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Ying Li, Jie Gao, Shu He, Yan Zhang, Qiwei Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. We carried out this comparison of multiple treatments based on sufficient data in attempt to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ADHD medication for children and adolescents. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database were used to search for relevant articles. Changes in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS) scores were used as outcomes for efficacy. Withdrawals due to all-cause, adverse effects and lack of efficacy were defined as primary outcomes evaluating the safety of such medications...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
James Ermer, Mary Corcoran, Kenneth Lasseter, Patrick T Martin
BACKGROUND: This open-label, crossover study examined lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and d-amphetamine pharmacokinetics in healthy adults after administration of an intact LDX capsule or after the capsule was emptied into orange juice or yogurt and the contents consumed. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers (N = 30) were administered a 70-mg LDX capsule or the contents of a 70-mg capsule mixed with yogurt or orange juice using a three-way crossover design. Blood samples were collected serially for up to 96 h postdose...
September 20, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Thomas J Blom, Paul E Keck, Stephanie L Williams, Jeffrey A Welge, Susan L McElroy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: Fifty participants with BED received LDX (20-70 mg/day) (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for up to 12 weeks in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, and flexible-dose trial. The primary outcome measure was binge eating (BE) days/week. RESULTS: In the primary longitudinal analysis, compared with placebo, LDX was not associated with a significantly greater rate of reduction in BE days/week, as well as BE episodes/week, and scores on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity or Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for binge eating scales...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
J J Criado-Álvarez, J González González, C Romo Barrientos, A Mohedano Moriano, J C Montero Rubio, J P Pérez Veiga
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioural disorders of childhood; its prevalence in Spain is estimated at 5-9%. Available treatments for this condition include methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and lisdexamfetamine, whose consumption increases each year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prevalence of ADHD was estimated by calculating the defined daily dose per 1,000 population per day of each drug and the total doses (therapeutic group N06BA) between 1992 and 2015 in each of the provinces of Castile-La Mancha (Spain)...
September 16, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
D Biezonski, R Shah, A Krivko, J Cha, D N Guilfoyle, J Hrabe, S Gerum, S Xie, Y Duan, R Bansal, B L Leventhal, B S Peterson, C Kellendonk, J Posner
Stimulant treatment is highly effective in mitigating symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though the neurobiological underpinnings of this effect have not been established. Studies using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with ADHD have suggested that long-term stimulant treatment may improve symptoms of ADHD in part by stimulating striatal hypertrophy. This conclusion is limited, however, as these studies have either used cross-sectional sampling or did not assess the impact of treatment length on their dependent measures...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Sheila Shanmugan, James Loughead, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga, Mark Elliott, Hari Hariharan, Dina Appleby, Deborah Kim, Kosha Ruparel, Ravinder Reddy, Thomas E Brown, C Neill Epperson
Many women with no history of executive dysfunction report difficulties in this domain during the menopause transition. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) has been suggested to be a safe and effective treatment option for these women. However, the mechanisms by which LDX improves executive functioning in these women is not known. Here we investigated the effects of LDX on brain activation and neurochemistry, hypothesizing that LDX would be associated with increased activation and decreased glutamate in executive regions...
August 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Evelina A Zimovetz, Stephen M Beard, Paul Hodgkins, Matthias Bischof, Josephine A Mauskopf, Juliana Setyawan
BACKGROUND: An economic analysis from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) evaluated the cost effectiveness of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) compared with atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have had an inadequate response to methylphenidate. METHODS: A 1-year decision-analytic model was constructed, with the health outcomes "response", "nonresponse", and "unable to tolerate". Clinical data were taken from a head-to-head, randomized controlled trial in inadequate responders to methylphenidate...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
Michele Fornaro, Marco Solmi, Giampaolo Perna, Domenico De Berardis, Nicola Veronese, Laura Orsolini, Licinia Ganança, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Preliminary placebo-controlled evidence paved the ground to the US Food and Drug Administration approval extension of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adults. OBJECTIVES: To provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) considering the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the acute and/or maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Eloisa Comiran, Fabiano Barreto, Leonardo Z Meneghini, Graciela Carlos, Pedro E Fröehlich, Renata Pereira Limberger
Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a long-acting prodrug stimulant indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and binge-eating disorder symptoms. In vivo hydrolysis of LDX amide bond releases the therapeutically active d-amphetamine (d-AMPH). Since toxicological tests in biological samples can detect AMPH due to the use of some medications, efficient methods are needed in order to correctly interpret the results. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of LDX and its main biotransformation product AMPH in human oral fluid, plasma and urine...
August 12, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Cynthia Richards, Roger S McIntyre, Richard Weisler, Angelo Sambunaris, Olga Brawman-Mintzer, Joseph Gao, Brooke Geibel, Matthew Dauphin, Manisha Madhoo
BACKGROUND: The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) augmentation of antidepressant monotherapy in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) from two phase 3 studies are reported. METHODS: Across study 1 (placebo, n=201; LDX, n=201) and study 2 (placebo, n=213; LDX, n=211), most participants (placebo and LDX) in the safety analysis set were female (study 1: 66.2% and 64.2%; study 2: 67.1% and 66.8%); mean±SD ages were 41.8±12...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kimberly A Brownley, Nancy D Berkman, Christine M Peat, Kathleen N Lohr, Katherine E Cullen, Carla M Bann, Cynthia M Bulik
Background: The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose: To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources: English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection: 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant medications are approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children over the age of 6 years. Fatal ingestion of stimulants by children has been reported, although most ingestions do not result in severe toxicity. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a once daily long-acting stimulant, is a prodrug requiring conversion to its active form, dextroamphetamine, in the bloodstream. Based on its unique pharmacokinetics, peak levels of d-amphetamine are delayed...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Amy R Johnson, Matthew L Banks, Bruce E Blough, Joshua A Lile, Katherine L Nicholson, S Stevens Negus
BACKGROUND: Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. METHODS: Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
David J Heal, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, Steven P Vickers
Compulsive and perseverative behaviour in binge-eating, female, Wistar rats was investigated in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model. Rats were trained to perform the conditioned avoidance response task. When proficient, the paradigm was altered to a food-associated conflict test by placing a chocolate-filled jar (empty jar for controls) in one compartment of the shuttle box. Entry into the compartment with the jar triggered the conditioning stimulus after a variable interval, and foot-shock 10 seconds later if the rat did not leave...
July 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Leah S Casuto, Susan L McElroy
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary treatment options for patients with BED...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Eloisa Comiran, Félix Henrique Kessler, Pedro Eduardo Fröehlich, Renata Pereira Limberger
Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) pro-drug used to treat Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) symptoms. The in vivo pharmacodynamics of LDX is the same as that of its active product d-AMPH, although there are a few qualitative and quantitative differences due to pharmacokinetics. Due to the specific pharmacokinetics of the long-acting stimulants, this article revises the pharmacokinetic studies on LDX, the newest amphetamine pro-drug. The Medline/Pubmed, Science Direct and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Lilacs and Ibecs) (2007-2016) databases were searched for articles and their list of references...
June 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vanisha Patel, Ashwin Subramani Krishna, Cassandra Lefevre, Mildred Kaagaza, Michael Wittkamp
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly common diagnosis of childhood that manifests with symptoms that affect cognitive, academic, behavioral, emotional, and social functioning. There are a multitude of pharmaceutical therapies to choose from when managing this condition, and though many studies on the safety and efficacy of these medications have been published, adverse effects still occur. CASE: This case discusses a previously healthy 8-year-old boy who had been prescribed 20-mg lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for ADHD however mistakenly took his brother's 36-mg methylphenidate extended-release tablets, resulting in hyperhidrosis, excessive thirst, polydipsia, and combative behavior that began within 3 hours of ingestion...
April 26, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Se-Hoon Shim, Hee-Jung Yoon, Jeongjae Bak, Sang-Woo Hahn, Yong-Ku Kim
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder of childhood, which often continues into adolescence and adulthood. Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and non-stimulants such as atomoxetine are effective medications for the treatment of ADHD. However, about 30% of patients do not respond to these medications. Pharmacological treatment for ADHD, although highly effective, is associated with marked variabilities in clinical response, optimal dosage needed and tolerability...
October 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Alain Joseph, Martin Cloutier, Annie Guérin, Roy Nitulescu, Vanja Sikirica
PURPOSE: To compare treatment adherence, discontinuation, add-on, and daily average consumption (DACON) among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving second-line lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) or atomoxetine (ATX), following methylphenidate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using US commercial claims databases (Q2/2009-Q3/2013). RESULTS: At month 12, the LDX cohort (N=2,718) had a higher adherence level (proportion of days covered: 0...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
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