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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901297/climate-change-alters-the-reproductive-phenology-and-investment-of-a-lacustrine-fish-the-three-spine-stickleback
#1
Rachel A Hovel, Stephanie M Carlson, Thomas P Quinn
High-latitude lakes are particularly sensitive to the effects of global climate change, demonstrating earlier ice breakup, longer ice-free seasons, and increased water temperatures. Such physical changes have implications for diverse life-history traits in taxa across entire lake food webs. Here, we use a five-decade time series from an Alaskan lake to explore effects of climate change on growth and reproduction of a widely distributed lacustrine fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models to describe trends in the mean length for multiple size classes and to explore the influence of physical (date of ice breakup, surface water temperature) and biological (density of con- and heterospecifics) factors...
November 30, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901107/how-a-life-like-system-emerges-from-a-simplistic-particle-motion-law
#2
Thomas Schmickl, Martin Stefanec, Karl Crailsheim
Self-structuring patterns can be observed all over the universe, from galaxies to molecules to living matter, yet their emergence is waiting for full understanding. We discovered a simple motion law for moving and interacting self-propelled particles leading to a self-structuring, self-reproducing and self-sustaining life-like system. The patterns emerging within this system resemble patterns found in living organisms. The emergent cells we found show a distinct life cycle and even create their own ecosystem from scratch...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893253/perception-of-visual-tactile-colocation-in-the-first-year-of-life
#3
Livia Freier, Luke Mason, Andrew J Bremner
An ability to perceive tactile and visual stimuli in a common spatial frame of reference is a crucial ingredient in forming a representation of one's own body and the interface between bodily and external space. In this study, the authors investigated young infants' abilities to perceive colocation between tactile and visual stimuli presented on the hands. They examined infants' visual preferences for spatially congruent and incongruent visual-tactile events across two age groups (6 months and 10-months). They observed increased duration of looking to incongruent stimuli displays in both age groups, indicating that infants from at least 6 months of age demonstrate the ability to determine whether simultaneously presented visual-tactile perceptual events are colocated or not...
December 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889590/perceived-and-objective-entrance-related-environmental-barriers-and-daily-out-of-home-mobility-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#4
Erja Portegijs, Merja Rantakokko, Anne Viljanen, Taina Rantanen, Susanne Iwarsson
PURPOSE: We studied whether entrance-related environmental barriers, perceived and objectively recorded, were associated with moving out-of-home daily in older people with and without limitations in lower extremity performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of the "Life-space mobility in old age" cohort including 848 community-dwelling 75-90-year-old of central Finland. Participants reported their frequency of moving out-of-home (daily vs. 0-6 times/week) and perceived entrance-related environmental barriers (yes/no)...
November 19, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887877/a-discrete-stage-structured-model-of-california-newt-population-dynamics-during-a-period-of-drought
#5
Marjorie T Jones, William R Milligan, Lee B Kats, Thomas L Vandergon, Rodney L Honeycutt, Robert N Fisher, Courtney L Davis, Timothy A Lucas
We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885032/directed-evolution-of-cytochrome-c-for-carbon-silicon-bond-formation-bringing-silicon-to-life
#6
S B Jennifer Kan, Russell D Lewis, Kai Chen, Frances H Arnold
Enzymes that catalyze carbon-silicon bond formation are unknown in nature, despite the natural abundance of both elements. Such enzymes would expand the catalytic repertoire of biology, enabling living systems to access chemical space previously only open to synthetic chemistry. We have discovered that heme proteins catalyze the formation of organosilicon compounds under physiological conditions via carbene insertion into silicon-hydrogen bonds. The reaction proceeds both in vitro and in vivo, accommodating a broad range of substrates with high chemo- and enantioselectivity...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#7
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880060/neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-complicating-traumatic-posterior-fossa-extradural-haematoma-case-report-and-review
#8
Ajay Hegde, G Lakshmi Prasad, Priyanka Kini
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary oedema is accumulation of fluid in the lung air spaces and interstitia. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE) is a potentially life-threatening condition which has been noted in head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and others. Timely management is crucial to achieve good outcome; however, no specific guidelines have been defined. METHODS: A 33-year female involved in a motor vehicular accident had a GCS of 14/15 and CT scan showed a moderate-sized unilateral posterior fossa extradural haematoma (PFEDH)...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878873/the-effects-of-spaced-retrieval-training-in-improving-hyperphagia-of-people-living-with-dementia-in-residential-settings
#9
Chia-Ning Hsu, Li-Chan Lin, Shiao-Chi Wu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of spaced retrieval for improving hyperphagia in patients with dementia in residential care settings. BACKGROUND: Although 10-30% of patients with dementia have hyperphagia, most studies have focused on eating difficulties. Only a few studies have focused on hyperphagia. Various memory problems cause hyperphagia in patients with dementia. Spaced retrieval (SR), a cognitive technique for information learning, can be used as a training method to improve memory loss...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876018/social-norms-and-family-planning-decisions-in-south-sudan
#10
Sumit Kane, Maryse Kok, Matilda Rial, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline Ew Broerse
BACKGROUND: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health responses. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal (WBeG) in South Sudan to explore the social norms shaping decisions about family planning among the Fertit community...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875020/linking-otolith-microchemistry-and-dendritic-isoscapes-to-map-heterogeneous-production-of-fish-across-river-basins
#11
Sean R Brennan, Daniel E Schindler
Production patterns of highly mobile species, such as anadromous fish, often exhibit high spatial and temporal heterogeneity across landscapes. Such variability is often asynchronous in time among habitats, which stabilizes production at aggregate scales of complexity. Reconstructing production patterns explicitly in space and time across multiple scales, however, remains difficult but is important for prioritizing habitat conservation. This is especially true for fishes inhabiting river basins due to long-range dispersal, high mortality at early life stages, complex population structure and elusive life history variation...
November 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872670/meaning-making-process-related-to-temporality-during-breast-cancer-traumatic-experience-the-clinical-use-of-narrative-to-promote-a-new-continuity-of-life
#12
Maria Luisa Martino, Maria Francesca Freda
Previous research has agreed that meaning-making is a key element in the promotion of patients' well-being during and after a traumatic event such as cancer. In this paper, we focus on an underestimated key element related to the crisis/rupture of this meaning-making process with respect to the time perspective. We consider 40 narratives of breast cancer patients at different times of treatment, undergoing chemotherapy and biological therapy. We collected data through writing technique. We performed an interpretative thematic analysis of the data and highlighted specific ways to signify time during the different treatment phases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869994/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-life-space-mobility-are-associated-with-incident-falls-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#13
Alexander X Lo, Andrew G Rundle, David Buys, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M Allman, Cynthia J Brown
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics, life-space mobility, and incident falls in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study with a baseline in-home assessment and 6-month telephone follow-up. SETTING: Central Alabama. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older recruited from a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (N = 1,000)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866685/garrett-hardin-s-tragic-sense-of-life
#14
Jason Oakes
I discuss biologist Garrett Hardin's view of human nature, with examples from the background to his seminal 1968 essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" and his testimony before the US House of Representatives in the 1970s. Hardin saw the human species as being governed by deterministic laws of the same kind that controlled all other forms of life. Humans, as much as cattle and microbes, were in inevitable competition for space and resources. Equal parts Malthusian political economy and Cold War systems science, his view was the survival of the human race depended on obeying these iron laws...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865116/comparison-of-contemporaneous-responses-for-eq-5d-3l-and-minnesota-living-with-heart-failure-a-case-for-disease-specific-multiattribute-utility-instrument-in-cardiovascular-conditions
#15
Sanjeewa Kularatna, Joshua Byrnes, Yih Kai Chan, Melinda J Carrington, Simon Stewart, Paul A Scuffham
BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D-3L, a generic multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI), is widely employed to assist in economic evaluations in health care. The EQ-5D-3L lacks sensitivity when used in conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although there are number of CVD specific quality of life instruments, currently, there are no CVD specific MAUIs. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminative ability and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-3L and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHF), a CVD specific quality of life instrument in a group of heart failure patients...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865054/biodistribution-of-carbon-nanotubes-in-animal-models
#16
Nicklas Raun Jacobsen, Peter Møller, Per Axel Clausen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Christian Micheletti, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Håkan Wallin, Ulla Vogel
The many physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make it one of the most commercially attractive materials in the era of nanotechnology. Here, we review the recent publications on in vivo biodistribution of pristine and functionalized forms of single-walled and multi-walled CNT. Pristine CNT remains in the lung for months or even years following pulmonary deposition. If cleared, the majority of CNT move to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via the mucociliary escalator. However, there appears to be no uptake of CNT from the GI tract, with a possible exception of the smallest functionalized SWCNT...
November 16, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864735/environmental-analysis-of-waste-foundry-sand-via-life-cycle-assessment
#17
Jozef Mitterpach, Emília Hroncová, Juraj Ladomerský, Karol Balco
The aim of this manuscript is to provide an environmental assessment of the creation and use of waste foundry sand (WFS) via an LCA in a foundry for grey cast iron. A life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 8. This environmental analysis assessed the impact of creating waste foundry sand (WFS) in a foundry, Hronec (Slovakia, Central Europe). According to BREF, this foundry is classified as an iron foundry with a production capacity greater than 20 t/day with processes typical for grey cast iron foundries...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861257/pulmonary-phototherapy-to-treat-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-rats
#18
Luca Zazzeron, Chen Liu, Walfre Franco, Akito Nakagawa, William A Farinelli, Donald B Bloch, R Rox Anderson, Warren M Zapol
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common cause of poison-related mortality. CO binds to hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), impairing oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Current treatment of CO poisoned patients involves oxygen administration to rapidly remove CO and restore oxygen delivery. Light dissociates CO from COHb with high efficiency. Exposure of murine lungs to visible laser-generated light improved the CO elimination rate in vivo. The aims of this study were to apply pulmonary phototherapy to a larger animal model of CO poisoning, to test novel approaches to light delivery, and to examine the effect of chemiluminescence-generated light on the CO elimination rate...
November 16, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857845/an-improved-teaching-learning-based-robust-edge-detection-algorithm-for-noisy-images
#19
Sasirooba Thirumavalavan, Sasikala Jayaraman
This paper presents an improved Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLO) and a methodology for obtaining the edge maps of the noisy real life digital images. TLO is a population based algorithm that simulates the teaching-learning mechanism in class rooms, comprising two phases of teaching and learning. The 'Teaching Phase' represents learning from the teacher and 'Learning Phase' indicates learning by the interaction between learners. This paper introduces a third phase denoted by "Avoiding Phase" that helps to keep the learners away from the worst students with a view of exploring the problem space more effectively and escaping from the sub-optimal solutions...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856827/maximizing-health-or-sufficient-capability-in-economic-evaluation-a-methodological-experiment-of-treatment-for-drug-addiction
#20
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Emma Frew
Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability...
November 17, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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