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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775734/defining-the-osteoarthritis-patient-back-to-the-future
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey P Dobson, Hayley L Letson, Andrea Grant, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Jodie L Morris
The history of osteoarthritis (OA) is important because it can help broaden our perspective on past and present controversies. The naming of OA, beginning with Heberden's nodes, is itself a fascinating story. According to Albert Hoffa, R. Llewellyn Jones and Archibald Edward Garrod, the name OA was introduced in the mid-19th century by surgeon Richard von Volkmann who distinguished it from rheumatoid arthritis and gout. Others preferred the terms 'chronical rheumatism', 'senile arthritis', 'hypertrophic arthritis' or 'arthritis deformans'...
May 15, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754412/affective-neuroscience-of-self-generated-thought
#2
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Caitlin Mills, Matthew L Dixon, Jelena Markovic, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff
Despite increasing scientific interest in self-generated thought-mental content largely independent of the immediate environment-there has yet to be any comprehensive synthesis of the subjective experience and neural correlates of affect in these forms of thinking. Here, we aim to develop an integrated affective neuroscience encompassing many forms of self-generated thought-normal and pathological, moderate and excessive, in waking and in sleep. In synthesizing existing literature on this topic, we reveal consistent findings pertaining to the prevalence, valence, and variability of emotion in self-generated thought, and highlight how these factors might interact with self-generated thought to influence general well-being...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#3
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#4
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745699/maladaptive-personality-traits-and-romantic-relationship-satisfaction-a-monozygotic-co-twin-control-analysis
#5
Sylia Wilson, Irene J Elkins, Jessica L Bair, Victoria C Oleynick, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The recent inclusion of an alternative model for personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) highlights the importance of extreme variants of personality for psychopathology. The maladaptive personality traits described in the alternative model comprise 5 higher-order domains and 25 lower-order facets that capture pathological levels of personality. The present report adds to a growing body of research on the implications of maladaptive personality traits for functioning by demonstrating significant associations between each of the higher-order domains (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism) and most of the lower-order facets and lower romantic relationship satisfaction in a population-based sample of 284 monozygotic (MZ) adult twins...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734980/the-longest-obstructive-apnea-you-have-ever-seen-a-patient-with-new-onset-autonomic-dysfunction
#6
Puneet K Aulakh, David E Westerman, Raj C Dedhia
Autonomic dysfunction (AD) has been associated with both obstructive and central sleep apneas. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the emergence of sleep apnea in AD, which include impaired sensory input, compromised local reflexes, and altered central processing. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman who had experienced cardiac arrest four times related to hypoxic events due to the apparent sudden onset of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the setting of AD. The episodes of OSA were profoundly prolonged and a tracheostomy was ultimately needed due to the inability of positive airway pressure therapy with supplemental oxygen to control events...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719356/defects-of-gamma-oscillations-in-auditory-steady-state-evoked-potential-of-schizophrenia
#7
Chenhui Sun, Ping Zhou, Changming Wang, Yu Fan, Qing Tian, Fang Dong, Fuchun Zhou, Chuanyue Wang
Background: Patients with schizophrenia have many cognitive deficits. Gamma oscillations exist in the human brain and are closely related to neurocognition. Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSRs) is an electroneurophysiological index that could reflect gamma oscillations. It was found that the energy evoked by 40 Hz ASSRs in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects. However, the correlation between ASSRs phase index and clinical symptoms and neurocognitive deficits has yet to be systematically studied...
February 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678679/formal-thought-disorders-from-phenomenology-to-neurobiology
#8
REVIEW
Tilo Kircher, Henrike Bröhl, Felicitas Meier, Jennifer Engelen
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is present in most psychiatric disorders and in some healthy individuals. In this Review, we present a comprehensive, integrative, and multilevel account of what is known about FTD, covering genetic, cellular, and neurotransmitter effects, environmental influences, experimental psychology and neuropsychology, brain imaging, phenomenology, linguistics, and treatment. FTD is a dimensional, phenomenologically defined construct, which can be clinically subdivided into positive versus negative and objective versus subjective symptom clusters...
April 17, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652302/-results-of-a-multicenter-study-on-the-efficacy-of-cortexin-in-treatment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children
#9
V P Zykov, E B Serebrennikova, T N Panchenko, Ya B Sycheva, S N Presnyakova, E L Mazur, M N Salova, E S Golubeva, S K Khromova
AIM: To study the efficacy and tolerability of cortexin in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 635 patients, aged 3-7 years. Patients were divided into 4 clinical groups: group 1 (269 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), group 2 (215 children with speech delay), group 3 (82 patients with the consequences of a perinatal lesion of the central nervous system), group 4 (69 patients with asthenic/neurotic syndrome)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620519/neurocognitive-emotional-and-neuroendocrine-correlates-of-exposure-to-sexual-assault-in-women
#10
Yann Quidé, Helen Cléry, Frédéric Andersson, Céline Descriaud, Pauline Saint-Martin, Laurent Barantin, Valérie Gissot, Marie-Paule Carrey Le Bas, Sylvie Osterreicher, Diane Dufour-Rainfray, Bruno Brizard, Maja Ogielska, Wissam El-Hage
BACKGROUND: Survivors of sexual assault are vulnerable to long-term negative psychological and physical health outcomes, but few studies have investigated changes in cognition, emotional processing and brain function in the early stages after sexual assault. We used a multimodal approach to identify the cognitive and emotional correlates associated with sexual assault in women. METHODS: Twenty-seven female survivors of sexual assault were included within 4 weeks of the traumatic event, and they were compared with 20 age-matched controls...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579490/evaluating-a-psychosocial-intervention-for-men-with-prostate-cancer-and-their-partners-outcomes-and-lessons-learned-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Eilis McCaughan, Carol Curran, Laurel Northouse, Kader Parahoo
AIM: This study evaluated the process and outcome of a psychosocial intervention for men with prostate cancer and their partners. As more men survive prostate cancer, they and their partners need help and support to help them cope with the physical and psychosocial effects of the disease and treatment. There is a lack of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer and their partners. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 34 participants to measure the effects of the intervention on selected psychosocial outcomes, post-intervention and at one month' follow-up...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574572/drug-treatment-for-androgenetic-alopecia-first-italian-questionnaire-survey-on-what-dermatologists-think-about-finasteride
#12
Elisabetta Sorbellini, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Fabio Rinaldi
INTRODUCTION: Treatment with finasteride 1 mg/day represents the therapy of choice for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). We investigated how Italian dermatologists approach use of finasteride for treatment of AGA and common side effects reported by patients. METHODS: A tablet-based survey was conducted from February 2017 to January 2018 in Italy to investigating use of 1 mg/day finasteride in the treatment of AGA. Approximately 1153 Italian dermatologists were surveyed about prescription frequency, therapy duration, treatment practices, and side effects eventually reported...
March 24, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560307/stress-related-dysfunction-of-the-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-in-high-ruminators-an-fnirs-study
#13
David Rosenbaum, Mara Thomas, Paula Hilsendegen, Florian G Metzger, Florian B Haeussinger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Repetitive thinking styles such as rumination are considered to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. Different situational triggers (e.g., social stressors) have been shown to elicit rumination in subjects exhibiting such habitual thinking styles. At the same time, the process of rumination influences the adaption to stressful situations. The study at hand aims to investigate the effect of trait rumination on neuronal activation patterns during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as the physiological and affective adaptation to this high-stress situation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553790/problem-solving-biofeedback-and-severe-brain-injury-the-moderating-role-of-positive-affect
#14
Sonya Kim, Joseph F Rath, Vance Zemon, Marie M Cavallo, Rollin McCraty, Ana Sostre, Frederick W Foley
OBJECTIVE: To examine how positive affect influences ability to benefit from heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment for individuals with severe brain injury. METHOD: Secondary data analysis of a nonrandomized experimental study that assessed the efficacy of biofeedback treatment for executive dysfunction in 13 individuals with chronic severe brain injury. RESULTS: Bivariate correlations between the predictors (levels of HRV and positive affect) and the outcome (change in Category Test errors) showed large effect sizes for higher levels of HRV coherence (r = -...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531085/psychopaths-fail-to-automatically-take-the-perspective-of-others
#15
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Psychopathic individuals display a chronic and flagrant disregard for the welfare of others through their callous and manipulative behavior. Historically, this behavior is thought to result from deficits in social-affective processing. However, we show that at least some psychopathic behaviors may be rooted in a cognitive deficit, specifically an inability to automatically take another person's perspective. Unlike prior studies that rely solely on controlled theory of mind (ToM) tasks, we employ a task that taps into automatic ToM processing...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526709/cause-and-consequence-of-a%C3%AE-lipid-interactions-in-alzheimer-disease-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Vijayaraghavan Rangachari, Dexter N Dean, Pratip Rana, Ashwin Vaidya, Preetam Ghosh
Self-templating propagation of protein aggregate conformations is increasingly becoming a significant factor in many neurological diseases. In Alzheimer disease (AD), intrinsically disordered amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides undergo aggregation that is sensitive to environmental conditions. High-molecular weight aggregates of Aβ that form insoluble fibrils are deposited as senile plaques in AD brains. However, low-molecular weight aggregates called soluble oligomers are known to be the primary toxic agents responsible for neuronal dysfunction...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512373/good-s-syndrome-association-of-the-late-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-with-thymoma-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#17
Marzieh Tavakol, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Mir Reza Ghaemi, Mohammad Vaezi, Atosa Dorudinia, Hamidreza Jamaati, Ali Akbar Velayati
Good's syndrome, the adult onset hypogammaglobulinemia associated with thymoma has been explained about six decades ago. It generally presents with recurrent infections and several paraneoplastic syndromes including myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, connective tissue disorders, superior vena cava, Horner's syndrome, lichen planus and inflammatory bowel disease. Lack of B cell, dysfunction of T cell, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, reversed CD4/CD8+ T cell ratio, autoantibodies against Th17 related cytokines have been respected as the pathogenesis of the immune dysregulation this syndrome...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508250/the-mechanism-of-cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical-neurocircuitry-in-response-inhibition-and-emotional-responding-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-comorbid-disruptive-behavior-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Yuncheng Zhu, Xixi Jiang, Weidong Ji
The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493552/pediatric-trauma-transfusion-and-cognitive-aids
#19
Anna Clebone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trauma is the most common cause of pediatric mortality. Much of the research that led to life-saving interventions in adults, however, has not been replicated in the pediatric population. Children have important physiologic and anatomic differences from adults, which impact hemostasis and transfusion. Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in trauma, and children have important differences in their coagulation profiles. Transfusion strategies, including the massive transfusion protocol and use of antifibrinolytics, are still controversial...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469663/a-neuroscience-oriented-research-approach-to-borderline-personality-disorder
#20
Barbara Stanley, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Christa Labouliere, Steven Roose
Traditionally, the study of personality disorders had been based on psychoanalytic or behavioral models. Over the past two decades, there has been an emerging neuroscience model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) grounded in the concept of BPD as a condition in which dysfunctional neural circuits underlie its pathological dimensions, some of which include emotion dysregulation (broadly encompassing affective instability, negative affectivity, and hyperarousal), abnormal interpersonal functioning, and impulsive aggression...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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