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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#1
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782618/liver-targeted-therapies-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prior-to-transplant-contemporary-management-strategies
#2
Mustafa Nazzal, Sameer Gadani, Abdullah Said, Mandy Rice, Obi Okoye, Ahmad Taha, Krista L Lentine
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive neoplastic disease that has been rapidly increasing in incidence. It usually occurs in the background of liver disease, and cirrhosis. Definitive therapy requires surgical resection. However, in majority of cases surgical resection is not tolerated, especially in the presence of portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) in well selected candidates has been accepted as a viable option. Due to a relative scarcity of donors compared to the number of listed recipients, long waiting times are anticipated...
April 2018: Global surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779027/association-of-pre-end-stage-renal-disease-hemoglobin-with-early-dialysis-outcomes
#3
Carola-Ellen Kleine, Melissa Soohoo, Omesh N Ranasinghe, Christina Park, Maria V Marroquin, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Hamid Moradi, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja
BACKGROUND: Incident hemodialysis patients have a high mortality risk within the first months after dialysis initiation. Pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) factors like anemia management may impact early post-ESRD outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of pre-ESRD hemoglobin (Hgb) and pre-ESRD Hgb slope on post-ESRD mortality and hospitalization outcomes. METHODS: The study included 31,472 veterans transitioning to ESRD. Using Cox and negative binomial regression models, we evaluated the association of pre-ESRD Hgb and Hgb slope with 12-month post-ESRD all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization rates using 4 levels of hierarchical multivariable adjustment, including erythropoietin use and kidney decline in slope models...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775830/characterization-of-metals-in-indoor-dusts-from-electronic-workshops-cybercaf%C3%A3-s-and-offices-in-southern-nigeria-implications-for-on-site-human-exposure
#4
Chukwujindu M A Iwegbue, Grace Obi, Onoriode O Emoyan, Eze W Odali, Francis E Egobueze, Godswill O Tesi, Godwin E Nwajei, Bice S Martincigh
The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Ba, Mn, Zn, Al and Fe were evaluated in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing information on the distribution patterns, and the associated risks that may arise from exposure of humans to these metals in indoor dusts from the three work environments. The dust samples were digested with aqua-regia and analyzed for the metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
May 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774287/prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-helminth-infections-of-dog-in-enugu-state-south-eastern-nigeria
#5
I K Idika, E C Onuorah, C F Obi, P U Umeakuana, C O Nwosu, D N Onah, S N Chiejina
The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria was studied retrospectively and prospectively. In the retrospective study, records of all diagnosed helminth infections of dogs brought to the University of Nigeria Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nsukka from January, 2006 to September 2013 were collated and analyzed. The prospective study was carried out between October 2013 and July 2014 by examination of 263 faecal samples collected per rectum from dogs presented to a purposively selected Veterinary Clinics in Enugu metropolis and the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772299/biophenols-enzymes-%C3%AE-secretase-cholinesterases-histone-deacetylase-and-tyrosinase-inhibitors-from-olive-olea-europaea-l
#6
Syed Haris Omar, Christopher J Scott, Adam S Hamlin, Hassan K Obied
The focus of this study was on inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathogenesis Alzheimer's disease (AD) including prime amyloid beta (Aβ) producing enzyme (β-secretase: BACE-1) and disease progression enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and tyrosinase along with the catecholamine L-DOPA, by using olive biophenols. Here we report the strongest inhibition of BACE-1 from rutin (IC50 : 3.8 nM) followed by verbascoside (IC50 : 6.3 nM) and olive fruit extract (IC50 : 18 ng), respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768691/detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-among-chronic-and-potential-occult-hbv-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#7
Arifa Akram, S M Rashedul Islam, Saif Ullah Munshi, Shahina Tabassum
Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) usually occurs due to the transfusion of blood or blood products from chronic HBV (CHB) or occult HBV infected (OBI) patients. Besides serological tests e.g. HBsAg and anti-HBc (total), detection of HBV-DNA is necessary for the diagnosis of OBI patients. Different nucleic acid tests (NATs) including real-time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) are used for the detect HBV-DNA. The NATs are expensive and require technical expertise which are barriers to introducing them in resource-limited settings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763737/validation-of-inflammatory-genetic-variants-associated-with-long-term-cancer-related-fatigue-in-a-large-breast-cancer-cohort
#8
T Kühl, S Behrens, A Jung, N Obi, K Thöne, M E Schmidt, H Becher, J Chang-Claude
BACKGROUND: Studies to date have reported several associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cancer related fatigue (CRF), but have been limited by small sample sizes, missing adjustment for relevant covariates or multiple testing, as well as varying CRF definitions, i.e. time and method of assessment. This study aimed to validate previously reported associations using the largest independent breast cancer sample to date and to evaluate further functional cytokine variants in relation to total CRF and all relevant CRF subdomains (physical, cognitive, and affective CRF)...
May 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752187/clinical-outcomes-after-varicose-vein-procedures-in-octogenarians-within-the-vascular-quality-initiative-varicose-vein-registry
#9
Danielle C Sutzko, Andrea T Obi, Andrew S Kimball, Margaret E Smith, Thomas W Wakefield, Nicholas H Osborne
BACKGROUND: Whereas chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins (VVs) are a universally recognized problem, they are frequently underappreciated as major contributors to long-term morbidity in the elderly despite the increasing prevalence with age. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic venous insufficiency and VV treatments in patients ≥65 years old yield an overall benefit; however, there have been few data as to whether octogenarians are undergoing these procedures and with what success...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750183/serum-adiponectin-and-tnf%C3%AE-concentrations-are-closely-associated-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-in-patients-undergoing-cardiovascular-surgery
#10
Tatsuya Sawaguchi, Toshiaki Nakajima, Takaaki Hasegawa, Ikuko Shibasaki, Hiroyuki Kaneda, Syotaro Obi, Toshiyuki Kuwata, Masashi Sakuma, Shigeru Toyoda, Mitsuo Ohni, Shichiro Abe, Hirotsugu Fukuda, Teruo Inoue
Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) releases both adiponectin and TNFα, and these two adipokines play important roles in heart diseases such as coronary arterial disease. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether fatty acid (FA) profiles in EAT are linked to the serum concentration of these adipokines. The relationships between serum adipokine levels and FA profiles in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were analyzed. Methods: Patients ( n  = 21) undergoing cardiovascular surgery (11 males, 70...
March 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746518/an-ambient-temperature-stable-antitoxin-of-nine-co-formulated-antibodies-for-botulism-caused-by-serotypes-a-b-and-e
#11
Mingxiang Li, Dennis Lee, Chidi R Obi, Joel K Freeberg, Shauna Farr-Jones, Milan T Tomic
Safe and effective antitoxins to treat and prevent botulism are needed for biodefense. We have developed recombinant antibody-based therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. The mechanism of action of this antitoxin requires that three mAbs bind one toxin molecule to achieve clearance. Here we present a co-formulation of an antitoxin to the three most important serotypes. Combining these antibodies obviates the need to identify the serotype causing intoxication prior to drug administration, which would facilitate administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737923/post-anaesthetic-care-of-emergency-laparotomy-patient-for-the-optimization-of-surgical-outcome
#12
Claire-Collins Obi
This is a case study of a 45 year old male patient who underwent an emergency laparotomy procedure. Perioperative risks and associated postoperative outcomes could occur from the complex interaction between the patient's physical health status, the actual surgery performed, anaesthetic procedure and intra/postoperative events. The patient experienced renal compromise and physiological impairment during surgery. This article discusses his assessment and management as well as the various factors which have an impact upon his physiology...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737013/incremental-dialysis-for-preserving-residual-kidney-function-does-one-size-fit-all-when-initiating-dialysis
#13
Anna T Mathew, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
While many patients have substantial residual kidney function (RKF) when initiating hemodialysis (HD), most patients with end stage renal disease in the United States are initiated on 3-times per week conventional HD regimen, with little regard to RKF or patient preference. RKF is associated with many benefits including survival, volume control, solute clearance, and reduced inflammation. Several strategies have been recommended to preserve RKF after HD initiation, including an incremental approach to HD initiation...
May 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723578/conventional-epidural-vs-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-with-liposomal-bupivacaine-a-randomized-trial-in-colorectal-surgery
#14
Matthew Torgeson, Joel Kileny, Christopher Pfeifer, Lawrence Narkiewicz, Shawn Obi
BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery is a focus of enhanced recovery protocols (ERP). The utility of Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP) for abdominal surgery has demonstrated effectiveness in ERP, however no direct comparison of epidural versus TAP for non-analgesic clinical factors have been published to date. The primary aim of this study was to compare epidural to TAP for length of stay (LOS) in colorectal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery were prospectively randomized into epidural (n=39) or TAP (n=44) groups preoperatively...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719334/knowledge-and-attitude-about-sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-youth-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Hossam S El-Tholoth, Fahad D Alqahtani, Abdullah A Aljabri, Khalid H Alfaryan, Fares Alharbi, Albaraa A Alhowaimil, Ali Alkharji, Abdulrahman Alrwaily, Ali Obied, Tala Al-Afraa
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are one of the most serious diseases in the world. Our aim was to explore the knowledge and attitude about STDs among the youth. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 1 to August 13, 2016. Male and female youth between 18 and 25 years were invited to participate in the survey using social media open to all Internet users consisting of questions and statements about STDs, and then the data were analyzed...
April 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718365/high-and-low-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rates-are-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#16
Takashi Ui, Yoshitsugu Obi, Akihiro Shimomura, Alan K Lefor, Reza Fazl Alizadeh, Hyder Said, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Naohiro Sata, Hirohito Ichii
Background: Abnormally high estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and frailty. Previous studies have shown that low eGFR is associated with increased morbidity, but few reports address high eGFR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of high eGFR with surgical outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: We identified patients who underwent elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies from 2005 to 2015 in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database...
April 27, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697272/mortality-related-to-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-co-morbidities-in-the-united-states-a-multiple-causes-of-death-analysis
#17
Jennifer Obi, Alem Mehari, Richard Gillum
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality based on the underlying cause of death (UCOD) underestimates disease burden. We aimed to determine the current COPD mortality rate, trends and the distribution of co-morbidities using United States (US) multiple-cause of death (MCOD) records. All 38,905,575 death certificates of decedents aged ≥45 years in the United States were analyzed for 1999-2015. COPD was defined by ICD-10 codes J40-J44 and J47 based either on the UCOD or up to 20 contributing causes coded...
April 26, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695999/a-review-of-the-literature-regarding-sleep-and-cardiometabolic-disease-in-african-descent-populations
#18
REVIEW
Peter L Whitesell, Jennifer Obi, Nuri S Tamanna, Anne E Sumner
In the twenty-first century, African descent populations on both the continent of Africa and throughout the world are experiencing a high rate of both sleep disturbances and cardiometabolic diseases. The most common sleep disturbances are reduced sleep duration, insomnia, disordered circadian rhythm, and obstructive sleep apnea. Cardiometabolic diseases include hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. This review seeks to call attention to new insights regarding the impact of sleep disturbance on cardiometabolic risk factors and outcomes and then apply these concepts to African descent populations, a relatively understudied population...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688442/impact-of-residual-kidney-function-on-hemodialysis-adequacy-and-patient-survival
#19
Mengjing Wang, Yoshitsugu Obi, Elani Streja, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Background: Both dialysis dose and residual kidney function (RKF) contribute to solute clearance and are associated with outcomes in hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that the association between dialysis dose and mortality is attenuated with greater RKF. Methods: Among 32 251 incident hemodialysis patients in a large US dialysis organization (2007-11), we examined the interaction between single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V) and renal urea clearance (rCLurea) levels in survival analyses using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model...
April 23, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676897/crystal-structure-and-superconductivity-of-tetragonal-and-monoclinic-ce-1-x-pr-x-obis-2
#20
Akira Miura, Masanori Nagao, Yosuke Goto, Yoshikazu Mizuguchi, Tatsuma D Matsuda, Yuji Aoki, Chikako Moriyoshi, Yoshihiro Kuroiwa, Yoshihiko Takano, Satoshi Watauchi, Isao Tanaka, Nataly Carolina Rosero-Navarro, Kiyoharu Tadanaga
Ce1- x Pr x OBiS2 powders and Ce0.5 Pr0.5 OBiS2 single crystals were synthesized and their structure and superconductive properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption, electronic resistivity, and magnetization. While PrOBiS2 was found to be in a monoclinic phase with one-dimensional Bi-S zigzag chains showing no superconductive transition above 0.1 K, CeOBiS2 was in a tetragonal phase with two-dimensional Bi-S planes showing zero resistivity below 1.3 K. In the range x = 0.3-0.9 in Ce1- x Pr x OBiS2 , both monoclinic and tetragonal phases were formed together with zero resistivity up to a maximum temperature of 2...
April 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
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