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Congenital hydronephrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161315/renal-development-in-the-fetus-and-premature-infant
#1
REVIEW
Stacy Rosenblum, Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly Reidy
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the leading congenital defects to be identified on prenatal ultrasound. CAKUT represent a broad spectrum of abnormalities, from transient hydronephrosis to severe bilateral renal agenesis. CAKUT are a major contributor to chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) in children. Prenatal imaging is useful to identify CAKUT, but will not detect all defects. Both genetic abnormalities and the fetal environment contribute to CAKUT. Monogenic gene mutations identified in human CAKUT have advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms of renal development...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050077/retrocaval-ureter-or-preureteral-vena-cava-lest-we-forget-this-rare-cause-of-hydronephrosis
#2
Saikat Bhattacharjee, Sunil Sanga, Pooja Gupta, R A George
Retrocaval ureter or circumcaval ureter is a rare congenital abnormality arising from dysgenesis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) that results in the right ureter coursing behind and medial to the IVC. The ideal nomenclature for the anomaly is preureteral vena cava, keeping in mind the aberrant embryology. It can result in hydronephrosis and is a rare cause of long-standing cyclical pain abdomen. Ultrasound, intravenous urography, nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography urography (CTU) and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) have been used in the diagnosis of this abnormality but CTU, with its ability to depict the abnormality in three dimensions gives the most "wholesome" solution to its diagnosis...
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993715/appearance-of-pyelitis-emphysematosa-on-computed-tomography
#3
Todd S Yecies, Brian T Kadow, Stephen V Jackman
Pyelitis emphysematosa is a gas-forming infection characterized by gas located within the wall of the collecting system and renal pelvis. There are only 2 reported cases of pyelitis emphysematosa in the literature, neither of which occurred in the era of cross-sectional imaging. Here we present a case of pyelitis emphysematosa occurring in an elderly female with congenital left renal atrophy and chronic right hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
December 16, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939966/prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-prenatal-hydronephrosis-importance-of-gravity-assisted-drainage
#4
Rachael D Sussman, Emily S Blum, Bruce M Sprague, Massoud Majd, H Gil Rushton, Hans G Pohl
PURPOSE: In infants with SFU (Society for Fetal Urology) grade 3-4 congenital hydronephrosis, (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic renography assesses differential function and drainage half-time. We routinely also include the percent of radiotracer drained after 30 minutes of diuresis as well as after 15 minutes with the patient in the upright position. We investigated whether any 1 or more of these parameters on initial diuretic renography predicts persistent or worsening drainage parameters...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926352/3d-laparoscopy-in-neonates-and-infants
#5
Yury Kozlov, Konstantin Kovalkov, Vladimir Nowogilov
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on the successful application of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgeries in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in the young pediatric population. The purpose of this scientific work consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of 3D endosurgery in children. METHODS: Our experience is based on 110 endosurgical procedures performed in neonates and infants in the 3D format between January 2014 and May 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886392/deregulated-expression-of-ezh2-in-congenital-brainstem-disconnection
#6
P G Barth, E Aronica, S Fox, K Fluiter, M A J Weterman, A Poretti, D C Miller, E Boltshauser, B Harding, M Santi, F Baas
Congenital brainstem disconnection (CBSD) is an enigmatic embryo-fetal defect presenting as (sub)total absence of a segment between mesencephalon and lower brainstem. Rostro-caudal limits of the defect vary while the basal pons is always involved and the cerebellum is globally hypoplastic. A recent update and review[1] lists 14 cases, including 3 brain autopsy studies[1-3]. Necrosis and glial- or inflammatory reactions were absent. Inferior olivary nuclei were small or absent, pontine nuclei depleted, and the cerebellar dentate nuclei dysplastic...
November 25, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867849/laparoscopic-transposition-of-lower-pole-crossing-vessels-vascular-hitch-in-children-with-pelviureteric-junction-obstruction
#7
Ciro Esposito, Cosimo Bleve, Maria Escolino, Paolo Caione, Simona Gerocarni Nappo, Alessandra Farina, Maria Grazia Caprio, Mariapina Cerulo, Angela La Manna, Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza
BACKGROUND: Congenital hydronephrosis due to intrinsic or extrinsic uretero-pelvic-junction (UPJ) obstruction (UPJO) is a common problem in childhood UPJO may be caused by intrinsic disorganization or by extrinsic compression from crossing vessels (CV); extrinsic causes usually present symptomatically in older children. This report the large Italian experience in the treatment of children with extrinsic-UPJO by CV. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 51 children (17 girls and 34 boys, median age 10, 7 years) affected by extrinsic-UPJO were treated in three Italian institutions with laparoscopic transposition of CV (Hellström Vascular Hitch modified by Chapman)...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852120/kim-1-is-a-potential-urinary-biomarker-of-obstruction-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Daniel Olvera-Posada, Thamara Dayarathna, Marie Dion, Husain Alenezi, Alp Sener, John D Denstedt, Stephen E Pautler, Hassan Razvi
INTRODUCTION: Partial or complete obstruction of the urinary tract is a common and challenging urological condition that may occur in patients of any age. Serum creatinine is the most commonly used method to evaluate global renal function, although it has low sensitivity for early changes in the glomerular filtration rate or unilateral renal pathology. Hence, finding another measurable parameter that reflects the adaptation of the renal physiology to these circumstances is important. Several recent studies have assessed the use of new biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI), but the information among patients with stone disease and those with obstructive uropathy is limited...
February 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851658/interobserver-agreement-on-cortical-tracer-transit-in-99mtc-mag3-renography-applied-to-congenital-hydronephrosis
#9
Ana Isabel Santos, Liliana Violante, Susana Carmona, Ana Prata, Margarida Rodrigues Victor, Joaquim G Santos, Joaquim Araújo Sequeira, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Amy Piepsz
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate interobserver agreement on visual analysis of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-MAG3) renal tissue transit used for the evaluation of antenatal hydronephrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight Tc-MAG3 diuretic renograms were retrospectively collected between 1 and 31 December 2015. The 1-min reframed images were presented to four nuclear medicine consultants and to two nuclear medicine residents, one in the first year of the training program and the others in their fourth and final year...
February 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825745/maternal-urinary-carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-evaluating-fetal-hydronephrosis-a-pilot-study
#10
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Sorena Keihani, Seyedeh Maryam Kameli, Asal Hojjat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal urinary CA19-9 as a potential marker to diagnose severe antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) during pregnancy and to compare the values with those in normal pregnancies as controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 20 women in their third pregnancy trimester were enrolled. An anteroposterior pelvic diameter (APD) of ≥15 was considered as severe ANH. Case group consisted of 10 women with a diagnosis of severe ANH. Ten women with similar age, gestational age, fetal sex, normal ultrasonography, and no history of any congenital anomalies were chosen as controls...
November 4, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816985/determination-of-the-need-for-surgical-intervention-in-infants-diagnosed-with-fetal-hydronephrosis-in-china
#11
Lei Zhang, Chao Liu, Yan Li, Chao Sun, Xiang Li
BACKGROUND Hydronephrosis is a common congenital condition. The detection of fetal hydronephrosis by ultrasound presents a treatment dilemma. This study aims to examine postnatal follow-up and treatment for hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 210 infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed at the Qilu Hospital (Shangdong, China) between January 2005 and January 2013. The patient cohort was divided into four groups based on prenatal ultrasound examinations using the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) classification system...
November 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791437/urinary-biomarkers-for-renal-tract-malformations
#12
Pedro Magalhães, Joost P Schanstra, Emma Carrick, Harald Mischak, Petra Zürbig
Renal tract malformations (RTMs) are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract, which are the major cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Using immunoassay-based approaches (ELISA, western blot), individual urinary proteins including transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor and monocyte attractant proteins 1 were found to be associated to RTMs. However, only mass spectrometry (MS) based methods leading to the identification of panels of protein-based markers composed of fragments of the extracellular matrix allowed the prediction of progression of RTMs and its complications...
November 15, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790508/role-of-urinary-and-serum-carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-as-a-biomarker-in-diagnosis-of-adult-giant-hydronephrosis
#13
Indraneel Banerjee, Vinay Tomar, Sher Singh Yadav, Nachiket Vyas, Suresh Yadav, Brijesh Sathian
INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of adult Giant Hydronephrosis (GH) is congenital Uretero-Pelvic Junction (UPJ) obstruction. Conventional imaging modalities, like Intravenous Urography (IVU) and Computed Tomography Urography (CTU) and radionuclide renal scan can be fallacious. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a useful tumour marker for gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer. Only a few studies and case reports have shown raised serum levels due to benign hydronephrosis and GH...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686059/a-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-renal-protective-effects-of-selenium-with-vitamins-a-c-e-verapamil-and-losartan-against-extracorporeal-shockwave-lithotripsy-induced-renal-injury
#14
Ahmed R El-Nahas, Mohamed M Elsaadany, Diaa-Eldin Taha, Ahmed M Elshal, Mohamed Abo El-Ghar, Amani M Ismail, Essam A Elsawy, Hazem H Saleh, Ehab W Wafa, Amira Awadalla, Tamer S Barakat, Khaled Z Sheir
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C and E (selenium ACE, i.e. antioxidants), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and losartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted between August 2012 and February 2015. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with a single renal stone (<2 cm) suitable for ESWL...
January 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668835/laparoscopic-resection-and-end-to-end-ureteroureterostomy-for-midureteral-obstruction-in-children
#15
Liangsheng Lu, Yunli Bi, Xiang Wang, Shuangsui Ruan
PURPOSE: Midureteral obstruction is an extremely rare condition. This retrospective study assessed the outcomes of laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy (UU) in 13 children with midureteral obstructions. METHODS: Records of patients with midureteral obstruction who underwent laparoscopic end-to-end UU between July 2011 and August 2015 were reviewed. The medical records comprised patient demographic data, intraoperative details, postoperative outcomes, and related complications...
February 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617142/developmental-genetics-and-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#16
REVIEW
Natalie Uy, Kimberly Reidy
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are common birth defects and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in children. There is a wide spectrum of renal abnormalities, from mild hydronephrosis to more severe cases, such as bilateral renal dysplasia. The etiology of the majority of cases of CAKUT remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that genomic imbalance contributes to the pathogenesis of CAKUT. Advances in human and mouse genetics have contributed to increased understanding of the pathophysiology of CAKUT...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614810/comparison-of-transumbilical-multiport-and-standard-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty-in-children-mid-term-results-at-a-single-center
#17
Hong Mei, Xiang Zhao, Dan Li, Erhu Fang, Xiaojing Wang, Huajie Song, Jiarui Pu, Liduan Zheng, Qiangsong Tong
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of transumbilical multiport (TMLP) and standard laparoscopic pyeloplasty (SLP) for the treatment of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. METHODS: Forty-eight patients were included in this matched-pair study. The TMLP applied three transumbilical incisions for one 5-mm and two 3-mm ports, whereas SLP was undertaken with traditional three-port technique. The demographic, perioperative, and follow-up data were retrospectively compared between TMLP (n=24) and SLP (n=24) groups...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577218/-analysis-of-avpr2-gene-mutation-in-a-pedigree-affected-with-congenital-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#18
Zhijuan Dai, Luya Ruan, Jian Jin, Yanying Qian, Liang Wang, Zhen Shi, Chaoming Wu
OBJECTIVE: To detect potential mutation in a pedigree affected with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). METHODS: Clinical data of a male patient affected with NDI was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and five family members. The whole coding region of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. RESULTS: The patient presented polyuria and polydipsia postnatally...
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557727/pregnancy-outcomes-in-liver-transplant-recipients-a-15-year-single-center-experience
#19
Yu Kanzaki, Eiji Kondoh, Kaoru Kawasaki, Haruta Mogami, Yoshitsugu Chigusa, Ikuo Konishi
AIM: There are an increasing number of reports of pregnancy following liver transplantation, but many questions remain regarding preconception counseling and management of the pregnancy. The aim of this study was to report pregnancy outcomes in women who had undergone liver transplants and to gain insight into these issues. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of liver transplant recipients who had received prenatal care at Kyoto University Hospital between January 2001 and December 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545957/the-morphology-and-treatment-of-coexisting-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-in-lower-moiety-of-duplex-kidney
#20
Wei Liu, Liujuan Zhang, Rui Ma, Rongde Wu
BACKGROUND: Duplex kidney is a common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract, while ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in lower unit of duplex kidney is rare. Surgical treatment can be challenging in such cases. The aim was to report our experience in managements of UPJO in lower moiety of duplex kidney. METHODS: Among the pediatric patients with duplex system from 2007 to 2013, 7 children were diagnosed with UPJO in lower moiety. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed, mainly focused on anatomic aspects and operation details...
October 2016: International Journal of Surgery
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