the important issues with these introgressions is linkage drag, i.e., in addition to beneficial genes, undesirable or deleterious genes that negatively influence end-use quality and grain yield are also introgressed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Urmil Bansal, Harbans Bariana
Genetic characterisation of new rust resistance loci in wheat using cytogenetic/low-throughput genotyping systems required at least 5 years. Development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) based molecular marker genotyping platforms in the last decade has provided scientists with the genomic resources to expedite precise mapping of target loci. Here, we describe methodologies for genetic analysis and application of NGS-based resources to determine the precise genomic locations of rust resistance loci in wheat and development of closely linked markers for marker assisted selection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Caixia Lan, Mandeep Singh Randhawa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Ravi P Singh
Leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust pose a significant threat to global wheat production. Growing rust resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environment friendly method to reduce yield losses. Genetic analysis is undertaken to identify genes and study their roles in conferring rust resistance in a given wheat background. This chapter summarizes the protocol for genetic analysis of rust resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Additionally, it examines statistical analysis and related software to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with rust resistance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vinay Panwar, Guus Bakkeren
Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sajid Ali, David Hodson
Long-distance migration capacity, emergence of invasive lineages, and variability in adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions make wheat rusts the most important threat to wheat production worldwide. Efficient and coordinated efforts are required for surveillance of the pathogen population at different geographical levels to enable tracking of rust pathogen populations at local, regional, continental, and ultimately worldwide scale. Here we describe a standard procedure for rust surveillance to enable comparison across various research groups for a final compilation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Jyoti Saini, Maria Newcomb, Pablo Olivera, Sam Gale, Daryl Klindworth, Elias Elias, Luther Talbert, Shiaoman Chao, Justin Faris, Steven Xu, Yue Jin, Matthew N Rouse
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24 However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK...
August 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ahmad H Sallam, Priyanka Tyagi, Gina Brown-Guedira, Gary J Muehlbauer, Alex Hulse, Brian J Steffenson
Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 years. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp...
August 30, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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