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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895027/the-aging-urban-brain-analyzing-outdoor-physical-activity-using-the-emotiv-affectiv-suite-in-older-people
#1
Chris Neale, Peter Aspinall, Jenny Roe, Sara Tilley, Panagiotis Mavros, Steve Cinderby, Richard Coyne, Neil Thin, Gary Bennett, Catharine Ward Thompson
This research directly assesses older people's neural activation in response to a changing urban environment while walking, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). The study builds on previous research that shows changes in cortical activity while moving through different urban settings. The current study extends this methodology to explore previously unstudied outcomes in older people aged 65 years or more (n = 95). Participants were recruited to walk one of six scenarios pairing urban busy (a commercial street with traffic), urban quiet (a residential street) and urban green (a public park) spaces in a counterbalanced design, wearing a mobile Emotiv EEG headset to record real-time neural responses to place...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886555/effects-of-fe-iii-and-quality-of-humic-substances-on-as-v-distribution-in-freshwater-use-of-ultrafiltration-and-kohonen-neural-network
#2
Erik S J Gontijo, Cláudia H Watanabe, Adnívia S C Monteiro, Gilmare A da Silva, Hubert M P Roeser, Andre H Rosa, Kurt Friese
Humic substances (HS) are ubiquitous organic compounds able to affect mobility and availability of arsenic (As) in aquatic systems. Although it is known that associations between HS and As occur mainly via iron (Fe)-cationic bridges, the behaviour and distribution of this metalloid in HS- and Fe-rich environments is still not fully understood. In this paper, the quality of HS from different rivers in Brazil and Germany and its influence on the behaviour of As(V) under different Fe(III) concentrations were investigated...
August 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882520/dynamic-foraminal-dimensions-during-neck-extension-and-rotation-in-fusion-and-artificial-disc-replacement-an-observational-study
#3
Yener N Yeni, Timothy Baumer, Daniel Oravec, Azam Basheer, Colin P McDonald, Michael J Bey, Stephen W Bartol, Victor Chang
BACKGROUND: Changes in the dimensions of the cervical neural foramina (CNF) are considered to be a key factor in nerve root compression and development of cervical radiculopathy. However, to what extent foraminal geometry differs between patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and those who underwent total disc arthroplasty with an artificial disc (AD) during physiological motion is largely unknown. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to compare compare CNF dimensions during physiological neck motion between ACDF and AD...
September 4, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877508/the-no-heme-signaling-hypothesis
#4
Andrei L Kleschyov
While the biological role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) is appreciated, several fundamental aspects of the NOS/NO-related signaling pathway(s) remain incompletely understood. Canonically, the NOS-derived NO diffuses through the (inter)cellular milieu to bind the prosthetic ferro(Fe(2+))-heme group of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). The formation of ternary NO-ferroheme-sGC complex results in the enzyme activation and accelerated production of the second messenger, cyclic GMP. This paper argues that cells dynamically generate mobile/exchangeable NO-ferroheme species, which activate sGC and regulate the function of some other biomolecules...
September 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859590/neural-mobilization-treating-nerve-related-musculoskeletal-conditions
#5
(no author information available yet)
Physical therapists often assess and treat patients whose pain and disability stem from impaired mobility of the peripheral nervous system. Neural mobilization is a movement-based therapy, applied manually or via exercise. The nerve is mobilized relative to adjacent structures, with the aim of reducing symptoms through mechanisms that may be mechanical or neurophysiologic. A new systematic review published in the September 2017 issue of JOSPT includes 40 studies of neural mobilization in various neuromusculoskeletal conditions...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858800/rate-performance-loss-optimization-for-inter-frame-deep-feature-coding-from-videos
#6
Lin Ding, Yonghong Tian, Hongfei Fan, Yaowei Wang, Tiejun Huang
With the explosion in the use of cameras in mobile phones or video surveillance systems, it is impossible to transmit a large amount of videos captured from a wide area into a cloud for big data analysis and retrieval. Instead, a feasible solution is to extract and compress features from videos and then transmit the compact features to the cloud. Meanwhile, many recent studies also indicate that the features extracted from the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) will lead to high performance for various analysis and recognition tasks...
August 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855792/addressing-neurodynamic-irritability-in-a-patient-with-adhesive-capsulitis-a-case-report
#7
Kevin Farrell, Katherine Lampe
BACKGROUND: Patients with adhesive capsulitis are commonly seen by physical therapists. Pain and limited shoulder motion from adhesive capsulitis have at times been linked to neural irritation. The purpose of this case is to describe the examination and intervention of a patient with adhesive capsulitis who appeared to have a coexisting, underlying neural irritation. This paper emphasizes how the neurological component must initially be identified and addressed for a successful outcome...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855787/the-symptomatic-and-functional-effects-of-manual-physical-therapy-on-plantar-heel-pain-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
John J Mischke, Dhinu J Jayaseelan, Josiah D Sault, Alicia J Emerson Kavchak
OBJECTIVES: Plantar heel pain is common and can be severely disabling. Unfortunately, a gap in the literature exists regarding the optimal intervention for this painful condition. Consequently, a systematic review of the current literature regarding manual therapy for the treatment of plantar heel pain was performed. METHODS: A computer-assisted literature search for randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, was concluded on 7 January 2014...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816681/augmented-lagrange-programming-neural-network-for-localization-using-time-difference-of-arrival-measurements
#9
Zifa Han, Chi Sing Leung, Hing Cheung So, Anthony George Constantinides
A commonly used measurement model for locating a mobile source is time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA). As each TDOA measurement defines a hyperbola, it is not straightforward to compute the mobile source position due to the nonlinear relationship in the measurements. This brief exploits the Lagrange programming neural network (LPNN), which provides a general framework to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems, for the TDOA-based localization. The local stability of the proposed LPNN solution is also analyzed...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797980/can-fan-beam-ict-accurately-predict-indirect-decompression-in-miss-fusion-procedures
#10
Insa Janssen, Gernot Lang, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Ajit Jada, Connor Berlin, Aaron Hilis, Micaella Zubkov, Lena Gandevia, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Recently, a novel mobile intraoperative fan-beam CT (iFBCT) was introduced, allowing for real time navigation and immediate intraoperative evaluation of neural decompression in spine surgery. This study sought to investigate whether intraoperatively assessed neural decompression during minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has a predictive value for clinical and radiographic outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing iCT-guided extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) was conducted...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793260/peripheral-elevation-of-a-klotho-fragment-enhances-brain-function-and-resilience-in-young-aging-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-mice
#11
Julio Leon, Arturo J Moreno, Bayardo I Garay, Robert J Chalkley, Alma L Burlingame, Dan Wang, Dena B Dubal
Cognitive dysfunction and decreased mobility from aging and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, are major biomedical challenges in need of more effective therapies. Increasing brain resilience may represent a new treatment strategy. Klotho, a longevity factor, enhances cognition when genetically and broadly overexpressed in its full, wild-type form over the mouse lifespan. Whether acute klotho treatment can rapidly enhance cognitive and motor functions or induce resilience is a gap in our knowledge of its therapeutic potential...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791705/ascending-pathways-that-mediate-cholinergic-modulation-of-lumbar-motor-activity
#12
REVIEW
Lili Anglister, Meir Cherniak, Aharon Lev-Tov
Deciphering neuronal pathways that reactivate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) and modulate the activity of spinal motoneurons in mammals in the absence of supraspinal control is important for understanding of neural control of movement and for developing novel therapeutic approaches to improve the mobility of spinal cord injury patients. Previously, we showed that the sacral and lumbar cholinergic system could potently modulate the locomotor CPGs in newborn rodents. Here, we review these and our more recent studies of sacral relay neurons with lumbar projections to the locomotor CPGs and to lumbar motoneurons and demonstrate that sacral and lumbar cholinergic components have the capacity to control the frequency of the locomotor CPGs and at the same time the motor output of the activated lumbar motoneurons during motor behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778021/neural-correlates-of-obstacle-negotiation-in-older-adults-an-fnirs-study
#13
Michelle Chen, Sarah Pillemer, Sarah England, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jeannette R Mahoney, Roee Holtzer
Older adults are less efficient at avoiding obstacles compared to young adults, especially under attention-demanding conditions. Using functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), recent studies implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under dual-task walking conditions. The neural substrates underlying Obstacle Negotiation (ON), however, have not been established. The current study determined the role of the PFC in ON during walking in seniors. Non-demented older adults (n=90; mean age=78...
July 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771884/hmgb2-expression-is-associated-with-transition-from-a-quiescent-to-an-activated-state-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#14
Ayaka Kimura, Taito Matsuda, Atsuhiko Sakai, Naoya Murao, Kinichi Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Although quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult hippocampus proliferate in response to neurogenic stimuli and subsequently give rise to new neurons continuously throughout life, misregulation of NSCs in pathological conditions, including aging, leads to the impairment of learning and memory. High mobility group B family 1 (HMGB1) and HMGB2, HMG family proteins that function as transcriptional activators through the modulation of chromatin structure, have been assumed to play some role in the regulation of adult NSCs; however, their precise functions and even expression patterns in the adult hippocampus remain elusive...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767698/brain-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-deterioration-as-a-function-of-70-days-head-down-tilt-bed-rest
#15
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Roy Riascos, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761086/serotonin-hormonally-regulates-lacrimal-gland-secretory-function-via-the-serotonin-type-3a-receptor
#16
Toshihiro Imada, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryuji Hisamura, Yusuke Izuta, Kai Jin, Masataka Ito, Naoki Kitamura, Kenji F Tanaka, Masaru Mimura, Izumi Shibuya, Kazuo Tsubota
Tears are extracellular fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG). Tears consist of a dynamic tri-layered film composed of secretions from the LG, Meibomian gland, and conjunctival goblet cells. The LG secretes the aqueous component of the tear, the Meibomian gland secretes the lipid component, and conjunctival goblet cells secrete mucin. The regulation of LG activity via the autonomic nervous system has been recognized as fundamental to maintaining aqueous tear flow. Here, we describe the role of a hormone, peripheral serotonin, in tear secretion...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757878/neuroprotective-effects-of-stem-cells-in-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Weilin Xu, Jingwei Zheng, Liansheng Gao, Tao Li, Jianmin Zhang, Anwen Shao
Ischemic stroke, the most common subtype of stroke, has been one of the leading causes of mobility and mortality worldwide. However, it is still lacking of efficient agents. Stem cell therapy, with its vigorous advantages, has attracted researchers around the world. Numerous experimental researches in animal models of stroke have demonstrated the promising efficacy in treating ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanism involved antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, promotion of angiogenesis and neurogenesis, formation of new neural cells and neuronal circuitry, antioxidation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) protection...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751862/utp-gated-signaling-pathways-of-5-ht-release-from-bon-cells-as-a-model-of-human-enterochromaffin-cells
#18
Andromeda Liñán-Rico, Fernando Ochoa-Cortes, Alix Zuleta-Alarcon, Mazin Alhaj, Esmerina Tili, Josh Enneking, Alan Harzman, Iveta Grants, Sergio Bergese, Fievos L Christofi
Background: Enterochromaffin cells (EC) synthesize and release 5-HT and ATP to trigger or modulate gut neural reflexes and transmit information about visceral/pain sensation. Alterations in 5-HT signaling mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD or IBS, but the pharmacologic or molecular mechanisms modulating Ca(2+)-dependent 5-HT release are not understood. Previous studies indicated that purinergic signaling via ATP and ADP is an important mechanism in modulation of 5-HT release. However, EC cells also respond to UTP and UDP suggesting uridine triphosphate receptor and signaling pathways are involved as well...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742021/resolving-the-prevalence-of-somatic-transposition-in-drosophila
#19
Christoph D Treiber, Scott Waddell
Somatic transposition in mammals and insects could increase cellular diversity and neural mobilization has been implicated in age-dependent decline. To understand the impact of transposition in somatic cells it is essential to reliably measure the frequency and map locations of new insertions. Here we identified thousands of putative somatic transposon insertions in neurons from individual Drosophila melanogaster using whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of de novo insertions did not correlate with transposon expression or fly age...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734105/effects-of-median-nerve-neural-mobilization-in-treating-cervicobrachial-pain-a-randomized-waiting-list-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
David Rodríguez-Sanz, Daniel López-López, Francisco Unda-Solano, Carlos Romero-Morales, Irene Sanz-Corbalán, Hector Beltrán-Alacreu, César Calvo-Lobo
BACKGROUND: There is a current lack of sufficiently high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials that measure the effectiveness of neural tissue mobilization techniques such as median nerve neural mobilization (MNNM) and their specific effects on cervicobrachial pain (CP). This study aim was to compare the effectiveness of MNNM in subjects with CP versus a waiting list control group (WLCG). METHODS: A single-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed (NCT02596815)...
July 22, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
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