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Cardiac fibroblast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534817/the-soft-and-hard-heartedness-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-mechanotransduction-signaling-pathways-in-fibrosis-of-the-heart
#1
REVIEW
Kate M Herum, Ida G Lunde, Andrew D McCulloch, Geir Christensen
Cardiac fibrosis, the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), remains an unresolved problem in most forms of heart disease. In order to be successful in preventing, attenuating or reversing cardiac fibrosis, it is essential to understand the processes leading to ECM production and accumulation. Cardiac fibroblasts are the main producers of cardiac ECM, and harbor great phenotypic plasticity. They are activated by the disease-associated changes in mechanical properties of the heart, including stretch and increased tissue stiffness...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532021/nanosecond-laser-ablation-enhances-cellular-infiltration-in-a-hybrid-tissue-scaffold
#2
S Jahnavi, N Arthi, S Pallavi, C Selvaraju, G S Bhuvaneshwar, T V Kumary, R S Verma
Hybrid tissue engineered (HTE) scaffolds constituting polymeric nanofibers and biological tissues have attractive bio-mechanical properties. However, they suffer from small pore size due to dense overlapping nanofibers resulting in poor cellular infiltration. In this study, using nanosecond (ns) laser, we fabricated micro-scale features on Polycaprolactone (PCL)-Chitosan (CH) nanofiber layered bovine pericardium based Bio-Hybrid scaffold to achieve enhanced cellular adhesion and infiltration. The laser energy parameters such as fluence of 25J/cm(2), 0...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529484/targeting-adenosine-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-cardiac-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Vecchio, Paul J White, Lauren T May
Adenosine is a ubiquitous molecule with key regulatory and cytoprotective mechanisms at times of metabolic imbalance in the body. Among a plethora of physiological actions, adenosine has an important role in attenuating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and modulating the ensuing fibrosis and tissue remodeling following myocardial damage. Adenosine exerts these actions through interaction with four adenosine G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the heart. The adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) is the most abundant adenosine receptor (AR) in cardiac fibroblasts and is largely responsible for the influence of adenosine on cardiac fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529134/direct-reprogramming-epigenetics-and-cardiac-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Shota Kurotsu, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaki Ieda
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized regenerative medicine. Autologous iPSCs can be generated by introducing 4 stem cell-specific factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) into fibroblasts. iPSCs can propagate indefinitely and differentiate into clinically important cell types including cardiomyocytes, in vitro. The iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes represent a promising source of cells for cell-based therapeutic approaches for cardiac regeneration. However, there are several challenges in the clinical application of iPSCs: tumorigenicity of immature cells, poor survival of the transplanted myocardial cells, and cost and efficacy of this therapeutic approach...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526319/lncrna-gas5-controls-cardiac-fibroblast-activation-and-fibrosis-by-targeting-mir-21-via-pten-mmp-2-signaling-pathway
#5
Hui Tao, Jia-Gui Zhang, Run-He Qin, Chen Dai, Peng Shi, Jing-Jing Yang, Zi-Yu Deng, Kai-Hu Shi
Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many diseases including cardiac fibrosis. LncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is reported as a significant mediator in the control of cell proliferation and growth; however, the role and function in cardiac fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, we confirmed that GAS5 was lowly expressed in cardiac fibrosis tissues as well as activated cardiac fibroblast. Overexpression of GAS5 inhibited the proliferation of cardiac fibroblast. Moreover, microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been reported to be overexpressed in cardiac fibrosis tissues as well as activated cardiac fibroblast, which is responsible for the progression of cardiac fibrosis...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522730/11%C3%AE-hsd1-suppresses-cardiac-fibroblast-cxcl2-cxcl5-and-neutrophil-recruitment-to-the-heart-post-mi
#6
Katie J Mylonas, Neil A Turner, Sumia A Bageghni, Christopher J Kenyon, Christopher I White, Kieran McGregor, Robert A Kimmitt, Richard Sulston, Valerie Kelly, Brian R Walker, Karen E Porter, Karen E Chapman, Gillian A Gray
We have previously demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment to the heart following myocardial infarction (MI) is enhanced in mice lacking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that regenerates active glucocorticoid within cells from intrinsically inert metabolites. The present study aimed to identify the mechanism of regulation. In a mouse model of MI, neutrophil mobilization to blood and recruitment to the heart were higher in 11β-HSD1-deficient (Hsd11b1(-)(/)(-) ) relative to wild-type (WT) mice, despite similar initial injury and circulating glucocorticoid...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521042/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modelling-of-hlhs-underlines-the-contribution-of-dysfunctional-notch-signalling-to-impaired-cardiogenesis
#7
Chunbo Yang, Yaobo Xu, Min Yu, David Lee, Sameer Alharti, Nicola Hellen, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Hussein Ali Mohamoud Sheikh, Elango Ramu, Stefan Przyborski, Gennadiy Tenin, Simon Williams, John O'Sullivan, Osman O Al-Radi, Jameel Atta, Sian E Harding, Bernard Keavney, Majlinda Lako, Lyle Armstrong
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is among the most severe forms of congenital heart disease. Although the consensus view is that reduced flow through the left heart during development is a key factor in the development of the condition, the molecular mechanisms leading to hypoplasia of left heart structures are unknown. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from five HLHS patients and two unaffected controls, differentiated these to cardiomyocytes and identified reproducible in vitro cellular and functional correlates of the HLHS phenotype...
May 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514938/characterization-and-standardization-of-cultured-cardiac-fibroblasts-for-ex-vivo-models-of-heart-fibrosis-and-heart-ischemia
#8
Yue Zhou, Arthur Mark Richards, Peipei Wang
A full understanding of cardiac fibroblast (cFB) biology is essential to study the adverse cardiac remodeling and recovery of myocardium infarction. However, compared to cardiac myocytes, cFB are less well-characterized. Important questions including the variability introduced by cell age (neonatal vs. adult), culture conditions (passage, plate coating and culture medium), and responses to stimuli (e.g. hypoxia and drug treatments) have not been well addressed and standardization of techniques is lacking. This variability invites inconsistency and the confounding of study conclusions...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512310/fgf23-fgfr4-mediated-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-is-reversible
#9
Alexander Grabner, Karla Schramm, Neerupma Silswal, Matt Hendrix, Christopher Yanucil, Brian Czaya, Saurav Singh, Myles Wolf, Sven Hermann, Jörg Stypmann, Giovana Seno Di Marco, Marcus Brand, Michael J Wacker, Christian Faul
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone that directly targets cardiac myocytes via FGF receptor (FGFR) 4 thereby inducing hypertrophic myocyte growth and the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in rodents. Serum FGF23 levels are highly elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is likely that FGF23 directly contributes to the high rates of LVH and cardiac death in CKD. It is currently unknown if the cardiac effects of FGF23 are solely pathological, or if they potentially can be reversed...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511329/-therapeutic-effect-of-combined-use-of-fgf1-loaded-nano-liposomes-and-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-technique-on-treating-rats-with-experimental-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#10
M Zhang, Y Z Zhao, W C Ma, J L Xu, J L Wang, M J Chen, L Yu, Y N Chen
Objective: The therapeutic effect of acid fibroblast growth factor 1(FGF1) on rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was evaluated by using nano-liposomes combined with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction technique (UTMD). Methods: The FGF1-loaded nano-liposomes were prepared by water-in-water emulsion method combined with lyophilization technique.TypeⅠdiabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg) in 60 male SD rats.Sixteen weeks later, diabetic rats were randomly divided into: placebo group (saline treatment), FGF1 group, FGF1-loaded nano-liposomes group, and FGF1-loaded nano-liposomes plus UTMD group (n=15 each)...
May 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511026/hdac2-is-required-by-the-physiological-concentration-of-glucocorticoid-to-inhibit-inflammation-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#11
Haining Zhang, Yanhua He, Guiping Zhang, Xiaobin Li, Suikai Yan, Ning Hou, Qing Xiao, Yue Huang, Miaoshan Luo, Genshui Zhang, Quan Yi, Minsheng Chen, Jiandong Luo
We previously suggested that endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) may inhibit myocardial inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) <i>in vivo</i>. However, the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms were poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of physiological concentration of GCs in inflammation induced by LPS in cardiac fibroblasts and explored the possible mechanisms. The results showed that hydrocortisone at the dose of 127ng/ml (equivalent to endogenous basal level of glucocorticoids) inhibited LPS (100ng/ml)-induced productions of TNF-α and IL-1β in cardiac fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509990/transient-activation-of-reprogramming-transcription-factors-using-protein-transduction-facilitates-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-toward-cardiomyocyte-like-cells
#12
Zaniar Ghazizadeh, Hassan Rassouli, Hananeh Fonoudi, Mehdi Alikhani, Mahmood Talkhabi, Amir Darbandi-Azar, Shuibing Chen, Hossein Baharvand, Nasser Aghdami, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Derivation of cardiomyocytes directly from patients' own fibroblasts could offer a new therapeutic approach for those with ischemic heart disease. An essential step toward clinical application is to establish safe conversion of human fibroblasts into a cardiac fate. Here we aimed to efficiently and safely generate cardiomyocytes from human fibroblasts by direct delivery of reprogramming recombinant cell permeant form of reprogramming proteins followed by cardio-inductive signals. Human fetal and adult fibroblasts were transiently exposed to transactivator of transcription-fused recombinant OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC for 2 weeks and then were directly differentiated toward protein-induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (p-iCLCs) in a cardiac fate niche, carried out by treatment with a set of cardiogenic small molecules (sequential treatment of Chir, and IWP-2, SB431542 and purmorphamine)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507335/bnip3l-promotes-cardiac-fibrosis-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-through-ca-2-i-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-3-pathway
#13
Weili Liu, Xinxing Wang, Zhusong Mei, Jingbo Gong, Lishuang Huang, Xiujie Gao, Yun Zhao, Jing Ma, Lingjia Qian
Fibrosis is an important, structurally damaging event that occurs in pathological cardiac remodeling, leading to cardiac dysfunction. BNIP3L is up-regulated in pressure overload-induced heart failure and has been reported to play an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis; however, its involvement in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) remains unknown. We prove for the first time that the expression of BNIP3L is significantly increased in the CFs of rats undergoing pressure overload-induced heart failure. Furthermore, this increased BNIP3L expression was confirmed in cultured neonatal rat CFs undergoing proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein over-expression that was induced by norepinephrine (NE)...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507181/fli1-deficiency-induces-cxcl6-expression-in-dermal-fibroblasts-and-endothelial-cells-contributing-to-the-development-of-fibrosis-and-vasculopathy-in-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Takashi Taniguchi, Yoshihide Asano, Kouki Nakamura, Takashi Yamashita, Ryosuke Saigusa, Yohei Ichimura, Takehiro Takahashi, Tetsuo Toyama, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Shinichi Sato
OBJECTIVE: CXCL6, a chemokine with proangiogenic property, is reported to be involved in vasculopathy associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We investigated the contribution of CXCL6 to SSc development by focusing on the association of friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli1) deficiency, a potential predisposing factor of SSc, with CXCL6 expression and clinical correlation of serum CXCL6 levels. METHODS: mRNA levels of target genes and the binding of Fli1 to the CXCL6 promoter were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502796/in-vivo-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration-a-glance-at-efficiency-environmental-impacts-challenges-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Behnam Ebrahimi
Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498548/engineered-3d-cardiac-fibrotic-tissue-to-study-fibrotic-remodeling
#16
Amir Hossein Sadeghi, Su Ryon Shin, Janine C Deddens, Giuseppe Fratta, Serena Mandla, Iman K Yazdi, Gyan Prakash, Silvia Antona, Danilo Demarchi, Marc P Buijsrogge, Joost P G Sluijter, Jesper Hjortnaes, Ali Khademhosseini
Activation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is considered to play an essential role in cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. A limiting factor in studying this process is the spontaneous activation of cardiac fibroblasts when cultured on two-dimensional (2D) culture plates. In this study, a simplified three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel platform of contractile cardiac tissue, stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), is presented to recapitulate a fibrogenic microenvironment. It is hypothesized that the quiescent state of cardiac fibroblasts can be maintained by mimicking the mechanical stiffness of native heart tissue...
May 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495868/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulates-collagen-synthesis-in-cultured-rainbow-trout-cardiac-fibroblasts
#17
Elizabeth F Johnston, Todd E Gillis
Cold acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, causes collagen to increase within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the myocardium, while warm acclimation has the opposite effect. The mechanism responsible for this remodeling response is not known. In mammals, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) stimulates collagen deposition within the myocardial ECM. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 regulates trout myocardial ECM turnover and predicted that TGF-β1 would induce collagen deposition in cultured rainbow trout cardiac fibroblasts...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495464/microrna-21-via-dysregulation-of-ww-domain-containing-protein-1-regulate-atrial-fibrosis-in-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Hui Tao, Meng Zhang, Jing-Jing Yang, Kai-Hu Shi
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRs) have been reported to regulate cell biological functions. To explore the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in patients with atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: In total, 49 patients (24 AF, sinus rhythm 25) aged 33-68 years old, including heart valve replacement surgery and cardiac catheterization. The pathological changes and collagen depositions was analyzed by Masson's Trichrome Staining. miR-21, TGF-β1, Smad2, p-Smad2, WWP-1, collagen I and collagen III expression were analyzed by Western blotting, qRT-PCR, miR one step qRT-PCR, respectively...
March 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487390/activation-of-the-amino-acid-response-pathway-blunts-the-effects-of-cardiac-stress
#19
Pu Qin, Pelin Arabacilar, Roberta E Bernard, Weike Bao, Alan R Olzinski, Yuanjun Guo, Hind Lal, Stephen H Eisennagel, Michael C Platchek, Wensheng Xie, Julius Del Rosario, Mohamad Nayal, Quinn Lu, Theresa Roethke, Christine G Schnackenberg, Fe Wright, Michael P Quaile, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Robert B Kirkpatrick, Xiaoyan A Qu, Deepak K Rajpal, Maria Faelth Savitski, Marcus Bantscheff, Gerard Joberty, Giovanna Bergamini, Thomas L Force, Gregory J Gatto, Erding Hu, Robert N Willette
BACKGROUND: The amino acid response (AAR) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism activated by amino acid deficiency through a key kinase, general control nonderepressible 2. In addition to mobilizing amino acids, the AAR broadly affects gene and protein expression in a variety of pathways and elicits antifibrotic, autophagic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known regarding its role in cardiac stress. Our aim was to investigate the effects of halofuginone, a prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, on the AAR pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and in mouse models of cardiac stress and failure...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480392/effect-of-triptolide-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-fibroblasts-in-vitro-a-preliminary-study
#20
Mao Liu, James Yeh, Yin Huang, Alfredo Redondo, Jianting Ke, Jierong Yao, Guangyi Tan, Wenyi Tang, Jian Chen
BACKGROUND: The effect of triptolide (TPL) on cardiac fibroblasts (CFbs) and cardiac fibrosis remain unknown till now. This study was conducted to explore the effects of TPL on proliferation and apoptosis of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CFbs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ang II was used to promote proliferation of CFbs. Two dosages of TPL (10ng/ml and 100ng/ml) were chosen. MTT assay was used to detect cell survival rate in vitro. Flow cytometer was performed to analyze apoptosis of CFbs...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
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