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Cardiac fibroblast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804544/sirt3-attenuates-angii-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-myofibroblasts-transdifferentiation-via-stat3-nfatc2-pathway
#1
Xiaobin Guo, Fangying Yan, Jingyuan Li, Chunmei Zhang, Peili Bu
Cardiac fibrosis is a maladaptive response to various stresses, characterized by increased interstitial collagen deposition and progressive cardiac dysfunction. The transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is an essential process in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. SIRT3, as a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated beneficial in many cardiovascular diseases. However, the specific mechanism of its protective role in cardiac fibrosis needs to be elucidated further...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#2
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801548/virtual-cardiac-monolayers-for-electrical-wave-propagation
#3
Nina Kudryashova, Valeriya Tsvelaya, Konstantin Agladze, Alexander Panfilov
The complex structure of cardiac tissue is considered to be one of the main determinants of an arrhythmogenic substrate. This study is aimed at developing the first mathematical model to describe the formation of cardiac tissue, using a joint in silico-in vitro approach. First, we performed experiments under various conditions to carefully characterise the morphology of cardiac tissue in a culture of neonatal rat ventricular cells. We considered two cell types, namely, cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Next, we proposed a mathematical model, based on the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model, which is widely used in tissue growth studies...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798534/a-case-of-spontaneous-purulent-granulomatous-pericarditis-in-a-beagle
#4
Kyohei Kamio, Yutaka Nakanishi, Kenta Matsue, Minoru Sasaki
The present report describes a case of spontaneous purulent granulomatous pericarditis in a 16-month-old beagle. A gross necropsy revealed pericardial effusion and multiple nodules on the surface of the heart and around the aorta adjacent to the heart. The cut surface of these nodules was solid and white in color, containing partially yellowish white regions. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation characterized by central necrotic cellular debris surrounded by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed in the epicardium...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796841/single-cell-qpcr-reveals-that-additional-hand2-and-microrna-1-facilitate-the-early-reprogramming-progress-of-seven-factor-induced-human-myocytes
#5
Emre Bektik, Adrienne Dennis, Prateek Prasanna, Anant Madabhushi, Ji-Dong Fu
The direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells (iCMs) holds great promise in restoring heart function. We previously found that human fibroblasts could be reprogrammed toward CM-like cells by 7 reprogramming factors; however, iCM reprogramming in human fibroblasts is both more difficult and more time-intensive than that in mouse cells. In this study, we investigated if additional reprogramming factors could quantitatively and/or qualitatively improve 7-factor-mediated human iCM reprogramming by single-cell quantitative PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795324/the-fgf23-klotho-axis-and-cardiac-tissue-doppler-imaging-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Ylva Tranæus Lindblad, Hannes Olauson, Georgios Vavilis, Ulf Hammar, Maria Herthelius, Jonas Axelsson, Peter Bárány
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease-associated mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in pediatric kidney disease patients and a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho are novel key players in CKD-MBD, and has been suggested to be involved in the development of CVD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 74 pediatric patients; 31 with CKD (age range 0.8-18.8 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) range 9-68 mL/min/1...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794400/tbx18-positive-cells-differentiated-from-murine-es-cells-serve-as-proepicardial-progenitors-to-give-rise-to-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-fibroblasts
#7
Nobuhito Ikeda, Natsumi Nakazawa, Yasutaka Kurata, Hisako Yaura, Fikri Taufiq, Hiroyuki Minato, Akio Yoshida, Haruaki Ninomiya, Yuji Nakayama, Masanari Kuwabara, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome
Proepicardium (PE) cells generate cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that form coronary arteries. T-box18 (Tbx18) is a well-known marker of PE cells and epicardium. We examined whether Tbx18-positive cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as PE progenitors to give rise to vascular SMCs and fibroblasts. To collect Tbx18-positive cells, we established Tbx18-EGFP knock-in mouse ES cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We harvested the Tbx18-EGFP-positive cells on day 8, 10 and 14 after the initiation of differentiation; Tbx18 mRNA was enriched on day 8 to 14 and Snai2 mRNA was enriched on day 8 and 10, indicating successful collection of Tbx18-positive cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790152/lamin-a-c-related-cardiac-disease-late-onset-with-a-variable-and-mild-phenotype-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients-with-the-lamin-a-c-p-arg331gln-founder-mutation
#8
Edgar T Hoorntje, Ilse A Bollen, Daniela Q Barge-Schaapveld, Florence H van Tienen, Gerard J Te Meerman, Joeri A Jansweijer, Anthonie J van Essen, Paul G Volders, Alina A Constantinescu, Peter C van den Akker, Karin Y van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Rogier A Oldenburg, Carlo L Marcelis, Jasper J van der Smagt, Eric A Hennekam, Aryan Vink, Marianne Bootsma, Emmelien Aten, Arthur A Wilde, Arthur van den Wijngaard, Jos L Broers, Jan D Jongbloed, Jolanda van der Velden, Maarten P van den Berg, J Peter van Tintelen
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of missense variants can be especially difficult when the variant is also found in control populations. This is what we encountered for the LMNA c.992G>A (p.(Arg331Gln)) variant. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of this variant, we combined an evaluation of clinical data with functional experiments and morphological studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical data of 23 probands and 35 family members carrying this variant were retrospectively collected...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780584/platelet-derived-growth-factor-alpha-pdgfr%C3%AE-induces-the-activation-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-by-activating-c-kit
#9
Lexun Wang, Yuan Yue, Xiao Yang, Tian Fan, Bo Mei, Jian Hou, Mengya Liang, Guangxian Chen, Zhongkai Wu
BACKGROUND Enhanced platelet-derived growth factor receptor a (PDGFRα) signaling pathway activity leads to cardiac fibrosis. However, because of the pleiotropic effects of PDGFR signaling, its role in mediating the cardiac fibrotic response remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of c-Kit in cardiac fibroblasts activated by PDGFRa signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cardiac fibrosis mice model was induced using isoproterenol, and the heart tissues of mice were tested through western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
August 6, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776188/alterations-of-relaxin-and-its-receptor-system-components-in-experimental-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-rats
#10
Xiaohui Zhang, Liya Pan, Kelaier Yang, Yu Fu, Yue Liu, Wenjia Chen, Xiao Ma, Xinhua Yin
High glucose induces apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and fibrosis of cardiac fibroblasts, contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this work, we explore the production of relaxin alterations and the significance of their receptor system components in the hearts of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. We measured rat relaxin-1 (equivalent to human relaxin-2), relaxin-3, RXFP1 and RXFP3 mRNA expression in the hearts of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and cardiac fibroblasts were treated with 5...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775095/transglutaminase-2-in-pulmonary-and-cardiac-tissue-remodeling-in-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Krishna C Penumatsa, Deniz Toksoz, Rod R Warburton, Mousa Kharnaf, Ioana R Preston, Navin Kumar Kapur, Chaitan Khosla, Nicholas S Hill, Barry L Fanburg
Tissue matrix remodeling and fibrosis leading to loss of pulmonary arterial and right ventricular compliance are important features of both experimental and clinical pulmonary hypertension (PH). We have previously reported that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is involved in PH development while others have shown it to be a crosslinking enzyme that participates in remodeling of extracellular matrix in fibrotic diseases in general. In the present studies, we used a mouse model of experimental PH (Sugen 5416 and hypoxia; SuHypoxia) and cultured primary human cardiac and pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts to evaluate the relationship of TG2 to the processes of fibrosis, protein crosslinking, extracellular matrix collagen accumulation and fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775062/de-novo-fgf12-fibroblast-growth-factor-12-functional-variation-is-potentially-associated-with-idiopathic-ventricular-tachycardia
#12
Qianqian Li, Yuanyuan Zhao, Gang Wu, Shanshan Chen, Yingchao Zhou, Sisi Li, Mengchen Zhou, Qian Fan, Jielin Pu, Kui Hong, Xiang Cheng, Qing Kenneth Wang, Xin Tu
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a type of cardiac arrhythmia occurring in structurally normal hearts. The heritability of idiopathic VT remains to be clarified, and numerous genetic factors responsible for development of idiopathic VT are as yet unclear. Variations in FGF12 (fibroblast growth factor 12), which is expressed in the human ventricle and modulates the cardiac Na(+) channel NaV1.5, may play an important role in the genetic pathogenesis of VT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that genetic variations in FGF12 are associated with VT in 2 independent Chinese cohorts and resequenced all the exons and exon-intron boundaries and the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of FGF12 in 320 unrelated participants with idiopathic VT...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774883/the-cardiac-microenvironment-uses-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-to-activate-monocytes-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Ingmar Sören Meyer, Andreas Jungmann, Christoph Dieterich, Min Zhang, Felix Lasitschka, Susann Werkmeister, Jan Haas, Oliver J Müller, Michael Boutros, Matthias Nahrendorf, Hugo A Katus, Stefan E Hardt, Florian Leuschner
A disturbed inflammatory response following myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with poor prognosis and increased tissue damage. Monocytes are key players in healing after MI, but little is known about the role of the cardiac niche in monocyte activation. This study investigated microenvironment-dependent changes in inflammatory monocytes after MI RNA sequencing analysis of murine Ly6C(high) monocytes on day 3 after MI revealed differential regulation depending on location. Notably, the local environment strongly impacted components of the WNT signaling cascade...
August 3, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774379/fibrogenic-potential-of-pw1-peg3-expressing-cardiac-stem-cells
#14
Elisa Yaniz-Galende, Maguelonne Roux, Sophie Nadaud, Nathalie Mougenot, Marion Bouvet, Olivier Claude, Guillaume Lebreton, Catherine Blanc, Florence Pinet, Fabrice Atassi, Claire Perret, France Dierick, Sébastien Dussaud, Pascal Leprince, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Giovanna Marazzi, David Sassoon, Jean-Sébastien Hulot
BACKGROUND: Pw1 gene expression is a marker of adult stem cells in a wide range of tissues. PW1-expressing cells are detected in the heart but are not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: The authors characterized cardiac PW1-expressing cells and their cell fate potentials in normal hearts and during cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: A human cardiac sample was obtained from a patient presenting with reduced left ventricular (LV) function following a recent MI...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772272/vascularized-cardiac-spheroids-as-novel-3d-in-vitro-models-to-study-cardiac-fibrosis
#15
Gemma A Figtree, Kristen J Bubb, Owen Tang, Eddy Kizana, Carmine Gentile
Spheroid cultures are among the most explored cellular biomaterials used in cardiovascular research, due to their improved integration of biochemical and physiological features of the heart in a defined architectural three-dimensional microenvironment when compared to monolayer cultures. To further explore the potential use of spheroid cultures for research, we engineered a novel in vitro model of the heart with vascularized cardiac spheroids (VCSs), by coculturing cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts isolated from dissociated rat neonatal hearts (aged 1-3 days) in hanging drop cultures...
August 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771625/inhibition-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-ameliorates-cardiac-ischemia-and-systolic-dysfunction-by-up-regulating-the-fgf-2-egr-1-pathway
#16
Masayoshi Suda, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Yuka Hayashi, Ryutaro Ikegami, Goro Katsuumi, Takayuki Wakasugi, Yutaka Yoshida, Shujiro Okuda, Tomoyoshi Soga, Tohru Minamino
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors are used worldwide in the management of diabetes, but their role in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disorders has yet to be defined. We found that linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, suppressed capillary rarefaction in the hearts of mice with dietary obesity. Metabolomic analysis performed with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that linagliptin promoted favorable metabolic remodeling in cardiac tissue, which was characterized by high levels of citrulline and creatine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771545/augmented-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-signaling-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-through-angiotensin-ii-and-interleukin-6
#17
Sei-Ichiro Ohkura, Soichiro Usui, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Noriko Takuwa, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Yasuo Okamoto, Yutaka Inagaki, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Teppei Kitano, Masayuki Takamura, Takashi Wada, Shuichi Kaneko, Yoh Takuwa
Cardiac fibroblasts, together with cardiomyocytes, occupy the majority of cells in the myocardium and are involved in myocardial remodeling. The lysophospholipid mediator sphigosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates functions of cardiovascular cells through multiple receptors including S1PR1-S1PR3. S1PR1 but not other S1P receptors was upregulated in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic hearts. Therefore, we investigated a role of S1PR1 in fibroblasts for cardiac remodeling by employing transgenic mice that overexpressed S1PR1 under the control of α-smooth muscle actin promoter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768721/the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-monocyte-derived-macrophages-is-critical-for-cardiac-infarct-repair-and-remodeling
#18
Paolo Galuppo, Sabine Vettorazzi, Julian Hövelmann, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Jan Peter Tuckermann, Johann Bauersachs, Daniela Fraccarollo
Cell- and tissue-specific actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor. Here, we demonstrate that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in macrophages is essential for cardiac healing after myocardial infarction. Compared with GR(flox) (wild-type controls), GR(LysMCre) mice that lacked GR in myeloid cells showed increased acute mortality as a result of cardiac rupture. Seven days after left coronary artery ligation, GR(LysMCre) mice exhibited worse cardiac function and adverse remodeling associated with impaired scar formation and angiogenic response to ischemic injury...
August 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765558/cardiac-spheroids-as-promising-in-vitro-models-to-study-the-human-heart-microenvironment
#19
Liudmila Polonchuk, Mamta Chabria, Laura Badi, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Gemma Figtree, Michael J Davies, Carmine Gentile
Three-dimensional in vitro cell systems are a promising alternative to animals to study cardiac biology and disease. We have generated three-dimensional in vitro models of the human heart ("cardiac spheroids", CSs) by co-culturing human primary or iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts at ratios approximating those present in vivo. The cellular organisation, extracellular matrix and microvascular network mimic human heart tissue. These spheroids have been employed to investigate the dose-limiting cardiotoxicity of the common anti-cancer drug doxorubicin...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763735/a-new-scanning-mode-to-improve-scanning-ion-conductance-microscopy-imaging-rate-with-pipette-predicted-movement
#20
Jian Zhuang, Yangbohan Jiao, Vincent Mugabo
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a non-contact surface topography measurement technique that has been increasingly used for soft surfaces such as living biological samples. An approach-retract scanning (ARS) mode is widely used to avoid collision between the SICM probe (i.e., pipette) and an abrupt increase in sample profile. However, the redundant pipette trajectory in the ARS mode lengthens the scan time, thus reducing SICM efficiency and time resolution. To avoid this problem, a new scanning mode is discussed that adds horizontal movement at each measurement point to predict the upcoming sample topography via variation in ion current...
July 23, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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