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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098791/development-of-high-throughput-method-for-measurement-of-vascular-nitric-oxide-generation-in-microplate-reader
#1
Soad S Abd El-Hay, Christa L Colyer
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of nitric oxide (NO) in vascular physiology and pathology, a high-throughput method for the quantification of its vascular generation is lacking. OBJECTIVE: By using the fluorescent probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM), we have optimized a simple method for the determination of the generation of endothelial nitric oxide in a microplate format. METHODS: A nitric oxide donor was used (3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride, SIN-1)...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097505/support-for-context-effects-on-segmentation-and-segments-depends-on-the-context
#2
Christopher C Heffner, Rochelle S Newman, William J Idsardi
Listeners must adapt to differences in speech rate across talkers and situations. Speech rate adaptation effects are strong for adjacent syllables (i.e., proximal syllables). For studies that have assessed adaptation effects on speech rate information more than one syllable removed from a point of ambiguity in speech (i.e., distal syllables), the difference in strength between different types of ambiguity is stark. Studies of word segmentation have shown large shifts in perception as a result of distal rate manipulations, while studies of segmental perception have shown only weak, or even nonexistent, effects...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097495/the-expression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-gene-is-not-affected-by-low-oxygen-conditions-in-yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-juveniles
#3
Karolina Kwasek, Simona Rimoldi, Anna Giulia Cattaneo, Timothy Parker, Konrad Dabrowski, Genciana Terova
Hypoxia can affect various fish populations, including yellow perch Perca flavescens, which is an economically and ecologically important species in Lake Erie, a freshwater system that often experiences hypoxia in the hypolimnetic part of the lake. Fish, similarly to mammals, possess molecular oxygen sensor-hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor that can affect expression of many downstream genes related to animal growth and locomotion, protein synthesis, as well as ATP and amino acid metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097419/modelling-wolbachia-infection-in-a-sex-structured-mosquito-population-carrying-west-nile-virus
#4
József Z Farkas, Stephen A Gourley, Rongsong Liu, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
Wolbachia is possibly the most studied reproductive parasite of arthropod species. It appears to be a promising candidate for biocontrol of some mosquito borne diseases. We begin by developing a sex-structured model for a Wolbachia infected mosquito population. Our model incorporates the key effects of Wolbachia infection including cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. We also allow the possibility of reduced reproductive output, incomplete maternal transmission, and different mortality rates for uninfected/infected male/female individuals...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096402/establishment-of-expression-state-boundaries-by-rif1-and-taz1-in-fission-yeast
#5
Tea Toteva, Bethany Mason, Yutaka Kanoh, Peter Brøgger, Daniel Green, Janne Verhein-Hansen, Hisao Masai, Geneviève Thon
The Shelterin component Rif1 has emerged as a global regulator of the replication-timing program in all eukaryotes examined to date, possibly by modulating the 3D-organization of the genome. In fission yeast a second Shelterin component, Taz1, might share similar functions. Here, we identified unexpected properties for Rif1 and Taz1 by conducting high-throughput genetic screens designed to identify cis- and trans-acting factors capable of creating heterochromatin-euchromatin boundaries in fission yeast. The preponderance of cis-acting elements identified in the screens originated from genomic loci bound by Taz1 and associated with origins of replication whose firing is repressed by Taz1 and Rif1...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096392/continual-renewal-and-replication-of-persistent-leishmania-major-parasites-in-concomitantly-immune-hosts
#6
Michael A Mandell, Stephen M Beverley
In most natural infections or after recovery, small numbers of Leishmania parasites remain indefinitely in the host. Persistent parasites play a vital role in protective immunity against disease pathology upon reinfection through the process of concomitant immunity, as well as in transmission and reactivation, yet are poorly understood. A key question is whether persistent parasites undergo replication, and we devised several approaches to probe the small numbers in persistent infections. We find two populations of persistent Leishmania major: one rapidly replicating, similar to parasites in acute infections, and another showing little evidence of replication...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095508/the-smc5-6-complex-restricts-hbv-when-localized-to-nd10-without-inducing-an-innate-immune-response-and-is-counteracted-by-the-hbv-x-protein-shortly-after-infection
#7
Congrong Niu, Christine M Livingston, Li Li, Rudolf K Beran, Stephane Daffis, Dhivya Ramakrishnan, Dara Burdette, Leanne Peiser, Eduardo Salas, Hilario Ramos, Mei Yu, Guofeng Cheng, Michel Strubin, William E Delaney Iv, Simon P Fletcher
The structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6) is a restriction factor that represses hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription. HBV counters this restriction by expressing HBV X protein (HBx), which targets Smc5/6 for degradation. However, the mechanism by which Smc5/6 suppresses HBV transcription and how HBx is initially expressed is not known. In this study we characterized viral kinetics and the host response during HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) to address these unresolved questions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095488/metabolism-of-seriola-lalandi-during-starvation-as-revealed-by-fatty-acid-analysis-and-compound-specific-analysis-of-stable-isotopes-within-amino-acids
#8
Fernando Barreto-Curiel, Ulfert Focken, Louis R D'Abramo, María Teresa Viana
Fish starvation is defined as food deprivation for a long period of time, such that physiological processes become confined to basal metabolism. Starvation provides insights in physiological processes without interference from unknown factors in digestion and nutrient absorption occurring in fed state. Juveniles of amberjack Seriola lalandi were isotopically equilibrated to a formulated diet for 60 days. One treatment consisted of fish that continued to be fed and fish in the other treatment were not fed for 35 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095450/non-lytic-egression-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv-particles-from-infected-cells
#9
Fernando Méndez, Nicolás Romero, Liliana L Cubas, Laura R Delgui, Dolores Rodríguez, José F Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is responsible for a devastating immunosuppressive disease affecting juvenile domestic chickens. IBDV particles are naked icosahedrons enclosing a bipartite double-stranded RNA genome harboring three open reading frames (ORF). One of these ORFs codes for VP5, a non-structural polypeptide dispensable for virus replication in tissue culture but essential for IBDV pathogenesis. Using two previously described recombinant viruses, whose genomes differ in a single nucleotide, expressing or not the VP5 polypeptide, we have analyzed the role of this polypeptide during the IBDV replication process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095013/the-tipping-point-of-perceived-change-asymmetric-thresholds-in-diagnosing-improvement-versus-decline
#10
Ed O'Brien, Nadav Klein
Change often emerges from a series of small doses. For example, a person may conclude that a happy relationship has eroded not from 1 obvious fight but from smaller unhappy signs that at some point "add up." Everyday fluctuations therefore create ambiguity about when they reflect substantive shifts versus mere noise. Ten studies reveal an asymmetry in this first point when people conclude "official" change: people demand less evidence to diagnose lasting decline than lasting improvement, despite similar evidential quality...
February 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095009/cross-lingual-neighborhood-effects-in-generalized-lexical-decision-and-natural-reading
#11
Nicolas Dirix, Uschi Cop, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory cross-lingual neighborhood density effect on reading times of second language words, replicating van Heuven, Dijkstra, and Grainger (1998). Reaction times for native language words were not influenced by neighborhood density or frequency but error rates showed cross-lingual neighborhood effects depending on target word frequency...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093869/biosynthesis-of-micro-and-nanocrystals-of-pb-ii-hg-ii-and-cd-ii-sulfides-in-four-candida-species-a-comparative-study-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-approaches
#12
Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz, Daniela Lucio-Hernández, Isabel Martínez-Ángeles, Nicola Demitri, Maurizio Polentarutti, María J Rosales-Hoz, Abel Moreno
Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species...
January 16, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093577/epigenetic-research-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-the-tissue-issue
#13
Kelly M Bakulski, Alycia Halladay, Valerie W Hu, Jonathan Mill, M Daniele Fallin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence has linked neuropsychiatric disorders with epigenetic marks as either a biomarker of disease, biomarker of exposure, or mechanism of disease processes. Neuropsychiatric epidemiologic studies using either target brain tissue or surrogate blood tissue each have methodological challenges and distinct advantages. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain tissue studies are challenged by small sample sizes of cases and controls, incomplete phenotyping, post-mortem timing, and cellular heterogeneity, but the use of a primary disease relevant tissue is critical...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093274/a-direct-quantitative-pcr-based-measurement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-susceptibility-to-antiviral-drugs-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#14
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092859/n-2-arylmethylimino-ethyl-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine-derivatives-synthesized-by-thermal-and-ultrasonic-means-are-endowed-with-anti-zika-virus-activity
#15
Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Ligia S da Silveira Pinto, Carlos R Kaiser, James L Wardell, Caroline S De Freitas, Yasmine R Vieira, Andressa Marttorelli, José Cerbino Neto, Patrícia T Bozza, Solange M S V Wardell, Marcus V N de Souza, Thiago M L Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging Flavivirus, was recently associated with severe neurological complications and congenital diseases. Therefore, development of antiviral agents capable of inhibiting ZIKV replication is urgent. Chloroquine is a molecule with a confirmed safety history for use with pregnant women, and has been found to exhibit anti-ZIKV activity at concentrations around 10 μM. This suggests that modifications to the chloroquine structure could be promising for obtaining more effective anti-ZIKV agents...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092683/case-control-association-mapping-by-proxy-using-family-history-of-disease
#16
Jimmy Z Liu, Yaniv Erlich, Joseph K Pickrell
Collecting cases for case-control genetic association studies can be time-consuming and expensive. In some situations (such as studies of late-onset or rapidly lethal diseases), it may be more practical to identify family members of cases. In randomly ascertained cohorts, replacing cases with their first-degree relatives enables studies of diseases that are absent (or nearly absent) in the cohort. We refer to this approach as genome-wide association study by proxy (GWAX) and apply it to 12 common diseases in 116,196 individuals from the UK Biobank...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092604/replication-kinetics-of-neuropathogenic-and-non-neuropathogenic-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-strains-in-primary-murine-neurons-and-ed-cell-line
#17
J Cymerys, A Słońska, J Brzezicka, A Tucholska, A Chmielewska, J Rola, P Malik, M W Bańbura
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory infections, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. Molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single-point mutation in DNA polymerase gene, resulting in an amino acid variation (N752/D752), is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of EHV-1 strains. The aim of the study was to elucidate if there are any differences between neuropathogenic (EHV-1 26) and non-neuropathogenic (Jan-E and Rac-H) EHV-1 strains in their ability to infect neuronal cells...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092263/transcription-leads-to-pervasive-replisome-instability-in-bacteria
#18
Sarah Mangiameli, Christopher N Merrikh, Paul A Wiggins, Houra Merrikh
The canonical model of DNA replication describes a highly-processive and largely continuous process by which the genome is duplicated. This continuous model is based upon in vitro reconstitution and in vivo ensemble experiments. Here, we characterize the replisome-complex stoichiometry and dynamics with single-molecule resolution in bacterial cells. Strikingly, the stoichiometries of the replicative helicase, DNA polymerase, and clamp loader complexes are consistent with the presence of only one active replisome in a significant fraction of cells (>40%)...
January 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092139/content-of-conventional-therapy-for-the-severely-affected-arm-during-subacute-rehabilitation-after-stroke-an-analysis-of-physiotherapy-and-occupational-therapy-practice
#19
Lex D de Jong, Frederike van Wijck, Roy E Stewart, Alexander C H Geurts, Pieter U Dijkstra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key professions providing treatment for the arm after stroke; however, knowledge about the content of these treatments is scant. Detailed data are needed to replicate interventions, evaluate their effective components, and evaluate PT and OT practice. This paper describes PT and OT treatment for the severely affected arm in terms of duration, content according to components and categories of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyze differences between professions...
January 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091927/effect-of-new-antiviral-agent-camphecin-on-behavior-of-mice
#20
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko, O I Yarovaya, N F Salakhutdinov
We studied the effect of camphecin (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol) on mouse behavior in the open-field test. Camphecin possesses antiviral activity and inhibits viral replication, but its influence on the nervous system is poorly studied. Single camphecin injection produced no significant changes in behavioral patterns. Chronic camphecin administration (5 times over 2 weeks) to mice of different strains had no significant influence on open field behavior (motor, exploratory activity, anxiety, emotional state and vegetative functions)...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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