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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638333/switching-adaptability-in-human-inspired-sidesteps-a-minimal-model
#1
Keisuke Fujii, Yuki Yoshihara, Hiroko Tanabe, Yuji Yamamoto
Humans can adapt to abruptly changing situations by coordinating redundant components, even in bipedality. Conventional adaptability has been reproduced by various computational approaches, such as optimal control, neural oscillator, and reinforcement learning; however, the adaptability in bipedal locomotion necessary for biological and social activities, such as unpredicted direction change in chase-and-escape, is unknown due to the dynamically unstable multi-link closed-loop system. Here we propose a switching adaptation model for performing bipedal locomotion by improving autonomous distributed control, where autonomous actuators interact without central control and switch the roles for propulsion, balancing, and leg swing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637597/effects-of-lower-body-quadrant-neural-mobilization-in-healthy-and-low-back-pain-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Tiago Neto, Sandro R Freitas, Marta Marques, Luis Gomes, Ricardo Andrade, Raúl Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Neural mobilization (NM) is widely used to assess and treat several neuromuscular disorders. However, information regarding the NM effects targeting the lower body quadrant is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of NM techniques targeting the lower body quadrant in healthy and low back pain (LBP) populations. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. METHOD: Randomized controlled trials were included if any form of NM was applied to the lower body quadrant...
February 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627598/curcumin-exerts-its-tumor-suppressive-function-via-inhibition-of-nedd4-oncoprotein-in-glioma-cancer-cells
#3
Xue Wang, Jiaojiao Deng, Jinxia Yuan, Xin Tang, Yuelong Wang, Haifeng Chen, Yi Liu, Liangxue Zhou
Glioblastoma is the most common brain cancer in adults. It represents one of the top ten malignant tumors with an average survival time of nine months despite treatments with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Curcumin is a phytochemical turmeric isolated from root of the Curcuma longa plant. Accumulating evidence have proved that curcumin targets numerous cancer signaling pathways. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4, is frequently overexpressed in various cancers...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616913/-the-effect-of-exogenous-recombinant-hmgb1-on-neural-stem-cells-and-related-mechanism
#4
Hui-Min Zhang, Bo Wu, Tian Cao, Yu-Ying Yan, Ming Liu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of exogenous recombinant high mobility group protein box1 (rHMGB1) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the related mechanism. METHODS: SD rat cerebral cortex cells were cultured in serum-free medium, extending the culture and purification of neural stem cells. NSCs were identified by detecting nestin-label with immunofluorescence method.The NSCs proliferation activity after adding different concentrations of rHMGB1 was determined by CCK-8 assay and the optimal concentration of rHMGB1 for the follow-up experiments was selected...
May 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612930/peer-influence-via-instagram-effects-on-brain-and-behavior-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#5
Lauren E Sherman, Patricia M Greenfield, Leanna M Hernandez, Mirella Dapretto
Mobile social media often feature the ability to "Like" content posted by others. This study examined the effect of Likes on youths' neural and behavioral responses to photographs. High school and college students (N = 61, ages 13-21) viewed theirs and others' Instagram photographs while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants more often Liked photographs that appeared to have received many (vs. few) Likes. Popular photographs elicited greater activity in multiple brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a hub of the brain's reward circuitry...
June 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611621/whole-body-awareness-for-controlling-a-robotic-transfemoral-prosthesis
#6
Andrea Parri, Elena Martini, Joost Geeroms, Louis Flynn, Guido Pasquini, Simona Crea, Raffaele Molino Lova, Dirk Lefeber, Roman Kamnik, Marko Munih, Nicola Vitiello
Restoring locomotion functionality of transfemoral amputees is essential for early rehabilitation treatment and for preserving mobility and independence in daily life. Research in wearable robotics fostered the development of innovative active mechatronic lower-limb prostheses designed with the goal to reduce the cognitive and physical effort of lower-limb amputees in rehabilitation and daily life activities. To ensure benefits to the users, active mechatronic prostheses are expected to be aware of the user intention and properly interact in a closed human-in-the-loop paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604624/convolutional-neural-network-based-robot-navigation-using-uncalibrated-spherical-images
#7
Lingyan Ran, Yanning Zhang, Qilin Zhang, Tao Yang
Vision-based mobile robot navigation is a vibrant area of research with numerous algorithms having been developed, the vast majority of which either belong to the scene-oriented simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) or fall into the category of robot-oriented lane-detection/trajectory tracking. These methods suffer from high computational cost and require stringent labelling and calibration efforts. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a lightweight robot navigation framework based purely on uncalibrated spherical images...
June 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603378/application-of-extracorporeal-shockwaves-in-the-treatment-of-scoliosis-a-case-report
#8
Hans-Rudolf Weiss
[Purpose] In a pilot investigation, extracorporeal shockwave therapy was applied to patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This case report aimed to describe the effects of repeated extracorporeal shockwave therapy on the clinical signs of a patient with scoliosis due to a functional tethered cord syndrome. [Subject and Methods] In June 2016, a 13-year-old girl presented with a left thoracic curvature. Radiograph showed a left thoracic curve of 24°. An angle of trunk rotation of 21° was measured using a scoliometer...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603349/neural-manual-vs-robotic-assisted-mobilization-to-improve-motion-and-reduce-pain-hypersensitivity-in-hand-osteoarthritis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Kristin Valdes, Grace Imperio, Alberto Borboni, Raquel Cantero-Téllez, Silvia Galeri, Stefano Negrini
[Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602870/ultrasound-mediated-nanoparticle-delivery-across-ex-vivo-bovine-retina-after-intravitreal-injection
#10
Di Huang, Ying-Shan Chen, Ilva D Rupenthal
Intravitreal injection is the most common administration route for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, the vitreous and some of the retinal layers themselves act as significant barriers to efficient delivery of drugs administered intravitreally. This study aimed to improve the diffusive mobility of nanoparticles (NPs) in the vitreous and enhance their permeation across the retina after intravitreal injection by application of ultrasound (US). Ex vivo posterior bovine eye cups were used and the vitreous was either left intact or removed gently from the neural retina...
June 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601095/reactive-stepping-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-in-response-to-forward-directed-perturbations
#11
Alexander J Hunt, Brooke M Odle, Lisa M Lombardo, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: Implanted motor system neuroprostheses can be effective at increasing personal mobility of persons paralyzed by spinal cord injuries. However, currently available neural stimulation systems for standing employ patterns of constant activation and are unreactive to changing postural demands. METHODS: In this work, we developed a closed-loop controller for detecting forward-directed body disturbances and initiating a stabilizing step in a person with spinal cord injury...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600534/intracranial-fluid-redistribution-but-no-white-matter-microstructural-changes-during-a-spaceflight-analog
#12
Vincent Koppelmans, Ofer Pasternak, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Roy Riascos, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
The neural correlates of spaceflight-induced sensorimotor impairments are unknown. Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) serves as a microgravity analog because it mimics the headward fluid shift and axial body unloading of spaceflight. We investigated focal brain white matter (WM) changes and fluid shifts during 70 days of 6° HDBR in 16 subjects who were assessed pre (2x), during (3x), and post-HDBR (2x). Changes over time were compared to those in control subjects (n = 12) assessed four times over 90 days. Diffusion MRI was used to assess WM microstructure and fluid shifts...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588477/associations-between-mobility-cognition-and-brain-structure-in-healthy-older-adults
#13
Naiara Demnitz, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Clare E Mackay, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Helen Dawes, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier, Claire E Sexton
Mobility limitations lead to a cascade of adverse events in old age, yet the neural and cognitive correlates of mobility performance in older adults remain poorly understood. In a sample of 387 adults (mean age 69.0 ± 5.1 years), we tested the relationship between mobility measures, cognitive assessments, and MRI markers of brain structure. Mobility was assessed in 2007-2009, using gait, balance and chair-stands tests. In 2012-2015, cognitive testing assessed executive function, memory and processing-speed; gray matter volumes (GMV) were examined using voxel-based morphometry, and white matter microstructure was assessed using tract-based spatial statistics of fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588451/neurogenic-to-gliogenic-fate-transition-perturbed-by-loss-of-hmgb2
#14
Robert Bronstein, Jackson Kyle, Ariel B Abraham, Stella E Tsirka
Mouse cortical development relies heavily on a delicate balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. The lateral ventricular zone produces different classes of excitatory pyramidal cells until just before birth, when the production of astroglia begins to prevail. Epigenetic control of this fate shift is of critical importance and chromatin regulatory elements driving neuronal or astroglial development play an vital role. Different classes of chromatin binding proteins orchestrate the transcriptional repression of neuronal-specific genes, while allowing for the activation of astrocyte-specific genes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584116/high-mobility-group-box-1-as-an-autocrine-trophic-factor-in-white-matter-stroke
#15
Jun Young Choi, Yuexian Cui, Samma Tasneem Chowdhury, Byung Gon Kim
Maintenance of white matter integrity in health and disease is critical for a variety of neural functions. Ischemic stroke in the white matter frequently results in degeneration of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and myelin. Previously, we found that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expressed in OLs provides cell-autonomous protective effects on ischemic OL death and demyelination in white matter stroke. Here, we identified high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) as an endogenous TLR2 ligand that promotes survival of OLs under ischemic stress...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541664/prediction-of-collision-cross-section-values-for-small-molecules-application-to-pesticide-residue-analysis
#16
Lubertus Bijlsma, Richard Bade, Alberto Celma, Lauren Mullin, Gareth Cleland, Sara Stead, Felix Hernandez, Juan V Sancho
The use of collision cross-section (CCS) values obtained by ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry has added a third dimension (alongside retention time and exact mass) to aid in the identification of compounds. However, its utility is limited by the number of experimental CCS values currently available. This work demonstrates the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of CCS values of pesticides. The predictor, based on eight software-chosen molecular descriptors, was optimized using CCS values of 205 small molecules and validated using a set of 131 pesticides...
June 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533604/a-quasi-experimental-study-on-the-effects-of-instrument-assisted-soft-tissue-mobilization-on-mechanosensitive-neurons
#17
Weiqing Ge, Emily Roth, Alyssa Sansone
[Purpose] Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) is a form of manual therapy. Despite its growing popularity and an increasing number of patients receiving IASTM each year, there is a lack of high-level evidence to elucidate its therapeutic mechanisms and to support its clinical applications. The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of IASTM on activities of mechanosensitive neurons in skin. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three subjects, 9 females and 14 males, mean age 25...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532853/long-term-test-retest-reliability-of-event-related-potential-erp-recordings-during-treadmill-walking-using-the-mobile-brain-body-imaging-mobi-approach
#18
Brenda R Malcolm, John J Foxe, John S Butler, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Sophie Molholm, Pierfilippo De Sanctis
Advancements in acquisition technology and signal-processing techniques have spurred numerous recent investigations on the electro-cortical signals generated during whole-body motion. This approach, termed Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI), has the potential to elucidate the neural correlates of perceptual and cognitive processes during real-life activities, such as locomotion. However, as of yet, no one has assessed the long-term stability of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded under these conditions. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of cognitive ERPs recorded while walking...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#19
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512154/glucose-autoregulation-is-the-dominant-component-of-the-hormone-independent-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-the-conscious-dog
#20
Justin M Gregory, Noelia Rivera, Guillaume Kraft, Jason J Winnick, Ben Farmer, Eric J Allen, E Patrick Donahue, Marta S Smith, Dale S Edgerton, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia were determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained (group 1) or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dL) was allowed to occur. There were 3 hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (group 2), autoregulation in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (group 3), and autoregulation in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (group 4)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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