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Emotional dysfunction

William T Obremskey, Norele Cutrera, Christopher M Kidd
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nicole R Bush, Richard D Lane, Katie A McLaughlin
Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Anna Górska, Zofia Rogóż, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia...
September 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Mohan Raizada
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent modifiable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disorders directly influencing CVD (i.e. obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, etc.). About one billion people worldwide have HTN, with American adults having 90% lifetime risk of developing HTN. Despite aggressive campaign for lifestyle changes and advances in drug therapy, HTN remains an immense health, emotional, and economic challenge. This is due, in part, to the fact that ∼50% of HTN patients' blood pressure remains uncontrolled and ∼20% of HTN patients are resistant to or require > antihypertensive drugs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Meg H Zeller, Sanita Hunsaker, Carmen Mikhail, Jennifer Reiter-Purtill, Mary Beth McCullough, Beth Garland, Heather Austin, Gia Washington, Amy Baughcum, Dana Rofey, Kevin Smith
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess family characteristics of adolescents with severe obesity and whether family factors impact weight loss outcomes following weight loss surgery (WLS). METHODS: Multisite prospective data from 138 adolescents undergoing WLS and primary caregivers (adolescent: Mage  = 16.9; MBMI = 51.5 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 44.5; 93% female) and 83 nonsurgical comparators (NSComp: adolescent: Mage  = 16.1; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m(2) ; caregiver: Mage  = 43...
October 18, 2016: Obesity
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Massimo Di Grazia, Sandra Pellizzoni, Luca Giacomo Tonegatti, Waifro Rigamonti
INTRODUCTION: The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) represents a spectrum of malformations that affect the anatomical and functional structure of the urogenital system. The parents of patients affected by this condition are subject to particularly stressful situations, such as worrying about their child's health, long hospital stays, concerns about the health and constant need for personal care for their children, that can profoundly compromise the quality of family life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this explorative qualitative study is to evaluate the social situation and the psychological strategies implemented by the mothers of children between 6 and 10 years of age who are affected by BEEC...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jonathan P Roiser, Gemma Modinos, Irina Falkenberg, Carly Samson, Philip McGuire, Paul Allen
Emotional processing dysfunction is widely reported in patients with chronic schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis (FEP), and has been linked to functional abnormalities of corticolimbic regions. However, corticolimbic dysfunction is less studied in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), particularly during processing prosodic voices. We examined corticolimbic response during an emotion recognition task in 18 UHR participants and compared them with 18 FEP patients and 21 healthy controls (HC). Emotional recognition accuracy and corticolimbic response were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using emotional dynamic facial and prosodic voice stimuli...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hui-Chuan Huang, Chien-Hung Chang, Chaur-Jong Hu, Meei-Ling Shyu, Chin-I Chen, Chih-Shan Huang, Hsiu-Ting Tsai, Hsiu-Ju Chang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal effects of psychological distress on the functional recovery among stroke survivors. DESIGN: A longitudinal follow-up study. All participants were interviewed at 5 days after stroke onset, and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after discharge from acute care hospitals. SETTING: Neurology inpatient and outpatient departments and rehabilitation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: First-time stroke participants (N=62) without cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders, or cancer were recruited...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Marina Weiler, Sara Regina Meira Almeida, Brunno Machado de Campos, Lenise Valler, Li Min Li
Depression and anxiety symptoms are common after stroke and associated to reduction in quality of life and poor physical and social outcomes. The Default Mode Network (DMN) plays an important role in the emotional processing. We investigated whether these symptoms are associated to a disruption of DMN functional connectivity in the first month after stroke. Thirty-four subacute ischemic stroke patients were submitted to: 1) behavioral assessment through Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; 2) neuropsychological assessment using Mini Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; 3) resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition using a 3 T scanner (Philips Achieva)...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
A Bion, T Cascales, S Dubedout, N Bodeau, J P Olives, J P Raynaud
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the study of early feeding disorders (FD) has steadily increased during recent decades. During this period, research described the importance of the transactional relationships and the complex interplay between caregiver and child over time. On the basis of the previous studies, our study tried to explore the associations between the characteristics of the parents and the temperamental characteristics of the infants with early FD. GOALS: A first aim of the present study was to show if parental perception of child temperament (including ability for arousal self-regulation) and parental characteristics (emotional and eating attitudes) are associated with early FD...
October 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Daisy Walter, Petra G A van Boeckel, Marcel J M Groenen, Bas L A M Weusten, Ben J Witteman, Gi Tan, Menno A Brink, Jan Nicolai, Adriaan C Tan, Joyce Alderliesten, Niels G Venneman, Wim Laleman, Jeroen M Jansen, Alexander Bodelier, Frank L Wolters, Laurens A van der Waaij, Ronald Breumelhof, Frans T M Peters, Robbert C H Scheffer, Ewout W Steyerberg, Anne M May, Max Leenders, Meike M C Hirdes, Frank P Vleggaar, Peter D Siersema
OBJECTIVE: For palliation of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are superior to plastic stents in terms of stent patency and occurrence of stent dysfunction. We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stent placement to investigate whether this also results in a difference in HRQoL between patients treated with a plastic stent or SEMS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized multicenter trial included 219 patients who were randomized to receive plastic stent (n=73) or SEMS [uncovered (n=75) and covered (n=71); n=146] placement...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Aimee Zisner, Theodore P Beauchaine
Trait impulsivity, which is often defined as a strong preference for immediate over delayed rewards and results in behaviors that are socially inappropriate, maladaptive, and short-sighted, is a predisposing vulnerability to all externalizing spectrum disorders. In contrast, anhedonia is characterized by chronically low motivation and reduced capacity to experience pleasure, and is common to depressive disorders. Although externalizing and depressive disorders have virtually nonoverlapping diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, heterotypic comorbidity between them is common...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Amelia Aldao, Dylan G Gee, Andres De Los Reyes, Ilana Seager
In response to rapidly growing rates of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders, clinical scientists have become interested in identifying transdiagnostic processes that can help explain dysfunction across diagnostic categories (e.g., Kring & Sloan, 2009). One factor that has received a great deal of attention is that of emotion regulation, namely, the ability to modulate the intensity and/or duration of emotional states (e.g., Cicchetti, Ackerman, & Izard, 1995; Gross, 1998). Recent theoretical and empirical work has begun to emphasize the role that emotion regulation plays in the temporal comorbidity between internalizing and externalizing conditions (e...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Vikrant Mahajani, Vidya Suratkal
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TC) is also known as Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy or Broken Heart Syndrome. Typically there is transient systolic dysfunction of the apical or the mid segments of the left ventricle that occurs in the presence of acute emotional stress. Some atypical variants have been described. Hyperadrenergic state associated with emotional stress is cited as the probable etiology. It mimics Acute Myocardial Infarction with concomitant rise in cardiac biomarkers, ECG, 2D-Echocardiography abnormalities comprising of left ventricular dysfunction with regional wall motion abnormality, no significant Coronary Artery Disease on angiography...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Bastiaan Boh, Anita Jansen, Ineke Clijsters, Chantal Nederkoorn, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Gerasimos Spanakis, Anne Roefs
Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases...
October 4, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Stephanie B Liesch, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab Karkhane Yousefi, Paul D Thuras
Prenatal viral infection has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, dysfunction in gamma-aminobutyric acid, Reelin, and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling systems has also been demonstrated in these two disorders. In the current report, we have characterized the developmental profiles of selected markers for these systems in cerebella of mice born to pregnant mice infected with human influenza (H1N1) virus on embryonic day 16 or sham-infected controls using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques and evaluated the presence of abnormalities in the above-mentioned markers during brain development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Maria Mele, Raffaella Alò, Merylin Zizza, Wei Jiao, Anna Di Vito, Tullio Barni, Maurizio Mandalà, Marcello Canonaco
The mechanisms by which inflammation affects the different emotional moods are only partially known. Previous works have pointed to stress hormones like glucocorticoids plus the vascular factor endothelin-1 as key factors evoking stressful states especially in relation to endothelial dysfunctions. With this work, it was our intention to establish the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression variations towards depression-like behaviors and consequently the development of neurodegeneration events caused by endothelial damages in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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