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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512154/glucose-autoregulation-is-the-dominant-component-of-the-hormone-independent-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-the-conscious-dog
#1
Justin M Gregory, Noelia Rivera, Guillaume Kraft, Jason J Winnick, Ben Farmer, Eric J Allen, E Patrick Donahue, Marta S Smith, Dale S Edgerton, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
The contribution of hormone-independent counterregulatory signals in defense of insulin-induced hypoglycemia were determined in adrenalectomized, overnight-fasted conscious dogs receiving hepatic portal vein insulin infusions at a rate 20-fold basal. Either euglycemia was maintained (group 1) or hypoglycemia (≈45 mg/dL) was allowed to occur. There were 3 hypoglycemic groups: one in which hepatic autoregulation against hypoglycemia occurred in the absence of sympathetic nervous system input (group 2), autoregulation in the presence of norepinephrine (NE) signaling to fat and muscle (group 3), and autoregulation in the presence of NE signaling to fat, muscle, and liver (group 4)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499818/biosurfactant-biopolymer-driven-microbial-enhanced-oil-recovery-meor-and-its-optimization-by-an-ann-ga-hybrid-technique
#2
Gunaseelan Dhanarajan, Vivek Rangarajan, Chandrakanth Bandi, Abhivyakti Dixit, Susmita Das, Kranthikiran Ale, Ramkrishna Sen
A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL(-1). The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E24) of 81...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499003/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation-nih-medical-rehabilitation-coordinating-committee
#3
Ann O'Mara, Julia H Rowland, Thomas N Greenwell, Cheri L Wiggs, Jerome Fleg, Lyndon Joseph, Joan McGowan, James S Panagis, Charles Washabaugh, Grace C Y Peng, Rosalina Bray, Alison N Cernich, Theresa H Cruz, Sue Marden, Mary Ellen Michel, Ralph Nitkin, Louis Quatrano, Catherine Y Spong, Lana Shekim, Teresa L Z Jones, Denise Juliano-Bult, David M Panchinson, Daofen Chen, Lyn Jakeman, Ann Knebel, Lois A Tully, Leighton Chan, Diane Damiano, Biao Tian, Pamela McInnes, Partap Khalsa, Eve Reider, David Shurtleff, William Elwood, Rachel Ballard, Abby G Ershow, Lisa Begg
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
April 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458693/the-use-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-the-regeneration-of-musculoskeletal-and-neural-tissues
#5
REVIEW
Naosuke Kamei, Kivanc Atesok, Mitsuo Ochi
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal and neural tissues including the bone, skeletal muscle, ligaments, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453446/the-effects-of-neural-mobilization-on-cervical-radiculopathy-patients-pain-disability-rom-and-deep-flexor-endurance
#6
Dong-Gyu Kim, Sin Ho Chung, Ho Bal Jung
BACKGROUND: Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a disease of the cervical spine and a space-occupying lesion that occurs because of pathological problems with cervical nerve roots. Nerve root injury to produce functional disability. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of neural mobilization with manual cervical traction (NMCT) compared with manual cervical traction (MCT) on pain, functional disability, muscle endurance, and range of motion (ROM) in individuals with CR patients...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452931/an-adaptive-b-spline-neural-network-and-its-application-in-terminal-sliding-mode-control-for-a-mobile-satcom-antenna-inertially-stabilized-platform
#7
Xiaolei Zhang, Yan Zhao, Kai Guo, Gaoliang Li, Nianmao Deng
The mobile satcom antenna (MSA) enables a moving vehicle to communicate with a geostationary Earth orbit satellite. To realize continuous communication, the MSA should be aligned with the satellite in both sight and polarization all the time. Because of coupling effects, unknown disturbances, sensor noises and unmodeled dynamics existing in the system, the control system should have a strong adaptability. The significant features of terminal sliding mode control method are robustness and finite time convergence, but the robustness is related to the large switching control gain which is determined by uncertain issues and can lead to chattering phenomena...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449077/executive-network-activation-is-linked-to-walking-speed-in-older-adults-functional-mri-and-tcd-ultrasound-evidence-from-the-mobilize-boston-study
#8
Azizah J Jor'dan, Victoria N Poole, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, William Milberg, Brad Manor, Michael Esterman, Lewis A Lipsitz
Background: Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) in response to a cognitive task (task-related ΔCBF) have been shown by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to be reduced in slow walkers. However, it is unknown whether reduced task-related ΔCBF is associated with reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, as measured by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We assessed the regional changes in neural activity associated with reduced middle cerebral artery (MCA) task-related ΔCBF to an executive task and slow walking speed in 67 community-dwelling older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446773/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-hmgb1-monoclonal-antibody-on-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#9
Li Fu, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tadashi Yoshino, Hideo Takahashi, Shuji Mori, Masahiro Nishibori
Inflammatory processes in brain tissue have been described in human epilepsy of various etiologies and in experimental models of seizures. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is now recognized as representative of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In the present study, we focused on whether anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment could relieve status epilepticus- triggered BBB breakdown and inflammation response in addition to the seizure behavior itself. Pilocarpine and methyl-scopolamine were used to establish the acute seizure model...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443007/neuroimaging-of-human-balance-control-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ellen Wittenberg, Jessica Thompson, Chang S Nam, Jason R Franz
This review examined 83 articles using neuroimaging modalities to investigate the neural correlates underlying static and dynamic human balance control, with aims to support future mobile neuroimaging research in the balance control domain. Furthermore, this review analyzed the mobility of the neuroimaging hardware and research paradigms as well as the analytical methodology to identify and remove movement artifact in the acquired brain signal. We found that the majority of static balance control tasks utilized mechanical perturbations to invoke feet-in-place responses (27 out of 38 studies), while cognitive dual-task conditions were commonly used to challenge balance in dynamic balance control tasks (20 out of 32 studies)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420943/neural-mobilization-treatment-decreases-glial-cells-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-cci-in-rats
#11
Aline Carolina Giardini, Fabio Martinez Dos Santos, Joyce Teixeira da Silva, Mara Evany de Oliveira, Daniel Oliveira Martins, Marucia Chacur
Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM) technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400715/doublecortin-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#12
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392271/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-serum-basal-levels-is-not-affected-by-power-training-in-mobility-limited-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
L G Hvid, M K F Nielsen, C Simonsen, M Andersen, P Caserotti
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study...
July 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381998/real-time-biologically-inspired-action-recognition-from-key-poses-using-a-neuromorphic-architecture
#14
Georg Layher, Tobias Brosch, Heiko Neumann
Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370180/astrocytic-vesicle-based-exocytosis-in-cultures-and-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-rodent-slices
#15
REVIEW
Jernej Jorgačevski, Maja Potokar, Marko Kreft, Alenka Guček, Jean-Pierre Mothet, Robert Zorec
Astrocytes are excitable neural cells that contribute to brain information processing via bidirectional communication with neurons. This involves the release of gliosignaling molecules that affect synapses patterning and activity. Mechanisms mediating the release of these molecules likely consist of non-vesicular and vesicular-based mechanisms. It is the vesicle-based regulated exocytosis that is an evolutionary more complex process. It is well established that the release of gliosignaling molecules has profound effects on information processing in different brain regions (e...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363483/restoration-of-reaching-and-grasping-movements-through-brain-controlled-muscle-stimulation-in-a-person-with-tetraplegia-a-proof-of-concept-demonstration
#16
A Bolu Ajiboye, Francis R Willett, Daniel R Young, William D Memberg, Brian A Murphy, Jonathan P Miller, Benjamin L Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Harry A Hoyen, Michael W Keith, P Hunter Peckham, John D Simeral, John P Donoghue, Leigh R Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch
BACKGROUND: People with chronic tetraplegia, due to high-cervical spinal cord injury, can regain limb movements through coordinated electrical stimulation of peripheral muscles and nerves, known as functional electrical stimulation (FES). Users typically command FES systems through other preserved, but unrelated and limited in number, volitional movements (eg, facial muscle activity, head movements, shoulder shrugs). We report the findings of an individual with traumatic high-cervical spinal cord injury who coordinated reaching and grasping movements using his own paralysed arm and hand, reanimated through implanted FES, and commanded using his own cortical signals through an intracortical brain-computer interface (iBCI)...
May 6, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362877/arachne-a-neural-neuroglial-network-builder-with-remotely-controlled-parallel-computing
#17
Sergey G Aleksin, Kaiyu Zheng, Dmitri A Rusakov, Leonid P Savtchenko
Creating and running realistic models of neural networks has hitherto been a task for computing professionals rather than experimental neuroscientists. This is mainly because such networks usually engage substantial computational resources, the handling of which requires specific programing skills. Here we put forward a newly developed simulation environment ARACHNE: it enables an investigator to build and explore cellular networks of arbitrary biophysical and architectural complexity using the logic of NEURON and a simple interface on a local computer or a mobile device...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340569/an-immunohistochemical-enzymatic-and-behavioral-study-of-cd157-bst-1-as-a-neuroregulator
#18
Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong, Takahiro Tsuji, Chiharu Tsuji, Olga Lopatina
BACKGROUND: Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans...
March 24, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340157/cervical-lateral-glide-neural-mobilization-is-effective-in-treating-cervicobrachial-pain-a-randomized-waiting-list-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
David Rodríguez-Sanz, César Calvo-Lobo, Francisco Unda-Solano, Irene Sanz-Corbalán, Carlos Romero-Morales, Daniel López-López
Background.:  Cervicobrachial pain (CP) is a high-incidence and prevalent condition. Cervical lateral glide (CLG) is a firstline treatment of CP. There is a current lack of enough high-quality randomized controlled double-blind clinical trials that measure the effectiveness of neural tissue mobilization techniques such as the CLG and its specific effect over CP. Objectives.:  The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of CLG neural mobilization in treating subjects who suffer from CP, compared with the complete absence of treatment...
March 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337137/an-adaptive-neural-mechanism-for-acoustic-motion-perception-with-varying-sparsity
#20
Danish Shaikh, Poramate Manoonpong
Biological motion-sensitive neural circuits are quite adept in perceiving the relative motion of a relevant stimulus. Motion perception is a fundamental ability in neural sensory processing and crucial in target tracking tasks. Tracking a stimulus entails the ability to perceive its motion, i.e., extracting information about its direction and velocity. Here we focus on auditory motion perception of sound stimuli, which is poorly understood as compared to its visual counterpart. In earlier work we have developed a bio-inspired neural learning mechanism for acoustic motion perception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
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