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Bertram J Wilm, Christoph Barmet, Simon Gross, Lars Kasper, S Johanna Vannesjo, Max Haeberlin, Benjamin E Dietrich, David O Brunner, Thomas Schmid, Klaas P Pruessmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of single-shot spiral MRI and demonstrate its application for diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: Image formation is based on an expanded encoding model that accounts for dynamic magnetic fields up to third order in space, nonuniform static B0 , and coil sensitivity encoding. The encoding model is determined by B0 mapping, sensitivity mapping, and concurrent field monitoring. Reconstruction is performed by iterative inversion of the expanded signal equations...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Tahreema N Matin, Najib Rahman, Annabel H Nickol, Mitchell Chen, Xiaojun Xu, Neil J Stewart, Tom Doel, Vicente Grau, James M Wild, Fergus V Gleeson
Purpose To compare lobar ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantitative computed tomography (CT) metrics on a lobar basis and pulmonary function test (PFT) results on a whole-lung basis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty-two patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe MR imaging at 1...
October 12, 2016: Radiology
Peter D Chang, Daniel S Chow, Peter H Yang, Christopher G Filippi, Angela Lignelli
OBJECTIVE: Recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from areas of microscopic tumor infiltration that have yet to disrupt the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesize that these microscopic foci of invasion cause subtle variations in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and FLAIR signal detectable with the use of computational big-data modeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with native GBM were studied immediately after undergoing gross total tumor resection...
October 11, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Stefan Schob, Peter Voigt, Lionel Bure, Hans-Jonas Meyer, Claudia Wickenhauser, Curd Behrmann, Annekathrin Höhn, Paul Kachel, Henning Dralle, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Alexey Surov
BACKGROUND: Thyroid carcinomas represent the most frequent endocrine malignancies. Recent studies were able to distinguish malignant from benign nodules of the thyroid gland with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Although this differentiation is undoubtedly helpful, presurgical discrimination between well-differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas would be crucial to define the optimal treatment algorithm. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if readout-segmented multishot echo planar DWI is able to differentiate between differentiated and undifferentiated subtypes of thyroid carcinomas...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Tanja Schneider, Tobias Mahraun, Julian Schroeder, Andreas Frölich, Philip Hoelter, Marlies Wagner, Jean Darcourt, Christophe Cognard, Alain Bonafé, Jens Fiehler, Susanne Siemonsen, Jan-Hendrik Buhk
PURPOSE: The presence of intraparenchymal hyperattenuations (IPH) on flat-panel computed tomography (FP-CT) after endovascular recanalization in stroke patients is a common phenomenon. They are thought to occur in ischemic areas with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but previous studies that investigated a mutual interaction are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship of IPH localization with prethrombectomy diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included 27 acute stroke patients who underwent DWI prior to FP-CT following mechanical thrombectomy...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
A Bresch, M Rullmann, J Luthardt, G A Becker, G Reissig, M Patt, Y-S Ding, A Hilbert, O Sabri, S Hesse
OBJECTIVE: Emotional eating (EE) has been linked to norepinephrine dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between EE and norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability. METHOD: Ten severely obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) ) and ten non-obese, healthy controls (BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2) ) matched for age and sex were studied using (S,S)-[(11) C]-O-methylreboxetine ([(11) C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET)...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Dominic Kraus, Alireza Gharabaghi
Motor maps acquired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are evolving as a biomarker for monitoring disease progression or the effects of therapeutic interventions. High test-retest reliability of this technique for long observation periods is therefore required to differentiate daily or weekly fluctuations from stable plastic reorganization of corticospinal connectivity. In this study, a novel projection, interpolation, and coregistration technique, which considers the individual gyral anatomy, was applied in healthy subjects for biweekly acquired TMS motor maps over a period of twelve weeks...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Giuseppe Palma, Serena Monti, Vittoria D'Avino, Manuel Conson, Raffaele Liuzzi, Maria Cristina Pressello, Vittorio Donato, Joseph O Deasy, Mario Quarantelli, Roberto Pacelli, Laura Cella
PURPOSE: To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). METHODS AND MATERIALS: An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J R Garcia, M Cozar, M Baquero, J M Fernández Barrionuevo, A Jaramillo, J Rubio, G Maida, M Soler, E Riera
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of (11)C-Methionine PET in the early differentiation between tumour recurrence and radionecrosis in patients treated for a high grade glioma. METHOD: The study included 30 patients with glioma (III/IV grade) treated with surgery/radiotherapy/chemotherapy (5-8 months) and with an indeterminate MRI. All patients underwent a (11)C-Methione PET (within 15 days of MRI) and studies were visually analysed (intensity and morphology of uptake), quantified (SUV max/SUV mean background), and coregistered to MRI (3D-Flair)...
August 6, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Wouter V Vogel, Monique C W M Bloemers, Uulke A van der Heide, Regina G Beets-Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Gaute Floer Johnsen, Joakim Sundnes, Jonas Wengenroth, Håvard Jostein Haugen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at developing a standard methodology for morphometric analysis and comparison of contralateral human premolar pulp space using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and semiautomated software. The primary objective was to establish a method to compare the complex and minute morphological internal volumes of contralateral premolar pulp spaces and determine their degree of similarity. The secondary aim was to introduce new methodology for selecting contralateral premolars for the study of biomaterials and techniques...
July 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Delaney McGuirt, Jonathan Mazal, Toby Rogers, Anthony Z Faranesh, William Schenke, Annette Stine, Laurie Grant, Robert J Lederman
BACKGROUND: A patient with a history of cancer in remission and congestive heart failure with no acute symptoms presented for a follow-up echocardiogram. The scan revealed a new echodense mass filling his right ventricular apex. An endomyocardial biopsy guided by x-ray fused with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (XFM) was performed. This case report outlines the steps of XFM image preparation involving MR image acquisition, processing, and coregistration with x-ray fluoroscopy. DISCUSSION: In cases of focal pathology or cardiac masses, endomyocardial biopsy can be challenging because x-ray fluoroscopy guidance offers limited visualization of soft-tissue structures...
July 2016: Radiologic Technology
Matthew S Robertson, Xinyang Liu, William Plishker, George F Zaki, Pranav K Vyas, Nabile M Safdar, Raj Shekhar
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), a new imaging option to acquire multimodality images with complementary anatomical and functional information has become available. Compared with hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT), hybrid PET/MRI is capable of providing superior anatomical detail while removing the radiation exposure associated with CT. The early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI, however, has been limited. OBJECTIVE: To provide a viable alternative to the hybrid PET/MRI hardware by validating a software-based solution for PET-MR image coregistration...
October 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Alessio Di Simone
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery greatly suffers from multiplicative speckle noise, typical of coherent image acquisition sensors, such as SAR systems. Therefore, a proper and accurate despeckling preprocessing step is almost mandatory to aid the interpretation and processing of SAR data by human users and computer algorithms, respectively. Very recently, a scattering-oriented version of the popular SAR Block-Matching 3D (SARBM3D) despeckling filter, named Scattering-Based (SB)-SARBM3D, was proposed. The new filter is based on the a priori knowledge of the local topography of the scene...
2016: Sensors
Ghassan El-Haddad
PET can be used to guide percutaneous needle biopsy to the most metabolic lesion, improving diagnostic yield. PET biopsy guidance can be performed using visual or software coregistration, electromagnetic needle tracking, cone-beam computed tomography (CT), and intraprocedural PET/CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsies allow the sampling of lesions that may not be clearly visible on anatomic imaging, or of lesions that are morphologically normal. PET can identify suspicious locations within complex tumors that are most likely to contain important diagnostic and prognostic information...
July 2016: PET Clinics
Paul Metzner, Titus von der Malsburg, Shravan Vasishth, Frank Rösler
How important is the ability to freely control eye movements for reading comprehension? And how does the parser make use of this freedom? We investigated these questions using coregistration of eye movements and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while participants read either freely or in a computer-controlled word-by-word format (also known as RSVP). Word-by-word presentation and natural reading both elicited qualitatively similar ERP effects in response to syntactic and semantic violations (N400 and P600 effects)...
June 16, 2016: Cognitive Science
Rachel Pruitt, Alexander Gamble, Karen Black, Michael Schulder, Ashesh D Mehta
OBJECTIVE Complications of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) are underreported. The authors discuss how they have modified their technique in the context of technical and treatment-related adverse events. METHODS The Medtronic Visualase system was used in 49 procedures in 46 patients. Between 1 and 3 cooling catheters/laser fiber assemblies were placed, for a total of 62 implanted devices. Devices were placed using frameless stereotaxy (n = 3), frameless stereotaxy with intraoperative MRI (iMRI) (n = 9), iMRI under direct vision (n = 2), MRI alone (n = 1), or frame-based (n = 47) techniques...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Heath R Pardoe, Rebecca Kucharsky Hiess, Ruben Kuzniecky
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between participant motion, demographic variables and MRI-derived morphometric estimates was investigated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia and healthy controls. Participant motion was estimated using resting state fMRI and used as a proxy measure for motion during T1w MRI acquired in the same session. Analyses were carried out in scans qualitatively assessed as free from motion-related artifact...
July 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Justin W Arner, James N Irvine, Liying Zheng, Tom Gale, Eric Thorhauer, Margaret Hankins, Ermias Abebe, Scott Tashman, Xudong Zhang, Christopher D Harner
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury increases the risk of meniscus and articular cartilage damage, but the causes are not well understood. Previous in vitro studies were static, required extensive knee dissection, and likely altered meniscal and cartilage contact due to the insertion of pressure sensing devices. HYPOTHESIS: ACL deficiency will lead to increased translation of the lateral meniscus and increased deformation of the medial meniscus as well as alter cartilage contact location, strain, and area...
April 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Amalina Binte Ebrahim Attia, Chris Jun Hui Ho, Prashant Chandrasekharan, Ghayathri Balasundaram, Hui Chien Tay, Neal C Burton, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Malini Olivo
Multi-modality imaging methods are of great importance in oncologic studies for acquiring complementary information, enhancing the efficacy in tumor detection and characterization. We hereby demonstrate a hybrid non-invasive in vivo imaging approach of utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for molecular imaging of glucose uptake in an orthotopic glioblastoma in mouse. The molecular and functional information from MSOT can be overlaid on MRI anatomy via image coregistration to provide insights into probe uptake in the brain, which is verified by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological validation...
July 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
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