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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656509/melioration-revisited-a-systematic-replication-of-vaughan-1981
#1
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
Organisms that behave so as to forfeit a relatively higher overall rate of reinforcement in favor of a relatively lower rate are said to engage in suboptimal choice. Suboptimal choice has been linked with maladaptive behavior in humans. Melioration theory offers one explanatory framework for suboptimal choice. Melioration theory suggests behavior is controlled by differences in local reinforcer rates between alternatives. Vaughan (1981) arranged two experimental conditions in which maximizing the overall rate of reinforcement required behavior that was compatible, or incompatible, with melioration...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656471/shape-controlled-synthesis-of-colloidal-metal-nanocrystals-by-replicating-the-surface-atomic-structure-on-the-seed
#2
REVIEW
Kyle D Gilroy, Xuan Yang, Shuifen Xie, Ming Zhao, Dong Qin, Younan Xia
Controlling the surface structure of metal nanocrystals while maximizing the utilization efficiency of the atoms is a subject of great importance. An emerging strategy that has captured the attention of many research groups involves the conformal deposition of one metal as an ultrathin shell (typically 1-6 atomic layers) onto the surface of a seed made of another metal and covered by a set of well-defined facets. This approach forces the deposited metal to faithfully replicate the surface atomic structure of the seed while at the same time serving to minimize the usage of the deposited metal...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655694/tatanan-a-from-the-acorus-calamus-l-root-inhibited-dengue-virus-proliferation-and-infections
#3
Xingang Yao, Yun Ling, Songxin Guo, Wenyu Wu, Shijun He, Qing Zhang, Min Zou, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Xiaoguang Chen, Shuwen Liu
BACKGROUND: Acorus calamus l. (Acoraceae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, whose root are historically mainly used to treat neurodegenerative diseases, and for cholera treatment. This datum strongly indicates the antimicrobial activity of A. calamus. PURPOSE: Our goal is to find the active constituents of A. calamus to treat dengue virus (DENV) infections, and to study the effects and mechanisms of these active substances. METHODS: The root of A...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655615/locked-nucleic-acid-anti-let-7a-induces-apoptosis-and-necrosis-in-macrophages-infected-with-leishmania-major
#4
Nooshin Hashemi, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Mohsen Masjedi, Sepideh Tolouei, Mitra Hashemi, Nahid Mortazavidehkordi, Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh, Cyrus Hashemi, Seyed Hossein Hejazi
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are etiologic agents which are intracellular pathogens of vertebrates and replicate inside infected macrophages. Leishmania have developed complex strategies to reverse host immune responses in favor of it. One of the major species causing cutaneous involvements is Leishmania major. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are non-coding small RNAs encoding 22-nucleotide (nt) long RNAs. miRNAs affect diverse biological processes, including cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, growth and development, metabolism, aging, apoptosis, gene expression and immune regulation...
April 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655433/spectrophotometric-calibration-procedures-to-enable-calibration-free-measurements-of-seawater-calcium-carbonate-saturation-states
#5
Erin E Cuyler, Robert H Byrne
A simple protocol was developed to measure seawater calcium carbonate saturation states (Ωspec ) spectrophotometrically. Saturation states are typically derived from the separate measurement of two other carbon system parameters, with each requiring unique instrumentation and often complex measurement protocols. Using the new protocol, the only required equipment is a thermostatted laboratory spectrophotometer. For each seawater sample, spectrophotometric measurements of pH (visible absorbance) are made in paired optical cells, one with and one without added nitric acid...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652888/sialome-diversity-of-ticks-revealed-by-rnaseq-of-single-tick-salivary-glands
#6
Jan Perner, Sára Kropáčková, Petr Kopáček, José M C Ribeiro
Ticks salivate while feeding on their hosts. Saliva helps blood feeding through host anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory components. Previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies revealed the complexity of tick saliva, comprising hundreds of polypeptides grouped in several multi-genic families such as lipocalins, Kunitz-domain containing peptides, metalloproteases, basic tail secreted proteins, and several other families uniquely found in ticks. These studies also revealed that the composition of saliva changes with time; expression of transcripts from the same family wax and wane as a function of feeding time...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652773/a-lonely-search-risk-for-depression-when-spirituality-exceeds-religiosity
#7
Jeffrey R Vittengl
This study clarified longitudinal relations of spirituality and religiosity with depression. Spirituality's potential emphasis on internal (e.g., intrapsychic search for meaning) versus religiosity's potential emphasis on external (e.g., engagement in socially-sanctioned belief systems) processes may parallel depression-linked cognitive-behavioral phenomena (e.g., rumination and loneliness) conceptually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that greater spirituality than religiosity, separate from the overall level of spirituality and religiosity, predicts longitudinal increases in depression...
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651687/a-failure-to-replicate-rapid-syntactic-adaptation-in-comprehension
#8
Caoimhe M Harrington Stack, Ariel N James, Duane G Watson
Language comprehension requires successfully navigating linguistic variability. One hypothesis for how listeners manage variability is that they rapidly update their expectations of likely linguistic events in new contexts. This process, called adaptation, allows listeners to better predict the upcoming linguistic input. In previous work, Fine, Jaeger, Farmer, and Qian (PLoS ONE, 8, e77661, 2013) found evidence for syntactic adaptation. Subjects repeatedly encountered sentences in which a verb was temporarily ambiguous between main verb (MV) and reduced relative clause (RC) interpretations...
April 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651518/updating-impairments-and-the-failure-to-explore-new-hypotheses-following-right-brain-damage
#9
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Carolyn Louise Guay, James Danckert, Britt Anderson
We have shown recently that damage to the right hemisphere impairs the ability to update mental models when evidence suggests an old model is no longer appropriate. We argue that this deficit is generic in the sense that it crosses multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. Here, we examined the nature of this updating impairment to determine more precisely the underlying mechanisms. We had right (RBD, N = 12) and left brain damaged (LBD, N = 10) patients perform versions of our picture-morphing task in which pictures gradually morph from one object (e...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651315/slovenian-version-of-the-european-deprivation-index-at-municipal-level
#10
Vesna Zadnik, Elodie Guillaume, Katarina Lokar, Tina Žagar, Maja Primic Žakelj, Guy Launoy, Ludivine Launay
Introduction: Ecological deprivation indices belong to essential instruments for monitoring and understanding health inequalities. Our aim was to develop the SI-EDI, a newly derived European Deprivation Index for Slovenia. We intend to provide researchers and policy-makers in our country with a relevant tool for measuring and reducing the socioeconomic inequalities in health, and even at a broader level. Methods: Data from the European survey on Income and Living Conditions and Slovenian national census for the year 2011 were used in the SI-EDI construction...
June 2018: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651303/reproducible-high-yielding-biological-caproate-production-from-food-waste-using-a-single-phase-anaerobic-reactor-system
#11
Corine Orline Nzeteu, Anna Christine Trego, Florence Abram, Vincent O'Flaherty
Background: Nowadays, the vast majority of chemicals are either synthesised from fossil fuels or are extracted from agricultural commodities. However, these production approaches are not environmentally and economically sustainable, as they result in the emission of greenhouse gases and they may also compete with food production. Because of the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent interest in developing alternative sustainable sources of chemicals. In recent years, organic waste streams have been investigated as attractive and sustainable feedstock alternatives...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#12
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651185/tackling-salmonella-persister-cells-by-antibiotic-nisin-combination-via-mannitol
#13
Praveen Rishi, Neha Rani Bhagat, Reena Thakur, Preeti Pathania
Bacterial persisters (defined as dormant, non-dividing cells with globally reduced metabolism) are the major cause of recurrent infections. As they neither grow nor die in presence of antibiotics, it is difficult to eradicate these cells using antibiotics, even at higher concentrations. Reports of metabolites (which help in waking up of these inactive cells) enabled eradication of bacterial persistence by aminoglycosides, suggest the new potential strategy to improve antibiotic therapy. Here we propose, mannitol enabled elimination of Salmonella persister cells by the nisin-antibiotic combination...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650710/plasma-concentrations-and-dietary-intakes-of-choline-and-betaine-in-association-with-atrial-fibrillation-risk-results-from-3-prospective-cohorts-with-different-health-profiles
#14
Hui Zuo, Gard F T Svingen, Grethe S Tell, Per M Ueland, Stein E Vollset, Eva R Pedersen, Arve Ulvik, Klaus Meyer, Jan E Nordrehaug, Dennis W T Nilsen, Kaare H Bønaa, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Although choline metabolism has been associated with atherosclerotic heart disease, less research attention has been paid to the associations of choline and its oxidative metabolite betaine with cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated associations of plasma concentrations and dietary intakes of choline and betaine with long-term atrial fibrillation (AF) risk in a community-based cohort, HUSK ([the Hordaland Health Study] n=6949), and validated the findings in 2 patient cohorts: the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (n=4164) and the NORVIT (Norwegian B-Vitamin) Trial (n=3733)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650228/visualization-of-proliferative-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-tumors-in-vivo-by-imaging-their-partner-of-sld5-1-promoter-activity
#15
Daishi Yamakawa, Weizhen Jia, Hiroyasu Kidoya, Shoko Hosojima, Miku Torigata, Li Zhang, Nobuyuki Takakura
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from tumors characteristically express certain genes. It has recently been suggested that tumor vessel normalization facilitates effective drug delivery into tumors; however, how tumor vessel normalization can be recognized on the basis of the molecules expressed by tumor ECs is not clearly defined. The degree of cell proliferation is an important indicator to characterize the condition of the ECs. Herein, we generated transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of the DNA replication factor partner of Sld5-1 (PSF1; official name GINS1) promoter to assess whether active ECs can be distinguished from dormant ECs...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649757/passive-air-sampling-of-flame-retardants-and-plasticizers-in-canadian-homes-using-pdms-xad-coated-pdms-and-puf-samplers
#16
Joseph O Okeme, Congqiao Yang, Atousa Abdollahi, Suman Dhal, Shelley A Harris, Liisa M Jantunen, Dina Tsirlin, Miriam L Diamond
Passive air samplers (PAS) were evaluated for measuring indoor concentrations of phthalates, novel brominated flame retardants (N-BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Sampling rates were obtained from a 50-day calibration study for two newly introduced PAS, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or silicone rubber PAS (one with and one without a coating of styrene divinyl benzene co-polymer, XAD) and the commonly used polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS. Average sampling rates normalized to PAS surface area were 1...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649675/establishing-a-coherent-and-replicable-measurement-model-of-the-edinburgh-postnatal-depression-scale
#17
Colin R Martin, Maggie Redshaw
The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is an established screening tool for postnatal depression. Inconsistent findings in factor structure and replication difficulties have limited the scope of development of the measure as a multi-dimensional tool. The current investigation sought to robustly determine the underlying factor structure of the EPDS and the replicability and stability of the most plausible model identified. A between-subjects design was used. EPDS data were collected postpartum from two independent cohorts using identical data capture methods...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649575/the-interaction-between-environmental-triggers-and-epigenetics-in-autoimmunity
#18
Bruce Richardson
Systemic lupus erythematosus flares when genetically predisposed people encounter environmental agents that cause oxidative stress, such as infections and sunlight. How these modify the immune system to initiate flares is unclear. Drug induced lupus models demonstrate that CD4+ T cells epigenetically altered with DNA methylation inhibitors cause lupus in animal models, and similar T cells are found in patients with active lupus. How infections and sun exposure inhibit T cell DNA methylation is unclear. DNA methylation patterns are replicated each time a cell divides in a process that requires DNA methyltransferase one (Dnmt1), which is upregulated as cells enter mitosis, as well as the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine, created from dietary sources...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649263/validation-of-czecanca-czech-cancer-panel-for-clinical-application-for-targeted-ngs-based-analysis-of-hereditary-cancer-syndromes
#19
Jana Soukupova, Petra Zemankova, Klara Lhotova, Marketa Janatova, Marianna Borecka, Lenka Stolarova, Filip Lhota, Lenka Foretova, Eva Machackova, Viktor Stranecky, Spiros Tavandzis, Petra Kleiblova, Michal Vocka, Hana Hartmannova, Katerina Hodanova, Stanislav Kmoch, Zdenek Kleibl
BACKGROUND: Carriers of mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes represent a small but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients. The identification of causal germline mutations determines follow-up management, treatment options and genetic counselling in patients' families. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based analyses using cancer-specific panels in high-risk individuals have been rapidly adopted by diagnostic laboratories. While the use of diagnosis-specific panels is straightforward in typical cases, individuals with unusual phenotypes from families with overlapping criteria require multiple panel testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648932/response-surface-methodology-for-salmonella-inactivation-during-extrusion-processing-of-oat-flour
#20
Tushar Verma, Xinyao Wei, Soon Kiat Lau, Andreia Bianchini, Kent M Eskridge, Jayne Stratton, Nathan M Anderson, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
An increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks and recalls due to Salmonella in low-moisture foods has resulted in the need for the development and validation of process controls to ensure their microbiological safety. Furthermore, the Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food final rule requires food processors to validate their process controls to ensure food safety. The objective of this study was to develop a response surface model to predict Salmonella inactivation in oat flour, as affected by moisture, fat content, screw speed, and temperature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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