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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078074/fes-in-europe-and-beyond-current-translational-research
#1
Christine Azevedo Coste, Winfried Mayr, Manfred Bijak, Antonio Musarò, Ugo Carraro
Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES) is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators)...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069607/lysophosphatidic-acid-converts-monocytes-into-macrophages-in-both-mice-and-humans
#2
Rashmi Ray, Vivek Rai
Monocytes and macrophages represent critical arms of the innate immune system and are considered regulators and effectors of inflammation and innate immune response. Monocytes can mobilize from bone marrow, traffic to their required destination and differentiate into effector cells depending on the local tissue environment to perform multiple roles during infection or inflammation, making them an important component of body's immune defense. Macrophages have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis, development as well as tissue repair following injury...
January 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045973/neuro-analogical-gate-tuning-of-trajectory-data-fusion-for-a-mecanum-wheeled-special-needs-chair
#3
Ahmed K El-Shenawy, M A ElSaharty, Ezz Eldin Zakzouk
Trajectory tracking of mobile wheeled chairs using internal shaft encoder and inertia measurement unit(IMU), exhibits several complications and accumulated errors in the tracking process due to wheel slippage, offset drift and integration approximations. These errors can be realized when comparing localization results from such sensors with a camera tracking system. In long trajectory tracking, such errors can accumulate and result in significant deviations which make data from these sensors unreliable for tracking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026018/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-morphology-of-oral-papillae-and-denticles-of-blue-sharks-prionace-glauca-with-inferences-about-its-functional-significance-across-life-stages
#4
Bianca de S Rangel, Natascha Wosnick, Neil Hammerschlag, Adriano P Ciena, José Roberto Kfoury Junior, Rose E G Rici
Sensory organs in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) detect and respond to a different set of biotic and/or abiotic stimuli, through sight, smell, taste, hearing, mechanoreception and electroreception. Although gustation is crucial for survival and essential for growth, mobility, and maintenance of neural activity and the proper functioning of the immune system, comparatively little is known about this sensory system in elasmobranchs. Here we present a preliminary investigation into the structural and dimensional characteristics of the oral papillae and denticles found in the oropharyngeal cavity of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) during embryonic development through adulthood...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017637/psychological-and-neural-mechanisms-associated-with-effort-related-cardiovascular-reactivity-and-cognitive-control-an-integrative-approach
#5
Nicolas Silvestrini
Numerous studies have assessed cardiovascular (CV) reactivity as a measure of effort mobilization during cognitive tasks. However, psychological and neural processes underlying effort-related CV reactivity are still relatively unclear. Previous research reliably found that CV reactivity during cognitive tasks is mainly determined by one region of the brain, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and that this region is systematically engaged during cognitively demanding tasks. The present integrative approach builds on the research on cognitive control and its brain correlates that shows that dACC function can be related to conflict monitoring and integration of information related to task difficulty and success importance-two key variables in determining effort mobilization...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003732/regulation-of-photoreceptor-gene-transcription-via-a-highly-conserved-transcriptional-regulatory-element-by-vsx-gene-products
#6
Yi Pan, Daniel F Comiskey, Lisa E Kelly, Dawn S Chandler, Heithem M El-Hodiri
PURPOSE: The photoreceptor conserved element-1 (PCE-1) sequence is found in the transcriptional regulatory regions of many genes expressed in photoreceptors. The retinal homeobox (Rx or Rax) gene product functions by binding to PCE-1 sites. However, other transcriptional regulators have also been reported to bind to PCE-1. One of these, vsx2, is expressed in retinal progenitor and bipolar cells. The purpose of this study is to identify Xenopus laevis vsx gene products and characterize vsx gene product expression and function with respect to the PCE-1 site...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959826/sensor-based-gait-parameter-extraction-with-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#7
Julius Hannink, Thomas Kautz, Cristian Pasluosta, Karl-Gunter Gassmann, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern Eskofier
Measurement of stride-related, biomechanical parameters is the common rationale for objective gait impairment scoring. State-of-the-art double integration approaches to extract these parameters from inertial sensor data are, however, limited in their clinical applicability due to the underlying assumptions. To overcome this, we present a method to translate the abstract information provided by wearable sensors to context-related expert features based on deep convolutional neural networks. Regarding mobile gait analysis, this enables integration-free and data-driven extraction of a set of eight spatio-temporal stride parameters...
December 8, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924614/gdf11-treatment-attenuates-the-recovery-of-skeletal-muscle-function-after-injury-in-older-rats
#8
Yu Zhou, Neel Sharma, David Dukes, Maria B Myzithras, Priyanka Gupta, Ashraf Khalil, Julius Kahn, Jennifer S Ahlberg, David B Hayes, Michael Franti, Tracy Criswell
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function results in loss of mobility for elderly patients. Novel therapies that can protect and/or restore muscle function during aging would have profound effects on the quality of life for this population. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been proposed as a "youthful" circulating factor that can restore cardiac, neural, and skeletal muscle functions in aging animals. However, conflicting data has been recently published that casts doubt on these assertions. We used a complex rat model of skeletal muscle injury that physiologically mimics injuries seen in patients; to investigate the ability of GDF11 and to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration after injury in older rats...
December 6, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#9
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923476/establishment-of-quantitative-retention-activity-model-by-optimized-microemulsion-liquid-chromatography
#10
Liyuan Xu, Haoshi Gao, Liangxing Li, Yinnong Li, Liuyun Wang, Chongkai Gao, Ning Li
The effective permeability coefficient is of theoretical and practical importance in evaluation of the bioavailability of drug candidates. However, most methods currently used to measure this coefficient are expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we addressed these problems by proposing a new measurement method which is based on the microemulsion liquid chromatography. First, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assays model was used to determine the effective permeability of drug so that quantitative retention-activity relationships could be established, which were used to optimize the microemulsion liquid chromatography...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904801/midfoot-and-forefoot-involvement-in-lateral-ankle-sprains-and-chronic-ankle-instability-part-1-anatomy-and-biomechanics
#11
John J Fraser, Mark A Feger, Jay Hertel
: The modern human foot is the culmination of more than five million years of evolution. The ankle-foot complex absorbs forces during loading, accommodates uneven surfaces, and acts as a lever for efficient propulsion. The ankle-foot complex has six independent functional segments that should be understood for proper assessment and treatment of foot and ankle injuries: the shank, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, and the medial forefoot. The compliance of the individual segments of the foot is dependent on velocity, task, and active and passive coupling mechanisms within each of the foot segments...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904702/ethanol-extracts-from-portulaca-oleracea-l-attenuated-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-rat-neural-injury-through-inhibition-of-hmgb1-induced-inflammation
#12
Chenggang Zheng, Chen Liu, Wanyin Wang, Gusheng Tang, Liwei Dong, Juan Zhou, Zhengrong Zhong
It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882149/combination-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cell-mobilization-and-lithium-chloride-treatment-for-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#13
Qiang Yuan, Xing-Yao Bu, Zhao-Yue Yan, Xian-Zhi Liu, Zhen-Yu Wei, Chun-Xiao Ma, Ming-Qi Qu
As there are multiple factors causing hydrocephalus subsequent to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), it is difficult to achieve the best treatment effect using a single drug alone. In the present study, the protective effect of combination treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and lithium chloride against hydrocephalus after IVH was investigated. A total of 130 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, including the IVH control, G-CSF treatment, lithium chloride treatment, combination treatment and sham surgery groups...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877123/mobility-and-upright-posture-are-associated-with-different-aspects-of-cognition-in-older-adults
#14
Rajal G Cohen, Anita N Vasavada, Michelle M Wiest, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objectives: Aging is associated with cognitive decline, including visuomotor and memory concerns, and with motor system changes, including gait slowing and stooped posture. We investigated the associations of visuomotor performance and episodic memory with motor system characteristics in healthy older adults. Methods: Neurologically healthy older adults (N = 160, aged 50-89) completed a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Cognitive variables were grouped by principal components analysis (PCA) into two components: visuomotor performance and verbal episodic memory...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872811/failure-to-mobilize-cognitive-control-for-challenging-tasks-correlates-with-symptom-severity-in-schizophrenia
#15
Bengi Baran, F Işık Karahanoğlu, Yigal Agam, Leonidas Mantonakis, Dara S Manoach
Deficits in the adaptive, flexible control of behavior contribute to the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. We used functional MRI and an antisaccade paradigm to examine the neural correlates of cognitive control deficits and their relations to symptom severity. Thirty-three chronic medicated outpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls performed an antisaccade paradigm. We examined differences in recruitment of the cognitive control network and task performance for Hard (high control) versus Easy (low control) antisaccade trials within and between groups...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857638/changes-in-muscle-spasticity-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-after-spinal-manipulation-case-series
#16
Oleh Kachmar, Taras Voloshyn, Mykhailo Hordiyevych
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case series was to report quantitative changes in wrist muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy after 1 spinal manipulation (SM) and a 2-week course of treatment. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, aged 7 to 18 years, with spastic forms of cerebral palsy and without fixed contracture of the wrist, were evaluated before initiation of treatment, after 1 SM, and at the end of a 2-week course of treatment. Along with daily SM, the program included physical therapy, massage, reflexotherapy, extremity joint mobilization, mechanotherapy, and rehabilitation computer games for 3 to 4 hours' duration...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856005/mobile-universal-lexicon-evaluation-system-mules-test-a-new-measure-of-rapid-picture-naming-for-concussion
#17
Lucy Cobbs, Lisena Hasanaj, Prin Amorapanth, John-Ross Rizzo, Rachel Nolan, Liliana Serrano, Jenelle Raynowska, Janet C Rucker, Barry D Jordan, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
OBJECTIVE: This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853419/benchmarking-spike-based-visual-recognition-a-dataset-and-evaluation
#18
Qian Liu, Garibaldi Pineda-García, Evangelos Stromatias, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Steve B Furber
Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843499/evidence-for-l1-associated-dna-rearrangements-and-negligible-l1-retrotransposition-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#19
Patricia E Carreira, Adam D Ewing, Guibo Li, Stephanie N Schauer, Kyle R Upton, Allister C Fagg, Santiago Morell, Michaela Kindlova, Patricia Gerdes, Sandra R Richardson, Bo Li, Daniel J Gerhardt, Jun Wang, Paul M Brennan, Geoffrey J Faulkner
BACKGROUND: LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a notable endogenous source of mutagenesis in mammals. Notably, cancer cells can support unusual L1 retrotransposition and L1-associated sequence rearrangement mechanisms following DNA damage. Recent reports suggest that L1 is mobile in epithelial tumours and neural cells but, paradoxically, not in brain cancers. RESULTS: Here, using retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq), we surveyed L1 mutations in 14 tumours classified as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or as a lower grade glioma...
2016: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842937/effectiveness-of-nerve-gliding-exercises-on-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#20
Ruth Ballestero-Pérez, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Alicia Urraca-Gesto, Flor Romo-Romo, María de Los Ángeles Atín-Arratibel, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Tomás Gallego-Izquierdo, Natalia Romero-Franco
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the effectiveness of neural gliding exercises for the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: A computer-based search was completed through May 2014 in PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Plus, and CINAHL. The following key words were included: nerve tissue, gliding, exercises, carpal tunnel syndrome, neural mobilization, and neurodynamic mobilization...
January 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
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