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Cardiac fibroblast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642406/lnc-ing-fibroblasts-to-cardiac-fibrosis
#1
EDITORIAL
Caitlin Czajka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641008/hypoxia-induced-changes-in-the-fibroblast-secretome-exosome-and-whole-cell-proteome-using-cultured-cardiac-derived-cells-isolated-from-neonatal-mice
#2
Jake Cosme, Hongbo Guo, Sina Hadipour-Lakmehsari, Andrew Emili, Anthony O Gramolini
Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) represent a major subpopulation of cells in the developing and adult heart. Cardiomyocyte (CM) and CF intercellular communication occurs through paracrine interactions and modulate myocyte development and stress response. Detailed proteomic analysis of the CF secretome in normal and stressed conditions may offer insights into the role of CF in heart development and disease. Primary neonatal mouse CF were isolated and cultured for 24h in 21% (normoxic) or 2% (hypoxic) O2. Conditioned media was separated to obtain EXO and EXO-depleted secretome fractions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640451/cardiac-fibrosis-and-arrhythmogenesis
#3
My-Nhan Nguyen, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Ming Gao, Xiao-Jun Du
Myocardial injury, mechanical stress, neurohormonal activation, inflammation, and/or aging all lead to cardiac remodeling, which is responsible for cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis. Of the key histological components of cardiac remodeling, fibrosis either in the form of interstitial, patchy, or dense scars, constitutes a key histological substrate of arrhythmias. Here we discuss current research findings focusing on the role of fibrosis, in arrhythmogenesis. Numerous studies have convincingly shown that patchy or interstitial fibrosis interferes with myocardial electrophysiology by slowing down action potential propagation, initiating reentry, promoting after-depolarizations, and increasing ectopic automaticity...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639003/the-crucial-role-of-activin-a-alk4-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ang-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Qian Wang, Ying Yu, Pengpai Zhang, Yihe Chen, Changyi Li, Jie Chen, Yuepeng Wang, Yigang Li
Atrial fibrosis, the hallmark of structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/Smad2/3/4 pathway has been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin A and its specific downstream component activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637928/the-long-noncoding-rna-wisper-controls-cardiac-fibrosis-and-remodeling
#5
Rudi Micheletti, Isabelle Plaisance, Brian J Abraham, Alexandre Sarre, Ching-Chia Ting, Michael Alexanian, Daniel Maric, Damien Maison, Mohamed Nemir, Richard A Young, Blanche Schroen, Arantxa González, Samir Ounzain, Thierry Pedrazzini
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as powerful regulators of cardiac development and disease. However, our understanding of the importance of these molecules in cardiac fibrosis is limited. Using an integrated genomic screen, we identified Wisper (Wisp2 super-enhancer-associated RNA) as a cardiac fibroblast-enriched lncRNA that regulates cardiac fibrosis after injury. Wisper expression was correlated with cardiac fibrosis both in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) and in heart tissue from human patients suffering from aortic stenosis...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631381/tec-controls-pluripotency-and-early-cell-fate-decisions-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-regulation-of-fgf2-secretion
#6
Tereza Vanova, Zaneta Konecna, Zuzana Zbonakova, Giuseppe La Venuta, Karolina Zoufalova, Sarka Jelinkova, Miroslav Varecha, Vladimir Rotrekl, Pavel Krejci, Walter Nickel, Petr Dvorak, Michaela Kunova Bosakova
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) require signaling provided by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors. This can be initiated by the recombinant FGF2 ligand supplied exogenously, but hPSC further support their niche by secretion of endogenous FGF2. In this study, we describe a role of TEC kinase (tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma) in this process. We show that TEC-mediated FGF2 secretion is essential for hPSC self-renewal, and its lack mediates specific differentiation. Following both shRNA- and siRNA-mediated TEC knock-down, hPSC secrete less FGF2...
June 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631251/regulation-of-cardiac-myocyte-cell-death-and-differentiation-by-myocardin
#7
REVIEW
Joseph W Gordon
Myocardin is a cardiac- and smooth muscle-enriched transcriptional co-activator that was originally described as an interacting partner of the serum response factor. Shortly after myocardin's discovery, a wealth of published literature described the role of myocardin as a regulator of smooth muscle differentiation and phenotype modulation, while gene-targeting studies confirmed the essential role of myocardin in vascular development. More recently, myocardin has been implicated as an important regulator of cardiac myocyte differentiation in studies demonstrating direct programming of fibroblasts towards the cardiac lineage...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630135/inhibition-of-the-cardiac-fibroblast-enriched-lncrna-meg3-prevents-cardiac-fibrosis-and-diastolic-dysfunction
#8
Maria-Teresa Piccoli, Shashi Gupta, Janika Viereck, Ariana Foinquinos, Sabine Samolovac, Freya Kramer, Ankita Garg, Janet Remke, Karina Zimmer, Sandor Batkai, Thomas Thum
Rationale: Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) drive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling following pressure overload, leading to fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Recent studies described the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cardiac pathologies. Nevertheless, detailed reports on lncRNAs regulating CF biology and describing their implication in cardiac remodeling are still missing. Objective: Here, we aimed at characterizing lncRNA expression in murine CFs following chronic pressure overload, in order to identify CF-enriched lncRNAs and investigate their function and contribution to cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction...
June 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629100/biomaterials-and-cells-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering-current-choices
#9
REVIEW
Rusha Chaudhuri, Madhumitha Ramachandran, Pearl Moharil, Megha Harumalani, Amit K Jaiswal
The major purpose of cardiac tissue engineering is to engineer cells on scaffolds and use it as a substitute to infarcted cardiac cells. With an ever-increasing risk of cardiac diseases there is an increasing need to have a stable and sustainable approach to cure such ailments. This review provides a comprehensive update on the cell sources and biomaterials essential for cardiac tissue engineering, ensuring their biocompatibility under a variety of conditions. Cells can be obtained from allogenic or autologous sources...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628890/interleukin-6-induced-activation-of-a-non-selective-outward-cation-conductance-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts
#10
Vadim Mitrokhin, Viktor Kazanski, Vladimir Kalsin, Mitko Mladenov, Andre Kamkin
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that cardiac fibroblasts of the human heart have several myocyte-like features, induced by inflammation. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the changes of the expressed currents in the basal condition and in the presence of interleukin-6 in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. METHODS: Human cardiac fibroblasts were cultured as monolayers from earlier passages (2-4). Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed on single culture human cardiac fibroblasts...
June 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626076/cardiac-fibroblast-transcriptome-analyses-support-a-role-for-interferogenic-profibrotic-and-inflammatory-genes-in-anti-ssa-ro-associated-congenital-heart-block
#11
Robert M Clancy, Androo J Markham, Tanisha Jackson, Sara E Rasmussen, Miroslav Blumenberg, Jill P Buyon
The signature lesion of SSA/Ro autoantibody-associated congenital heart block (CHB) is fibrosis and a macrophage infiltrate, supporting an experimental focus on cues influencing the fibroblast component. The transcriptomes of human fetal cardiac fibroblasts were analyzed using two complementary approaches. Cardiac injury conditions were simulated in vitro by incubating human fetal cardiac fibroblasts with supernatants from macrophages transfected with the SSA/Ro-associated hY3. The top ten upregulated transcripts in the stimulated fibroblasts reflected a type I interferon (IFN) response (e...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625151/na-k-atpase-as-a-target-for-treatment-of-tissue-fibrosis
#12
Sergei N Orlov, Jenifer La, Larisa V Smolyaninova, Nickolai O Dulin
Myofibroblast activation is a critical process in the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis accounting for 45% of all deaths. No effective therapies are available for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. We focus our mini-review on recent data showing that cardiotonic steroids (CTS) that are known as potent inhibitors of Na+,K+-ATPase affect myofibroblast differentiation in a cell type-specific manner. In cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF), epithelial cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts, CTS blocked myofibroblast differentiation triggered by profibrotic cytokine TGF-β...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623695/injectable-cytocompatible-elastic-free-radical-scavenging-and-electroconductive-hydrogel-for-cardiac-cell-encapsulation
#13
Remya Komeri, Jayabalan Muthu
The injectable electroconductive hydrogels are desirable for the regenerative therapy of electroresponsive tissues like heart. With the present electroconductive hydrogels, the issues of cytotoxicity, biodegradability, and diffusion of the conductive element and poor water solubility limit their applications. Here, electroconductive injectable single component hydrogels, PANIE-P/PEGDA and PANIS-P/PEGDA, are prepared with fumarate-co-PEG-co-sebacate comacromer conjugated with non-sulfonated/sulfonated polyaniline and PEGDA...
June 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615545/inhibitory-effects-of-low-decibel-infrasound-on-the-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-the-involved-mechanism
#14
Wei Jin, Qin-Qin Deng, Bao-Ying Chen, Zhen-Xing Lu, Qing Li, Hai-Kang Zhao, Pan Chang, Jun Yu, Zhao-Hui Pei
INTRODUCTION: Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611666/mineralocorticoid-receptor-signaling-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-renal-and-cardiac-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Greg H Tesch, Morag J Young
Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays important roles in both physiological and pathological events. Blockade of MR signaling with MR antagonists (MRAs) has been used clinically to treat kidney and cardiac disease associated with hypertension and other chronic diseases, resulting in suppression of fibrosis in these organs. However, the current use of steroidal MRAs has been limited by off target effects on other hormone receptors or adverse effects on kidney tubular function. In this review, we summarize recent insights into the profibrotic roles of MR signaling in kidney and cardiovascular disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607031/the-mechanism-of-tgf-%C3%AE-mir-155-c-skiregulates-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#16
Juan Wang, Wen He, Xiao Xu, Liping Guo, Ying Zhang, Suxia Han, Difei Shen
Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) have the potential to undergo fibrogenic endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which results in matrix-producing fibroblasts and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Recently, the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is shown to be the crucial pathogenic driver which has been verified to induce EndMT. C-Ski is an important regulator of TGF-β signaling. However, the detailed role of c-Ski and the molecular mechanisms by which c-Ski affects TGF-β-induced EndMT in HCAECs are not largely elucidated...
June 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601026/the-use-of-biologics-in-the-management-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
David A Taylor
The use of biologic agents including monoclonal antibodies, recombinant proteins, non-coding RNAs (miRNAs), gene therapy and, especially, stem cell therapy have revolutionized the treatment of a variety of diseases. Most notably, success in treating cancers have been achieved using hematopoietic stem cell therapy. Use of these agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease is still in its infancy but recent advances have identified several new biologic agents. Current clinical trials are evaluating the success of stem cell therapy and fibroblast therapy as well as agents that either mimic or inhibit non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) as possible treatments for a several cardiac pathologies including heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595013/fibroblast-activation-protein-alpha-activated-tripeptide-bufadienolide-anti-tumor-prodrug-with-reduced-cardiotoxicity
#18
Li-Juan Deng, Long-Hai Wang, Cheng-Kang Peng, Yi-Bin Li, Mao-Hua Huang, Min-Feng Chen, Xue-Ping Lei, Ming Qi, Yun Cen, Wen-Cai Ye, Dong-Mei Zhang, Wei-Min Chen
Bufadienolides are the major pharmacologic constituents of traditional Chinese medicine Chan'su, which are frequently used clinically for cancer treatment in China. Motivated by reducing or avoiding the cardiac toxicity of bufadienolides, we have designed, synthesized and evaluated the fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAPα)-activated tripeptide arenobufagin prodrugs with the purpose of improving the safety of arenobufagin (a representative bufadienolide). Among these FAPα-activated prodrugs, 3f exhibited the best hydrolytic efficiency by recombinant human FAPα (rhFAPα), and are selectively activated in tumors...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592882/ml290-is-a-biased-allosteric-agonist-at-the-relaxin-receptor-rxfp1
#19
Martina Kocan, Mohsin Sarwar, Sheng Y Ang, Jingbo Xiao, Juan J Marugan, Mohammed A Hossain, Chao Wang, Dana S Hutchinson, Chrishan S Samuel, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ross A D Bathgate, Roger J Summers
Activation of the relaxin receptor RXFP1 has been associated with improved survival in acute heart failure. ML290 is a small molecule RXFP1 agonist with simple structure, long half-life and high stability. Here we demonstrate that ML290 is a biased agonist in human cells expressing RXFP1 with long-term beneficial actions on markers of fibrosis in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). ML290 did not directly compete with orthosteric relaxin binding and did not affect binding kinetics, but did increase binding to RXFP1...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591674/high-frequency-power-within-the-qrs-complex-in-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-patients-with-ventricular-arrhythmias-insights-from-a-clinical-study-and-computer-simulation-of-cardiac-fibrous-tissue
#20
Takeshi Tsutsumi, Yoshiwo Okamoto, Nami Takano, Daisuke Wakatsuki, Takanobu Tomaru, Toshiaki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: The distribution of frequency power (DFP) within the QRS complex (QRS) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the DFP within the QRS in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with lethal ventricular arrhythmias (L-VA). A computer simulation was performed to explore the mechanism of abnormal frequency power. METHODS: The study included 31 ICM patients with and without L-VA (n = 10 and 21, respectively). We applied the continuous wavelet transform to measure the time-frequency power within the QRS...
May 22, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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