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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#1
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738768/differential-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-and-toy-rotation-on-the-mrna-expression-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-fkbp5-in-a-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rat-model-with-the-shuttle-box-task
#3
Masaaki Tanichi, Hiroyuki Toda, Kunio Shimizu, Minori Koga, Taku Saito, Shingo Enomoto, Shuken Boku, Fumiho Asai, Yumi Mitsui, Masanori Nagamine, Masanori Fujita, Aihide Yoshino
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704202/role-of-hpa-and-the-hpg-axis-interaction-in-testosterone-mediated-learned-helpless-behavior
#4
Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Affective disorders show sex-specific differences in prevalence, symptoms, and complications. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study investigates the influence of androgen on the behavioral phenotype and explores how it interacts with HPA axis genes. Gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (T) were tested for learned helplessness (LH) behavior and compared with tested controls (TC)...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689343/leveraging-genetics-to-enhance-the-efficacy-of-ptsd-pharmacotherapies
#5
REVIEW
Mark W Miller
Progress in PTSD pharmacotherapy has lagged far behind that of other major mental illnesses. Unfortunately, due to the enormous costs and lengthy process involved in bringing drugs to market, delivering new treatments to patients with PTSD in the near future will remain a challenge. However, by capitalizing on recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, precision psychiatry approaches can be leveraged to optimize the delivery of currently-available medications in a fraction of the time and cost required to develop novel therapeutics...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674169/intergenerational-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-of-fkbp5-and-childhood-maltreatment-on-hair-steroids
#6
Alexandra M Koenig, Laura Ramo-Fernández, Christina Boeck, Maria Umlauft, Markus Pauly, Elisabeth B Binder, Clemens Kirschbaum, Harald Gündel, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: The inconsistency in results of cortisol alterations after childhood maltreatment (CM) might arise due to the fact that no study so far considered the effects of environmental factors such as maltreatment load and genetic factors such as the influence of FKBP5 genotype on stress hormone regulation. This study analyzed the interaction between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 within the FKBP5 gene and the severity of maternal CM experiences (maltreatment load) on hair steroid levels of mother-infant-dyads...
April 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578315/genes-involved-in-stress-response-influence-lithium-efficacy-in-bipolar-patients
#7
Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Janusz K Rybakowski, Sebastian Kliwicki, Piotr Czerski, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Maria Skibińska, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna Pawlak
OBJECTIVES: In mood disorders, chronic stimulation with stress results in aberrant regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Lithium was shown to influence HPA axis function. The underlying genetic background as well as environmental context may influence the stress response, and therefore lithium efficacy. The aim of the present study was to analyze if genetic variants located in genes involved in HPA axis regulation affect the response to long-term lithium treatment in bipolar patients...
March 26, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576410/the-effects-of-early-trauma-and-the-fkbp5-gene-on-ptsd-and-the-hpa-axis-in-a-clinical-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#8
Dmitri A Young, Sabra S Inslicht, Thomas J Metzler, Thomas C Neylan, Jessica A Ross
Previous research indicates that interactions between FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and child abuse are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. We examined the relationship between the T-allele of the rs1360780 FKBP5 SNP and child abuse on PTSD and the HPA axis in a clinical sample of Gulf War veterans. Genotyping was completed on 266 veterans and 174 veterans additionally participated in a low dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The CAPS was used to determine PTSD status and the THQ was used to determine child abuse operationalized as either childhood physical or sexual abuse...
March 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573791/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-underpinning-gene-by-environment-interactions-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-fkbp5-model
#9
REVIEW
Natalie Matosin, Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B Binder
Epidemiologic and genetic studies suggest common environmental and genetic risk factors for a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors, especially adverse life events, not only have main effects on disease development but also may interact to shape risk and resilience. Such gene by adversity interactions have been described for FKBP5, an endogenous regulator of the stress-neuroendocrine system, conferring risk for a number of psychiatric disorders...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540675/expression-of-lncrna-mir222hg-co-transcribed-from-the-mir-221-222-gene-promoter-facilitates-the-development-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#10
Tong Sun, Shin-Yi Du, Joshua Armenia, Fangfang Qu, Jingyu Fan, Xiaodong Wang, Teng Fei, Kazumasa Komura, Shirley X Liu, Gwo-Shu Mary Lee, Philip W Kantoff
Mechanisms by which non-coding RNAs contribute to the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (PCa) (HSPC) to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) remain largely unknown. We previously showed that microRNA-221/222 is up-regulated in CRPC and plays a critical role in modulating androgen receptor function during CRPC development. With further investigation, we characterized a putative promoter region located 23.3 kb upstream of the miR-221/222 gene, and this promoter is differentially activated in CRPC LNCaP-Abl cells, leading to the up-regulation of miR-221/222...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535036/interactive-effects-of-genetic-polymorphisms-and-childhood-adversity-on-brain-morphologic-changes-in-depression
#11
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520627/gene-expression-profile-following-an-oral-unsaturated-fat-load-in-abdominal-obese-subjects
#12
A Bárbara Garcia-Garcia, S Martinez-Hervas, J T Real, P Marin-Garcia, G de Marco, A Priego, J F Martínez-Valls, R Carmena, F J Chaves, J F Ascaso
PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the postprandial effect of an oral fat load test (OFLT) rich in unsaturated fatty acids on gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from subjects with abdominal obesity as an insulin resistance model and controls. METHODS: A total of 20 controls and 20 abdominal obese patients were studied. Metabolic parameters and oxidative stress markers were measured with standardized protocols. The whole gene expression at fasting state and after the OFLT (0, 4 and 8 h) was analysed using human HT-12-v4 expression beadchips, from Illumina...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505751/dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant-downregulates-pdgfr-%C3%AE-and-upregulates-caveolin-1-in-experimental-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion
#13
Lasse Jørgensen Cehofski, Anders Kruse, Sigriður Olga Magnusdottir, Alexander Nørgård Alsing, Jonas Ellegaard Nielsen, Svend Kirkeby, Bent Honoré, Henrik Vorum
A dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant (OZURDEX) provides an effective treatment of inflammation secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Retinal proteome changes which mediate the beneficial effects of the implant remain poorly understood. To study retinal proteome changes in BRVO following an intervention with a DEX implant this study combined an experimental model of BRVO with proteomic techniques. In eight Danish Landrace pigs experimental BRVO was induced in both eyes using argon laser. After inducing BRVO a DEX implant was injected into the right eye of each animal while the left control eye was given an identical injection without an implant...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499586/hyperforin-and-miquelianin-from-st-john-s-wort-attenuate-gene-expression-in-neuronal-cells-after-dexamethasone-induced-stress
#14
Sheela Verjee, Anna Weston, Christiane Kolb, Heba Kalbhenn-Aziz, Veronika Butterweck
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important part in the development of depressive symptoms. In this study, the effects of a commercial St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI), hyperforin, miquelianin, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on the expression of genes relevant to HPA axis function were investigated in human neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with STW3-VI (20 µg/mL), hyperforin (1 µM), miquelianin (10 µM), or citalopram (10 µM) in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX,10 µM) for 6 h and 48 h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499052/absence-of-a-secondary-glucocorticoid-response-in-c57bl-6j-mice-treated-with-topical-dexamethasone
#15
Jennifer A Faralli, Kaylee D Dimeo, Ralph M Trane, Donna Peters
Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone can cause an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in some of the population, but not all. In this paper we used a mouse model of glucocorticoid induced ocular hypertension to examine the changes in the anterior segment of the eye in mice that failed to respond to glucocorticoid treatment with a sustained increase in IOP. C57BL/6J mice were treated with either 0.1% dexamethasone sodium phosphate ophthalmic solution or sterile PBS 3 times daily for up to 5 weeks. IOP was measured weekly at approximately the same time of the day...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475055/toxic-stress-history-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-in-a-social-stress-task-genetic-and-epigenetic-factors
#16
Hannah E Lapp, Sarah Ahmed, Celia L Moore, Richard G Hunter
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test...
February 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466454/interaction-between-fkbp5-variability-and-recent-life-events-in-the-anxiety-spectrum-evidence-for-the-differential-susceptibility-model
#17
Beatriz Pérez-Pérez, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Thomas R Kwapil, Sergi Ballespí, Elionora Peña, Marta de Castro-Catala, Maria Dolors Riba, Araceli Rosa, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
BACKGROUND: Gene-environment interaction (GxE) research has highlighted the importance of investigating the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene as a sensitivity gene. However, previous GxE studies with FKBP5 have not measured the full environmental spectrum or applied statistical tests to discern whether the GxE interaction fits better with the differential-susceptibility or diathesis-stress hypotheses. This study examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on FKBP5 gene moderate the association of positive and negative recent life events (LEs) with depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, neuroticism, and social anxiety traits...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444898/significant-prevalence-of-nr3c1-mutations-in-incidentally-discovered-bilateral-adrenal-hyperplasia-results-of-the-french-muta-gr-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Géraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Christine Hoeffel, Jérôme Bouligand, Antoine Bennet, Frederic Castinetti, Bénédicte Decoudier, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Marc Lombes, Brigitte Delemer
BACKGROUND: Recently discovered mutations of NR3C1 gene, encoding for the GR, in patients with glucocorticoid resistance and bilateral adrenal incidentalomas prompted us to investigate whether GR mutations might be associated with adrenal hyperplasia. OBJECTIVE: The multicenter French Clinical Research Program (Muta-GR) was set up to determine the prevalence of GR mutations and polymorphisms in patients harboring bilateral adrenal incidentalomas associated with hypertension and/or biological hypercortisolism without clinical Cushing's signs...
April 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432501/venlafaxine-and-sertraline-does-not-affect-the-expression-of-genes-regulating-stress-response-in-female-mdd-patients
#20
Ewa Banach, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Anna Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Joanna Pawlak, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Dorota Zaremba, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of 3 genes involved in the regulation of HPA axis: GR, HSP90 and FKBP5, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before antidepressant treatment and after 8 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Additionally, we analyzed the level of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms before and after treatment. METHODS: The study included 30 female patients (aged 18-60 years), with major depres- sive disorder diagnosed on the basis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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