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Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret
Why humans fear snakes is an old, yet unresolved debate. Its innate origin from evolutionary causes is debated against the powerful influence early experience, culture, media and religion may have on people's aversion to snakes. Here we show that the aversion to snakes in human beings may have been mistaken for an aversion to aposematic signals that are commonly displayed by snakes. A total of 635 children were asked to rate single item images as "nice" or "mean". Snakes, pets and smiley emoticon items were not rated as "mean" unless they displayed subtle aposematic signals in the form of triangular (rather than round) shapes...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
SeyedHosein Payandeh GharibDoust, Michael Heere, Magnus H Sørby, Morten B Ley, Dorthe B Ravnsbæk, Bjørn C Hauback, Radovan Černý, Torben R Jensen
Two new bimetallic sodium or potassium lanthanum borohydrides, NaLa(BH4)4 and K3La(BH4)6, are formed using La(BH4)3 free of metal halide by-products. NaLa(BH4)4 crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system with unit cell parameters, a = 6.7987(19), b = 17.311(5), c = 7.2653(19) Å and space group symmetry Pbcn. This compound has a new structure type built from brucite-like layers of octahedra (hcp packing of anions) with half of the octahedral sites empty leading to octahedral chains similar to rutile (straight chains) or α-PbO2 (zig-zag chains)...
November 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Daniel Goeleven
Spitting spiders (Scytodes sp.) spit a mixture of silk and glue at their prey during attack. In this note, we show that a nonsmooth oscillator can be used as a biomechanical model to describe the zig-zag patterns produced by the spit of the spider Scytodes thoracica.
November 12, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
George A Koumantakis, Maria Nikoloudaki, Sara Thacheth, Kalliroi Zagli, Konstantina Bitrou, Andreas Nigritinos, Leon Botton
Accurate recording of spinal posture with simple and accessible measurement devices in clinical practice may lead to spinal loading optimization in occupations related to prolonged sitting and standing postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the level of reliability of sagittal lumbosacral posture in quiet standing and the validity of the method in differentiating between male and female subjects, establishing in parallel a normative database. 183 participants (83 males and 100 females), with no current low back or pelvic pain, were assessed using the "iHandy Level" smartphone application...
2016: Advances in Orthopedics
Durga Karki, Nikhil Mehta, Ravi Prakash Narayan
BACKGROUND: Post-burn axillary and elbow scar contracture is a challenging problem to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the wide range of abduction and extension that should be achieved, respectively, while treating either of the joint. The aim of this paper is to highlight the use of subcutaneous pedicle propeller flap for the management of post-burn axillary and elbow contractures. METHODOLOGY: This is a prospective case study of axillary and elbow contractures managed at a tertiary care hospital using propeller flap based on subcutaneous pedicle from 2009 to 2014...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Serena Materazzi, Giovanni Zagli, Romina Nassini, Ilenia Bartolini, Stefano Romagnoli, Cosimo Chelazzi, Silvia Benemei, Andrea Coratti, Angelo Raffaele De Gaudio, Riccardo Patacchini
The role of endogenous H2S has been highlighted as a gaseous transmitter. The vascular smooth muscle inhibitory effects of H2S have been characterized in isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries in rats and mice. Our study was aimed at investigating the vascular effects of H2S on human isolated mesenteric arteries and examining the underlying mechanisms involved. All experiments were performed on rings (4-8mm long) of human mesenteric arteries obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of the University of Florence (app...
November 3, 2016: Microvascular Research
Scott Bressler, Hannah Goldberg, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham
Recent anecdotal reports from VA audiology clinics as well as a few published studies have identified a sub-population of Service Members seeking treatment for problems communicating in everyday, noisy listening environments despite having normal to near-normal hearing thresholds. Because of their increased risk of exposure to dangerous levels of prolonged noise and transient explosive blast events, communication problems in these soldiers could be due to either hearing loss (traditional or "hidden") in the auditory sensory periphery or from blast-induced injury to cortical networks associated with attention...
November 2, 2016: Hearing Research
David A Baltrus, Honour C McCann, David S Guttman
A remarkable shift in our understanding of plant pathogenic bacteria is underway. Until recently, nearly all research on phytopathogenic bacteria was focused on a small number of model strains, which provided a deep, but narrow perspective on plant-microbe interactions. Advances in genome sequencing technologies have changed this by enabling the incorporation of much greater diversity into comparative and functional research. We are now moving beyond a typological understanding of a select collection of strains, to a more generalized appreciation of breadth and scope of plant-microbe interactions...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Cheng-Lin Yang, Sheng-Dong Zhao, Yue-Sheng Wang
In this paper, experimental evidence of large complete bandgaps in a kind of light-weighted zig-zag lattice structure (ZLS) is presented. Ultrasonic experiments are conducted on the stainless steel slab designed with ZLS to detect the complete bandgaps. Also, the numerical simulations of the experiments by the finite element method are carried out. For comparison, we conduct the same experiments and numerical simulations on the stainless steel slab with straight lattice structure (SLS). Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results...
February 2017: Ultrasonics
Takahiro Sakurai, Ryo Saiki, Rong Jia Wei, Graham N Newton, Takuya Shiga, Hiroki Oshio
A series of bimetallic oxalate-bridged one-dimensional chains with monocationic dabco derivatives, ({R-dabco}[M(solv)2][Cr(ox)3]·n(solv)) (dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, H2ox = oxalate; R = H, M = Co (1); R = H, M = Zn (2); R = Bu, M = Co (3); R = Bu, M = Zn (4)) were synthesized. All compounds have one-dimensional zig-zag chain structures with R-dabco cations located between chains. Cryomagnetic studies reveal that 1 and 3 showed intrachain ferromagnetic interactions between Co(ii) and Cr(iii) ions and metamagnetic behaviour due to interchain antiferromagnetic interactions...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rui Cheng, Lu Zhu, Weijie Huang, Leidong Mao, Yiping Zhao
A controlled configurational change of micro-clusters in suspensions is essential for many smart material applications. In this paper, the dynamic process of ferromagnetic microrod clusters (FMRCs) under an external magnetic field was studied as a function of the cluster size N and the applied field B. The FMRCs rearranged from a side-by-side raft-like structure to an end-to-end chain-like structure, originating from coupled motions through the field-driven alignment of both ferromagnetic microrods and FMRCs...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Marco Smerieri, Igor Píš, Lara Ferrighi, Silvia Nappini, Angelique Lusuan, Cristiana Di Valentin, Luca Vaghi, Antonio Papagni, Mattia Cattelan, Stefano Agnoli, Elena Magnano, Federica Bondino, Letizia Savio
By a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray spectroscopic techniques and density functional theory calculations, we prove the formation of extended patterns of parallel, graphene nanoribbons with alternate zig-zag and armchair edges and selected width by surface-assisted Ullmann coupling polymerization and dehydrogenation of 1,6-dibromopyrene (C16H8Br2). Besides the relevance of these nanostructures for their possible application in nanodevices, we demonstrate the peculiarity of halogenated pyrene derivatives for the formation of nanoribbons, in particular on Ag(110)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Amalia Katafigioti, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Stavros Sfoungaristos, Christos Alamanis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Ioannis Anastasiou, Eleni Roumelioti, Mordechai Duvdevani, Constantinos Constantinides
OBJECTIVE: To search which category of proteins can be detected in urine in order to examine subsequently its ability to improve our accuracy for the diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PCa) as biomarkers in clinical useful fluids like urine and serum. Material and method(s): Urine samples of 127 patients were obtained after a vigorous transrectal prostatic massage to both lobes. The patients were considered to have a high risk for PCa according to their PSA (> 4 ng/ml), their digital rectal examination (DRE) (positive for suspicious prostatic lesions) or to their abnormal PSA kinetics (PSA velocity (PSAV > 0...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Zhengjia Wang, Jiahao Chen, Symon M Gathiaka, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Martin Thuo
Surface roughness, often captured through root-mean-square roughness (Rrms), has been shown to impact the quality of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed on coinage metals. Understanding the effect of roughness on hydrophobicity of SAMs, however, is complicated by the odd-even effect-a zigzag oscillation in contact angles with changes in molecular length. We recently showed that for surfaces with Rrms > 1 nm, the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity cannot be empirically observed. In this report, we compare wetting properties of SAMs on Ag and Au surfaces of different morphologies across the Rrms ∼ 1 nm limit...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
M D Belando, A Marín, M Aboal, A J García-Fernández, L Marín-Guirao
The effects of multiple stressors on marine diatom assemblages are still poorly understood. The interactive effects of metals and nutrients were assessed in two coastal biofilms grown at a reference site and a historically contaminated site. The biofilms were exposed in situ to pulse exposures of metals (Zn and Pb) and nutrients (N and P) individually and in combination to mimic patterns of discharge in the study area. The reference community's structure (composition and abundance of taxa) was modified after metals and/or nutrients exposure, but each stressor acted in different way...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Beatrice Fantini, Francesco Faglioni
Extremely short (<1 nm) fragments of zig-zag carbon nanotubes are studied with ab-initio techniques to determine their geometric and electronic structure as well as their magnetic susceptibility. It is found that for lengths of a few carbon-carbon bonds, each fragment can be viewed as composed of crowns, that is, zig-zag rings of carbon atoms along the circumference of the tube. In this case, two kinds of electronic structures are found, depending on whether the number of carbon atoms in each crown is even or odd...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xin Liao, Xuemei Wang, Haopeng Li, Ling Li, Guohao Zhang, Mengliu Yang, Lei Yuan, Hua Liu, Gangyi Yang, Lin Gao
ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ya-Ping Lee, Chin-Hao Chang, Heng-Hsiu Liu, Chin-Ying Chen, Ching-Yu Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Ching-I Chang, Yen-Ting Lin, Chung-Sheng Lee, Jaw-Shiun Tsai
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly.We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ananth Govind Rajan, Vishnu Sresht, Agilio A H Padua, Michael S Strano, Daniel Blankschtein
The existence of partially ionic bonds in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), as opposed to covalent bonds in graphene, suggests that polar (electrostatic) interactions should influence the interfacial behavior of two-dimensional MoS2 surfaces. In this work, using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that electrostatic interactions play a negligible role in determining not only the equilibrium contact angle on the MoS2 basal plane, which depends solely on the total interaction energy between the surface and the liquid, but also the friction coefficient and the slip length, which depend on spatial variations in the interaction energy...
August 30, 2016: ACS Nano
Bin Yang, James S Sharp, Mike I Smith
Films formed through the drying of nanoparticle suspensions release the build-up of strain through a variety of different mechanisms including shear banding, crack formation and delamination. Here we show that important connections exist between these different phenomena: delamination depends on the dynamics of crack hopping, which in turn is influenced by the presence of shear bands. We also show that delamination does not occur uniformly across the film. As cracks hop they locally initiate the delamination of the film which warps with a timescale much longer than that associated with the hopping of cracks...
2016: Scientific Reports
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