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Blake Ushijima, Claudia C Häse
Chemotaxis, the directed movement towards or away from a chemical signal, can be essential to bacterial pathogens for locating hosts or avoiding hostile environments. The coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus chemotaxes towards coral mucus; however, chemotaxis has not been experimentally demonstrated to be important for virulence. To further examine this, in-frame mutations were constructed in genes predicted to be important for V. coralliilyticus chemotaxis. Most Vibrio genomes encode multiple homologs of various chemotaxis-related genes and two paralogs of each for cheB , cheR , and cheA were identified...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
A Presotto, M P Verderane, L Biondi, O Mendonça-Furtado, N Spagnoletti, M Madden, P Izar
There is evidence that wild animals are able to recall key locations and associate them with navigational routes. Studies in primate navigation suggest most species navigate through the route network system, using intersections among routes as locations of decision-making. Recent approaches presume that points of directional change may be key locations where animals decide where to go next. Over four consecutive years, we observed how a wild group of bearded capuchin monkeys used a route network system and Change Point locations (CPs) in the Brazilian ecotone of Cerrado-Caatinga...
March 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
Raju Botta, Pongpan Chindaudom, Pitak Eiamchai, Mati Horprathum, Saksorn Limwichean, Chanunthorn Chananonnawathorn, Viyapol Patthanasettakul, Benjawan Kaewseekhao, Kiatichai Faksri, Noppadon Nuntawong
Nanostructures have been multiplying the advantages of Raman spectroscopy and further amplify the advantages of Raman spectroscopy is a continuous effort focused on the appropriate design of nanostructures. Herein, we designed different shapes of plasmonic nanostructures such as Vertical, Zig Zag, Slant nanorods and Spherical nanoparticles employing the DC magnetron sputtering system as SERS-active substrates for ultrasensitive detection of target molecules. The fabricated plasmonic nanostructures sensitivity and uniformity were exploited by reference dye analyte...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Toru Hyakutake, Kotaro Mori, Koichi Sato
Mammalian spermatozoa in organisms with internal fertilization are required to swim in the cervical and oviductal mucus, whose rheological properties differ substantially from those of water. Moreover, on the way to the oviduct, a change in sperm motility called hyperactivation may occur. In the present study, we focused on the motion characteristics of hyperactivated bovine sperm and investigated the effect of the surrounding fluid on motility. We prepared two kinds of polyacrylamide with high-viscosity non-Newtonian fluid properties, similar to the actual cervical and oviductal mucus...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Stanislav A Bondarev, Olga V Bondareva, Galina A Zhouravleva, Andrey V Kajava, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Numerous experimental studies have suggested that polypeptide chains of large amyloidogenic regions zig-zag in β-serpentine arrangements. These β-serpentines are stacked axially and form the superpleated β-structure. Despite this progress in the understanding of amyloid folds, the determination of their 3D structure at the atomic level is still a problem due to the polymorphism of these fibrils and incompleteness of experimental structural data. Today, the way to get insight into the atomic structure of amyloids is a combination of experimental studies with bioinformatics...
February 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Faeze Mojtabazade, Babak Mirtamizdoust, Ali Morsali, Pejman Talemi
A sonochemical method was used to synthesize nano-rods of a novel cadmium(II) metal-organic coordination polymer, [Cd(p-2yeinh)(NO2)]n (1) (p-2yeinh = pyridin-2-yl ethylidene-isonicotinohydrazide). The effect of the synthesis parameters such as time, concentrations and irradiation power has been studied and optimized. It was shown that the thickness of rods has changed from 27 nm to 45 nm. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), and single crystal X-ray analysis...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tiffany M Smith Pellizzeri, Michael A McGuire, Colin D McMillen, Yimei Wen, George Chumanov, Joseph W Kolis
Two new halide-containing cesium manganese vanadates have been synthesized by a high-temperature (580 °C) hydrothermal synthetic method from aqueous brine solutions. One compound, Cs3Mn(VO3)4Cl, (1) was prepared using a mixed cesium hydroxide/chloride mineralizer, and crystallizes in the polar noncentrosymmetric space group Cmm2, with a = 16.7820(8) Å, b = 8.4765(4) Å, c = 5.7867(3) Å. This structure is built from sinusoidal zig-zag (VO3)n chains that run along the b-axis and are coordinated to Mn2+ containing (MnO4Cl) square-pyramidal units that are linked together to form layers...
February 2, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Alejandro Bastida Castillo, Carlos D Gómez Carmona, Ernesto De la Cruz Sánchez, José Pino Ortega
There is interest in the accuracy and inter-unit reliability of position-tracking systems to monitor players. Research into this technology, although relatively recent, has grown exponentially in the last years, and it is difficult to find professional team sport that does not use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology at least. The aim of this study is to know the accuracy of both GPS-based and Ultra Wide Band (UWB)-based systems on a soccer field and their inter- and intra-unit reliability. A secondary aim is to compare them for practical applications in sport science...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Ahmad Ben Kiran, Teodora Mocanu, Alpár Pöllnitz, Sergiu Shova, Marius Andruh, Cristian Silvestru
The reaction of Ph3BiCl2 with alkali salts of isonicotinic and nicotinic acids afforded Ph3Bi[O(O)CC5H4N-4]2 (1) and Ph3Bi[O(O)CC5H4N-3]2 (2), respectively, which were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy in solution, mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy in the solid state. Their molecular structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. For both 1 and 2 the molecules contain a trigonal bipyramidal C3BiO2 core, with the phenyl groups in equatorial positions. The potential use of 1 and 2 as ditopic organometalloligands was investigated...
January 31, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yilmaz Gul, Stuart N Holmes, Maksym Myronov, Sanjeev Kumar, Michael Pepper
We have investigated hole transport in quantum wires formed by electrostatic confinement in strained germanium two-dimensional layers. The ballistic conductance characteristics show the regular staircase of quantum levels with plateaux at n2e2/h, where n is an integer, e is the fundamental unit of charge and h is Planck's constant. However as the carrier concentration is reduced, the quantised levels show a behaviour that is indicative of the formation of a zig-zag structure and new quantised plateaux appear at low temperatures...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Kyle W Morse, Nerys M Astbury, Alexandra Walczyszyn, Sami A Hashim, Allan Geliebter
The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate changes in plasma concentrations of zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a lipid mobilizing hormone, in obese subjects following Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery or a very low calorie diet (VLCD). Fasting blood concentrations and anthropometric measurements were measured pre and 12 weeks post intervention. 14 healthy, obese individuals underwent either RYGB (N=6) surgery or a VLCD (N=8). Body composition and fasting plasma ZAG concentrations were measured at baseline (pre) and 12 weeks post intervention (post)...
April 2017: Integrative Obesity and Diabetes
Queenie H S Chan, Michael E Zolensky, Yoko Kebukawa, Marc Fries, Motoo Ito, Andrew Steele, Zia Rahman, Aiko Nakato, A L David Kilcoyne, Hiroki Suga, Yoshio Takahashi, Yasuo Takeichi, Kazuhiko Mase
Direct evidence of complex prebiotic chemistry from a water-rich world in the outer solar system is provided by the 4.5-billion-year-old halite crystals hosted in the Zag and Monahans (1998) meteorites. This study offers the first comprehensive organic analysis of the soluble and insoluble organic compounds found in the millimeter-sized halite crystals containing brine inclusions and sheds light on the nature and activity of aqueous fluids on a primitive parent body. Associated with these trapped brines are organic compounds exhibiting wide chemical variations representing organic precursors, intermediates, and reaction products that make up life's precursor molecules such as amino acids...
January 2018: Science Advances
Duccio Fanelli, Francesco Ginelli, Roberto Livi, Niccoló Zagli, Clement Zankoc
We study a simple stochastic model of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory interactions. The model is defined on a directed lattice and internodes couplings are modulated by a nonlinear function that mimics the process of synaptic activation. We prove that such a system behaves as a fully tunable amplifier: the endogenous component of noise, stemming from finite size effects, seeds a coherent (exponential) amplification across the chain generating giant oscillations with tunable frequencies, a process that the brain could exploit to enhance, and eventually encode, different signals...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Xin-Hua Xiao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Ya-Di Wang, Li Ran, Jing Yang, Huan-Li Zhang, Can-Xin Xu, Ge-Bo Wen, Jiang-Hua Liu
Recent studies have highlighted recruiting and activating brite adipocytes in WAT (so-called "browning") would be an attractive anti-obesity strategy. Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is reported to ameliorate glycolipid metabolism and lose body weight in obese mice. However whether the body reducing effect mediated by browning programme remains unclear. Here, we show that overexpression of ZAG in 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced expression of brown fat-specific markers (UCP-1, PRDM16 and CIDEA), mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, NRF-1/2 and mtTFA) and the key lipid metabolism lipases (ATGL, HSL, CPT1-A and p-acyl-CoA carboxylase)...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Elizabeth G Clark, Bhart-Anjan S Bhullar, Simon A F Darroch, Derek E G Briggs
Understanding the water vascular system (WVS) in early fossil echinoderms is critical to elucidating the evolution of this system in extant forms. Here we present the first report of the internal morphology of the water vascular system of a stem ophiuroid. The radial canals are internal to the arm, but protected dorsally by a plate separate to the ambulacrals. The canals zig-zag with no evidence of constrictions, corresponding to sphincters, which control pairs of tube feet in extant ophiuroids. The morphology suggests that the unpaired tube feet must have operated individually, and relied on the elasticity of the radial canals, lateral valves and tube foot musculature alone for extension and retraction...
December 2017: Biology Letters
Chukkris Heawchaiyaphum, Chamsai Pientong, Pensiri Phusingha, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Supannee Promthet, Jureerut Daduang, Watchareporn Teeramatwanich, Bunkerd Kongyingyoes, Jureeporn Chuerduangphui, Tipaya Ekalaksananan
No effective screening method is available for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that is recognized to influence by environmental factors as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Therefore, we sought to identify salivary biomarkers for screening of OSCC with or without HPV and/or EBV infection. Saliva, lesion and oral exfoliated cells were collected from OSCC patients and cancer-free controls (CFCs) and grouped depending on their HPV- and EBV-infection status. Salivary protein was precipitated and subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Wencong Liu, Lu Lu, V F Mitrović
We conduct a comprehensive set of tests of performance of surface coils used for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of quasi-2-dimensional samples. We report115 In and31 P NMR measurements on InP, semi-conducting thin substrate samples. Surface coils of both zig-zag meander-line and concentric spiral geometries were used. We compare reception sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR signal obtained by using surface-type coils to that obtained by standard solenoid-type coils. As expected, we find that surface-type coils provide better sensitivity for NMR study of thin film samples...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
AliReza Setoodeh, Hamed Farahmand
In this paper, nonlinear behavior of black phosphorus crystals is investigated in tandem with dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) analysis under uniaxial loading. According to the distinguished anisotropic behavior of black phosphorus due to its morphological anisotropy, a hyperelastic anisotropic (HA) model named continuum-DFT is established to predict nonlinear behavior of the material. In this respect, uniaxial tensile Cauchy stresses are employed on both the DFT-D and HA models along zig-zag direction...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Sadat Zahed, Elham Alipoor
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential relationship of obesity, adipose tissue and novel adipokines with cardiometabolic risk factors in end-stage renal disease. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with proposed desirable effects on inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of ZAG and ATGL, and the relationship of these adipokines with cardiovascular risk factors in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) patients undergoing hemodialysis...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
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