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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545101/family-aggregation-and-risk-factors-in-substance-use-disorders-over-three-generations-in-a-nation-wide-study
#1
Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Helle Jakobsen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. METHOD: A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545084/feasibility-study-of-tspo-quantification-with-18f-feppa-using-population-based-input-function
#2
Rostom Mabrouk, Antonio P Strafella, Dunja Knezevic, Christine Ghadery, Romina Mizrahi, Avideh Gharehgazlou, Yuko Koshimori, Sylvain Houle, Pablo Rusjan
PURPOSE: The input function (IF) is a core element in the quantification of Translocator protein 18 kDa with positron emission tomography (PET), as no suitable reference region with negligible binding has been identified. Arterial blood sampling is indeed needed to create the IF (ASIF). In the present manuscript we study individualization of a population based input function (PBIF) with a single arterial manual sample to estimate total distribution volume (VT) for [18F]FEPPA and to replicate previously published clinical studies in which the ASIF was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544921/in-situ-formed-copper-nanoparticles-templated-by-tdt-mediated-dna-for-enhanced-spr-sensor-based-dna-assay
#3
Pei-Xin Yuan, Sheng-Yuan Deng, Chen-Yu Zheng, Serge Cosnier, Dan Shan
For the efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based DNA assay researching, signal amplification tactics were absolutely necessary. In this work, a sensitive SPR-DNA sensor was developed by employing in situ synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) templated by poly-T sequences DNA from terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated extension, and synergistically with nano-effect deposition as the mass relay. The objective of this strategy was manifold: firstly, tDNA hybridized with the optimal designed probes to active the TdT-mediated DNA extension onto the surface of SPR chip, resulted a long poly-T sequences ssDNA chain in dsDNA terminal onto surface of gold chip and characterized by SPR signal amplitudes...
May 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544864/reflections-on-the-time-pressure-cooperation-registered-replication-report
#4
David G Rand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544800/reinforced-microextraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-polluted-soil-samples-using-an-in-needle-coated-fiber-with-polypyrrole-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite
#5
Mina Behfar, Ali Reza Ghiasvand, Fatemeh Yazdankhah
The surface of a stainless-steel wire was platinized using electrophoretic deposition method to create a high-surface-area, porous and cohesive substrate. The platinized fiber was coated by the polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite by electropolymerization and accommodated into a stainless-steel needle to fabricate an in-needle coated fiber. The developed setup was coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and applied to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in complicated solid matrices, along with reinforcement of the extraction by cooling the sorbent, using liquid carbon dioxide...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544613/qtl-and-systems-genetics-analysis-of-mouse-grooming-and-behavioral-responses-to-novelty-in-an-open-field
#6
Anna Delprato, Marie-Paule Algéo, Brice Bonheur, Jason A Bubier, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams, Elissa J Chesler, Wim E Crusio
The open field is a classic test used to assess exploratory behavior, anxiety, and locomotor activity in rodents. Here we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying behaviors displayed in an open field, using a panel of 53 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains with deep replication (10 per strain and sex). The use of these strains permits the integration and comparison of data obtained in different laboratories, and also offers the possibility to study trait covariance by exploiting powerful bioinformatics tools and resources...
May 24, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544327/genetic-variation-at-the-th2-immune-gene-il13-is-associated-with-ige-mediated-paediatric-food-allergy
#7
S E Ashley, H-T T Tan, R Peters, K J Allen, P Vuillermin, S C Dharmage, M L K Tang, J Koplin, A Lowe, A-L Ponsonby, J Molloy, M C Matheson, R Saffery, J A Ellis, D Martino
BACKGROUND: Food allergies pose a considerable world-wide public health burden with incidence as high as one in ten in 12-month-old infants. Few food allergy genetic risk variants have yet been identified. The Th2 immune gene IL13 is a highly plausible genetic candidate as it is central to the initiation of IgE class switching in B cells. OBJECTIVE: Here, we sought to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms at IL13 are associated with the development of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy...
April 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542842/failure-to-find-a-distance-effect-in-pigeon-choice
#8
Matthew C Bell, Federico Sanabria
Primates take longer to choose between alternatives with smaller differences in value. This effect-a particular instance of the distance effect in symbolic comparisons-has not been replicated in birds. Instead, birds appear to respond independently to each alternative, such that the latency to choose depends primarily on the alternative of highest value. Three experiments tested for the distance effect in pigeons under conditions not previously considered. Experiment 1 presented pigeons with forced- and binary free-choice trials, where each alternative was one of three possible delays to reinforcement (4, 8, and 16 s)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542802/comparison-of-nine-different-methods-to-assess-fish-communities-in-lentic-flood-plain-habitats
#9
M Mueller, J Pander, J Knott, J Geist
This study compares the effectiveness and representativeness of electrofishing, snorkelling, seining, baited lift netting, multi-mesh gillnetting, baited fish traps, fyke netting, angling and longline fishing, considering three typical lentic flood-plain habitats at different times of day. Electrofishing was by far the most effective method yielding highest species richness, species trait representation and catch per unit of effort (CPUE), followed by seining. For single species like dace Leuciscus leuciscus, European ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua, common bream Abramis brama and silver bream Blicca bjoerkna, seining was more effective than electrofishing...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542587/seminal-plasma-induces-inflammation-and-enhances-hiv-1-replication-in-human-cervical-tissue-explants
#10
Andrea Introini, Stéphanie Boström, Frideborg Bradley, Anna Gibbs, Axel Glaessgen, Annelie Tjernlund, Kristina Broliden
The most immediate and evident effect of mucosal exposure to semen in vivo is a local release of proinflammatory mediators accompanied by an influx of leukocytes into the female genital mucosa (FGM). The implication of such response in HIV-1 transmission has never been addressed due to limitations of currently available experimental models. Using human tissue explants from the uterine cervix, we developed a system of mucosal exposure to seminal plasma (SP) that supports HIV-1 replication. Treatment of ectocervical explants with SP resulted in the upregulation of inflammatory and growth factors, including IL-6, TNF, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, and CXCL8, and IL1A, CSF2, IL7, PTGS2, as evaluated by measuring protein levels in explant conditioned medium (ECM) and gene expression in tissue...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542382/uv-b-induced-fibrillization-of-crystallin-protein-mixtures
#11
Sibel Cetinel, Valentyna Semenchenko, Jae-Young Cho, Mehdi Ghaffari Sharaf, Karim F Damji, Larry D Unsworth, Carlo Montemagno
Environmental factors, mainly oxidative stress and exposure to sunlight, induce the oxidation, cross-linking, cleavage, and deamination of crystallin proteins, resulting in their aggregation and, ultimately, cataract formation. Various denaturants have been used to initiate the aggregation of crystallin proteins in vitro. All of these regimens, however, are obviously far from replicating conditions that exist in vivo that lead to cataract formation. In fact, it is our supposition that only UV-B radiation may mimic the observed in vivo cause of crystallin alteration leading to cataract formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542240/wmel-limits-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-singapore-wolbachia-introgressed-ae-aegypti-strain-wmel-sg
#12
Cheong Huat Tan, PeiSze Jeslyn Wong, Meizhi Irene Li, HuiTing Yang, Lee Ching Ng, Scott Leslie O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542178/uncovering-direct-and-indirect-molecular-determinants-of-chromatin-loops-using-a-computational-integrative-approach
#13
Raphaël Mourad, Lang Li, Olivier Cuvier
Chromosomal organization in 3D plays a central role in regulating cell-type specific transcriptional and DNA replication timing programs. Yet it remains unclear to what extent the resulting long-range contacts depend on specific molecular drivers. Here we propose a model that comprehensively assesses the influence on contacts of DNA-binding proteins, cis-regulatory elements and DNA consensus motifs. Using real data, we validate a large number of predictions for long-range contacts involving known architectural proteins and DNA motifs...
May 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542124/virologic-monitoring-of-poliovirus-type-2-after-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-type-2-withdrawal-in-april-2016-worldwide-2016-2017
#14
Ousmane M Diop, Humayun Asghar, Evgeniy Gavrilin, Nicksy Gumede Moeletsi, Gloria Rey Benito, Fem Paladin, Sirima Pattamadilok, Yan Zhang, Ajay Goel, Arshad Quddus
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has made substantial progress since its launch in 1988; only 37 wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were detected in 2016, the lowest annual count ever. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, and wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared eradicated in September 2015. This success is attributable to the wide use of live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Since 2001, numerous outbreaks were caused by the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (1)...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541258/paclitaxel-induced-painful-neuropathy-is-associated-with-changes-in-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-glycolysis-and-an-energy-deficit-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#15
Natalie A Duggett, Lisa A Griffiths, Sarah J L Flatters
Painful neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel chemotherapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP deficit have previously been shown in peripheral nerves of paclitaxel-treated rats, but the effects of paclitaxel in the DRG have not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the bioenergetic status of DRG neurons following paclitaxel exposure in vitro and in vivo. Utilising isolated DRG neurons, we measured respiratory function under basal conditions and at maximal capacity, glycolytic function and ADP/ATP levels at three key behavioural time-points; prior to pain onset (day 7), peak pain severity and pain resolution...
May 2, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541125/electrically-conductive-borate-based-bioactive-glass-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#16
Mert Turk, Aylin M Deliormanlı
In this study, electrically conductive, borate-based, porous 13-93B3 bioactive glass composite scaffolds were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. For this purpose, a slurry containing 40 vol% glass particles and 0-10 wt% graphene nanoplatelets was prepared by dispersing the particles in ethanol in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Composite scaffolds were subjected to a controlled heat treatment, in air atmosphere, to decompose the foam and sinter the glass particles into a dense network...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540169/establishment-of-a-new-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-model
#17
Fangfang Li, Luyang Miao, Hua Sun, Yuyang Zhang, Xiuqi Bao, Dan Zhang
To establish an animal model of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) that would replicate the pathological process of ACLF in humans, rats were administered porcine serum (PS) for 11 weeks. Liver fibrosis was determined by pathological and biochemical assessments. The animals then were injected with d-galactosamine (d-gal) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival times of animals with cirrhosis and ACLF were determined over 48 h. Other animals were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 h after administration of d-gal/LPS...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539635/regulation-of-chloroplast-and-nucleomorph-replication-by-the-cell-cycle-in-the-cryptophyte-guillardia-theta
#18
Ryo Onuma, Neha Mishra, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
The chloroplasts of cryptophytes arose through a secondary endosymbiotic event in which a red algal endosymbiont was integrated into a previously nonphotosynthetic eukaryote. The cryptophytes retain a remnant of the endosymbiont nucleus (nucleomorph) that is replicated once in the cell cycle along with the chloroplast. To understand how the chloroplast, nucleomorph and host cell divide in a coordinated manner, we examined the expression of genes/proteins that are related to nucleomorph replication and chloroplast division as well as the timing of nuclear and nucleomorph DNA synthesis in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539447/a-map-of-the-arenavirus-nucleoprotein-host-protein-interactome-reveals-that-jun%C3%A3-n-virus-selectively-impairs-the-antiviral-activity-of-pkr
#19
Benjamin R King, Dylan Hershkowitz, Philip L Eisenhauer, Marion E Weir, Christopher M Ziegler, Joanne Russo, Emily A Bruce, Bryan A Ballif, Jason Botten
Arenaviruses are enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that cause significant human disease. Encoding only four proteins to accomplish the viral life cycle, each arenavirus protein likely plays unappreciated accessory roles during infection. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify human proteins that interact with the nucleoprotein (NP) of the Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) and the New World arenavirus Junín Candid #1 (JUNV). Bioinformatic analysis of the identified protein partners of NP revealed that host translation appears to be a key biological process engaged during infection...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539406/nek7-is-required-for-g1-progression-and-procentriole-formation
#20
Akshari Gupta, Yuki Tsuchiya, Midori Ohta, Gen Shiratsuchi, Daiju Kitagawa
The decision to commit to the cell cycle is made during G1 through the concerted action of various cyclin-CDK complexes. Not only DNA replication, but also centriole duplication is initiated as cells enter the S phase. The NIMA-related kinase NEK7 is one of the many factors that are required for proper centriole duplication, as well as timely cell cycle progression. However, its specific roles in these events remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that the depletion of NEK7 inhibited progression through the G1 phase in human U2OS cells by the downregulation of various cyclins and CDKs, and also inhibited the earliest stages of procentriole formation...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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