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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#1
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895510/the-psychological-profile-of-women-presenting-to-a-multidisciplinary-clinic-for-chronic-pelvic-pain-high-levels-of-psychological-dysfunction-and-implications-for-practice
#2
Christina Bryant, Rebecca Cockburn, Anne-Florence Plante, Angela Chia
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is widely acknowledged as a common problem with significant consequences for those diagnosed with this condition. There is a lack of studies with good sample size that provide a comprehensive psychological profile of women presenting to specialist chronic pain clinics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the psychological profile of a representative sample of women presenting with CPP at a tertiary referral center. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873453/does-improvement-of-cognitive-functioning-by-cognitive-remediation-therapy-effect-work-outcomes-in-severe-mental-illness-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Emi Ikebuchi, Sayaka Sato, Sosei Yamaguchi, Michiyo Shimodaira, Ayano Taneda, Norifumi Hatsuse, Yukako Watanabe, Masuhiro Sakata, Naoko Satake, Masaaki Nishio, Jun-Ichiro Ito
AIM: The aim of this study is to clarify whether improvement of cognitive functioning by cognitive remediation therapy can improve work outcome in schizophrenia and other severe mental illness when combined with supported employment. METHODS: The Subjects of this study were persons with severe mental illness diagnosed with schizophrenia, major depression, or bipolar disorder (ICD-10) and cognitive dysfunction who participated in both cognitive remediation using the Thinking Skills for Work program and supported employment program in a multisite, randomized controlled study...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813085/new-actions-of-an-old-friend-perivascular-adipose-tissue-s-adrenergic-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts
The revolutionary discovery in 1991 by Soltis and Cassis that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile effect changed how we think about the vasculature. Most experiments on vascular pharmacology begin by removing the fat surrounding the vessels. Thus, PVAT was thought of having a minor role in vascular function and present for structural support. The need to rethink our old friend PVAT's role was precipitated by observations that obesity carries a high cardiovascular risk and PVAT dysfunction occurs with obesity...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803180/oral-administration-of-astrovirus-capsid-protein-is-sufficient-to-induce-acute-diarrhea-in-vivo
#5
Victoria A Meliopoulos, Shauna A Marvin, Pamela Freiden, Lindsey A Moser, Prashant Nighot, Rizwana Ali, Anthony Blikslager, Muralidhar Reddivari, Richard J Heath, Matthew D Koci, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
: The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1) capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2) capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797015/hemodynamic-profiles-of-functional-and-dysfunctional-forms-of-repetitive-thinking
#6
Cristina Ottaviani, Jos F Brosschot, Antonia Lonigro, Barbara Medea, Ilse Van Diest, Julian F Thayer
BACKGROUND: The ability of the human brain to escape the here and now (mind wandering) can take functional (problem solving) and dysfunctional (perseverative cognition) routes. Although it has been proposed that only the latter may act as a mediator of the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease, both functional and dysfunctional forms of repetitive thinking have been associated with blood pressure (BP) reactivity of the same magnitude. However, a similar BP reactivity may be caused by different physiological determinants, which may differ in their risk for cardiovascular pathology...
October 28, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791532/rational-emotive-behaviour-therapy-in-high-schools-to-educate-in-mental-health-and-empower-youth-health-a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-brief-intervention
#7
Gry Anette Sælid, Hans M Nordahl
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is effective in reducing distress in several target groups. No other study has tested the mental health effects on adolescents in a high school setting while expanding a Cognitive Behaviour-based therapy, REBT, into the concept of mental health literacy. The format of the ABC model, which is an important element of REBT, functioned as a working manual in and between three sessions. This study tested whether knowledge and practical use of the ABC model increased self-esteem and hope, and reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dysfunctional thinking...
October 28, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755492/dysfunction-of-nucleus-accumbens-is-associated-with-psychiatric-problems-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Hideaki Kaneko, Shuo Zhang, Miho Sekiguchi, Takuya Nikaido, Koshi Makita, Jiro Kurata, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to lumbar mechanical stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although a modified activity of the NAc was characterized in cLBP patients, its pathological significance has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that NAc activation in response to pain might differ depending on the extent of psychiatric problems, which might be associated with the affective/motivational background of chronic pain...
October 17, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747597/quantitative-multimodal-multiparametric-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746746/thinking-after-drinking-impaired-hippocampal-dependent-cognition-in-human-alcoholics-and-animal-models-of-alcohol-dependence
#10
Miranda C Staples, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736671/indulgent-thinking-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-overweight-and-healthy-weight-participants-cognitions-and-emotions
#11
Bastiaan Boh, Anita Jansen, Ineke Clijsters, Chantal Nederkoorn, Lotte H J M Lemmens, Gerasimos Spanakis, Anne Roefs
Cognitions and emotions are considered important determinants of eating behaviour in cognitive behavioural models of obesity. Ecological data on these determinants is still limited. The present study investigated cognitions and emotions of overweight (n = 57) and healthy-weight (n = 43) participants via Ecological Momentary Assessment. It was found that eating-related cognitions mainly focused on desire and taste. Unexpectedly, dysfunctional cognitions (i.e., thoughts that may promote overeating) did not occur more often for overweight participants in almost all cases...
October 4, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735897/-correction-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-cardiosurgery-using-computer-based-stimulation-programs
#12
M M Petrova, S V Prokopenko, O V Eremina, E Yu Mozheiko, D S Kaskaeva
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of computer-based stimulation programs in the correction of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease in remote period after coronary artery bypass surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 74 patients. All patients underwent a drug therapy and the rehabilitation course using computer-based stimulation programs (1 time per day for 20 minutes during10 days). Coronary artery bypass surgery was performed for all patients...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725300/pharmaceuticals-and-stem-cells-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-wishful-thinking
#13
Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Aaron Tan, Rebecca Jeyaraj, James Lam, Monica Gole, Antonio Hardan, Keyoumars Ashkan, Jayakumar Rajadas
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of attention, and impaired social and communication skills. ASDs are also associated with a number of functional challenges and potentially harmful deficits, including restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety, irritability, seizures, and self-harm. Although the exact causes of ASDs are currently unknown, it is suggested that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play critical roles...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717954/specific-features-of-executive-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-type-mild-dementia-based-on-computerized-cambridge-neuropsychological-test-automated-battery-cantab-test-results
#14
Jurgita Kuzmickienė, Gintaras Kaubrys
BACKGROUND The primary manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study...
October 8, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695414/brooding-is-related-to-neural-alterations-during-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-in-aging
#15
Sophia Schneider, Stefanie Brassen
Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671020/do-commonly-used-functional-outcome-measures-capture-activities-that-are-relevant-for-people-with-stroke-in-india
#16
V Prakash, Mohan Ganesan, R Vasanthan, K Hariohm
OBJECTIVES: In India, post-stroke outcomes are determined using functional outcome measures (FOMs), the contents of which have not been validated for their relevance to the Indian population. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cultural validity of five frequently used stroke-specific FOMs by comparing their contents with the problems reported by patients with stroke in India. METHODS: Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 152 patients diagnosed with stroke in India...
September 27, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663819/the-new-functional-identity-a-body-that-thinks-a-mind-that-feels-frontiers-and-unexplored-territories-of-the-body-and-mind-zone
#17
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651064/the-cortical-surface-correlates-of-clinical-manifestations-in-the-mid-stage-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Xia Deng, Fang-Jun Li, Chun-Yan Tang, Jie Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei-Hong Zhou, Xiong Zhang, Hong-Han Gong, Xiang-Zuo Xiao, Ren-Shi Xu
The alteration of pathological cortical surface may lead to the corresponding clinical manifestations of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD). Therefore, we investigated the correlates of cortical surface and clinical manifestations in the mid-stage sPD. Sixty seven mid-stage sPD patients and thirty five matched controls were performed the corticometry of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the assessment of clinical manifestations including the demographic and disease-related characteristics, and underwent the final analysis of the correlates between cortical surface and clinical manifestations...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628950/the-clinical-microbiologist-before-the-taxonomic-changes-in-the-genus-clostridium
#19
REVIEW
J E García-Sánchez, E García-Sánchez, M García-Moro
The various species included in the genus Clostridium are very heterogeneous, both from a phenotypic and a phylogenetic point of view. The advances in polyphasic taxonomy, particularly in phylogeny, are allowing to resolve this dysfunction reclassifying several species in other genres, although there is still work to be done. Changes in generic denominations are quite normal in taxonomy, but can turn into a problem when they affect species with strong clinical impact and that have been recognised for a long time, as in the case of some traditional Clostridium species...
October 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627078/-hypoglycemia-as-a-symptom-of-cancer-in-adults
#20
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek
UNLABELLED: Decrease of blood glucose levels below 3 mmol/l is in fully developed cases accompanied by neuroglycopenic symptoms that may even lead to altered state of consciousness. The treating physician frequently faces a complicated situation. This may be due to inappropriately administered drugs including cases motivated by self-harm intentions (insulin, insulin secretagogues), or alcohol abuse. Undernourished people, or those afflicted with a serious systemic infection, end-stage liver or kidney diseases or with a failing heart, belong to a risk group...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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