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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25805351/-neurobiology-of-alcohol-and-pharmacological-aspects-of-nalmefene
#1
Giovanni Biggio
The brain imaging together with the images obtained using the supermicroscopy has recently demonstrated the chronic elevated intake of ethanol induces both functional and structural changes of neurons, a phenomenon associated to altered mental function. The most recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated the treatment with nalmefene as a specific therapy able to significantly reduce ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent patients. Thanks to its peculiar action (partial agonist for κ oppioid receptors and pure antagonist of δ and µ receptors) nalmenfene, in contrast to naltrexone (a pure antagonist at κ, δ, µ receptors) is able to rimodulate the content of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol dependent patients...
January 2015: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25016766/-emotional-disorders-in-patients-with-cerebellar-damage-case-studies
#2
Katarzyna Siuda, Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Anna Tereszko, Dominika Dudek
AIM: Growing number of research shows the role of the cerebellum in the regulation of affect. Lesions of the cerebellum can lead to emotional disregulation, a significant part of the Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome. The aim of this article is to analyze the most recent studies concerning the cerebellar participation in emotional reactions and to present three cases: two female and one male who suffered from cerebellar damage and presented post-traumatic affective and personality change...
March 2014: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24678511/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-regulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-relevance-to-mood-disorders-and-antidepressant-activity
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Bruna Cuccurazzu, Pier Luigi Canonico, Mariagrazia Grilli
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a peculiar form of process of neuroplasticity that in recent years has gained great attention for its potential implication in cognition and in emotional behavior in physiological conditions. Moreover, a vast array of experimental studies suggested that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be altered in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression, where its disregulation may contribute to cognitive impairment and/or emotional aspects associated with those diseases...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23777328/a-framework-for-understanding-moral-distress-among-palliative-care-clinicians
#4
Cynda H Rushton, Alfred W Kaszniak, Joan S Halifax
BACKGROUND: Palliative care clinicians confront suffering as they care for people living with life-limiting conditions. When the degree of suffering becomes unjustified, moral distress can ensue. Promising work from neuroscience and social psychology has yet to be applied to clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to expand a social psychology model focusing on empathy and compassion in response to suffering to include an ethical dimension and to examine how the interrelationships of its proposed components can assist clinicians in understanding their responses to morally distressing situations...
September 2013: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23392936/taurine-effects-on-emotional-learning-and-memory-in-aged-mice-neurochemical-alterations-and-differentiation-in-auditory-cued-fear-and-context-conditioning
#5
Lorenz S Neuwirth, Nicholas P Volpe, Abdeslem El Idrissi
Previously we have shown FVB/NJ mice given taurine acutely (i.e. 43 mg/kg/s.c. [aTau]) is anxiolytic, whereas chronically (0.05% w/v for >4 weeks [cTau]) produces anxiogenic phenotypes under select aversive behavioral experiments, but negated emotional contributions to acquisition learning and retention. Hyperexcitability induced in c-Tau mice is further exacerbated under stressful conditions compromising discrimination between cognitive vs. emotional learning. In the present study, we investigated differences between a-Tau and c-Tau mice using the auditory cued tone (ACTC) and context conditioning (CC) tests...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22312595/-family-relatives-of-persons-with-borderline-personality-disorder-a-pre-experimental-study-of-a-group-intervention
#6
Pilar Regalado, Carola Pechon, Corrine Stoewsand, Pablo Gagliesi
The present study evaluates a standardized group intervention for individuals with a family relative diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) or suffering from severe emotional disregulation, impulsive behavior, and interpersonal conflict, as reported by the participants of the study. This study is a preliminary exploratory step toward a future efficacy study. The intervention is based on Dialectical Behavioral Therapy and is structured as a 12-week program that introduces participants to psychoeducation, therapeutic strategies and training skills...
July 2011: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21203551/altered-effective-connectivity-network-of-the-amygdala-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Wei Liao, Changjian Qiu, Claudio Gentili, Martin Walter, Zhengyong Pan, Jurong Ding, Wei Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Huafu Chen
The amygdala is often found to be abnormally recruited in social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients. The question whether amygdala activation is primarily abnormal and affects other brain systems or whether it responds "normally" to an abnormal pattern of information conveyed by other brain structures remained unanswered. To address this question, we investigated a network of effective connectivity associated with the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI data of 22 SAD patients and 21 healthy controls (HC)...
2010: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21184778/cross-species-affective-functions-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-implications-for-the-treatment-of-affective-pain-and-depression-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Volker A Coenen, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Burkhard Maedler, Jaak Panksepp
Major depression (MD) might be conceptualized as pathological under-arousal of positive affective systems as parts of a network of brain regions assessing, reconciling and storing emotional stimuli versus an over-arousal of parts of the same network promoting separation-distress/GRIEF. In this context depression can be explained as an emotional pain state that is the result of a disregulation of several sub-systems that under physiological conditions are concerned with bodily or emotional homeostasis of the human organism in a social context...
October 2011: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21181579/mindfulness-based-eating-awareness-training-for-treating-binge-eating-disorder-the-conceptual-foundation
#9
REVIEW
Jean L Kristeller, Ruth Q Wolever
This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance...
January 2011: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21092703/-psychological-factors-during-pregnancy-correlated-with-infant-low-birth-weigh
#10
REVIEW
Milena Gracka-Tomaszewska
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary researches state that the child's mental development depends on the quality of its relations with mother starting from pregnancy. They point to those elements of maternal functioning which decide about the child functioning in various dimensions and play a role in the mother-child interaction. One of them is emotional state of the mother during pregnancy. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To demonstrate psychological factors which are correlated with infant low birth weight...
2010: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17497229/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-disturbs-the-enkephalinergic-system-functioning-basal-hedonic-tone-and-emotional-responses-in-an-animal-model-of-autism
#11
Tomasz Schneider, Barbara Ziòłkowska, Agnieszka Gieryk, Anna Tyminska, Ryszard Przewłocki
RATIONALE: It has been suggested that behavioral aberrations observed in autism could be the result of dysfunction of the neuroregulatory role performed by the endogenous opioid peptides. Many of those aberrations have been recently modeled in rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12th day of gestation (VPA rats). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to elucidate functioning of the enkephalinergic system, one of the endogenous opioid peptide systems strongly involved in emotional responses, in VPA rats using both biochemical and behavioral methods...
September 2007: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17449220/sleep-based-heart-period-variability-in-panic-disorder-with-and-without-nocturnal-panic-attacks
#12
Deane E Aikins, Michelle G Craske
In this paper, we investigated ambulatory sleep heart period variability in panic disorder participants with nocturnal panic (NP) compared to daytime panic attacks only. A time-derived measure of heart period variability (HPV) during sleep was significantly reduced in the NP group (n=32) relative to the daytime panic (n=17) and nonanxious (n=17) control groups. Consistent with previous work, NP participants also reported greater fear of relaxation and sleep than daytime panic and control groups. Based on a neurovisceral model of attention [Thayer, J...
2008: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16753929/glutamate-mediated-neuroplasticity-in-a-limbic-input-to-the-hypothalamus
#13
J L Tartar, M A King, D P Devine
Emotionally-salient stressors are processed by cortical and limbic circuits that provide important regulatory input to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, exposure to chronic or severe stress may cause disregulation of the axis and a variety of physiological and psychological symptoms. The mechanisms that underlie stress-induced alterations in HPA axis function are not well characterized, but one possibility is that severe stress causes plastic changes in limbic inputs to the hypothalamus...
March 2006: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15628587/-disregulation-of-collateral-blood-flow-and-lipid-peroxidation-abnormalities-as-a-cause-of-negative-influence-of-emotional-stress-on-the-course-of-cerebral-ischemia
#14
I V Ganushkina, E V Koplik, I L Konorova, A L Antelava, G V Pirogova
Under normal conditions, local brain blood flow in young rats determined their individual resistance to ischemia and emotional stress. In low-activity rats predisposed to emotional stress, a level of blood flow was significantly (p<0.05) higher, comparing to high-active animals resistant to emotional stress. An exposure of rats to aggressive- and conflict situation for 18 h was followed by pronounced emotional stress accompanied by the reduction of local cerebral blood flow by 10-15% and abolished individual differences in resistance to cerebral ischemia...
2004: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15541260/comparison-of-circulating-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-soluble-apoptosis-mediators-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-with-versus-without-symptoms-of-depression
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
John T Parissis, Stamatis Adamopoulos, Antonios Rigas, George Kostakis, Dimitrios Karatzas, Koula Venetsanou, Dimitrios Th Kremastinos
This clinical study compared the expression of circulating proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-6) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines and soluble apoptosis mediators (Fas/Fas ligand) between patients with stable chronic heart failure and depressive symptoms (as estimated by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) (n = 15) and those without these symptoms (n = 20). Patients with depressive symptoms exhibited significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha and soluble Fas ligand, as well as significantly lower levels of interleukin-10, than patients without emotional distress...
November 15, 2004: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15119187/-effect-of-alexithymia-on-the-event-related-theta-synchronization-of-human-eeg-during-reception-of-emotional-visual-stimuli
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L I Aftanas, A A Varlamov, N V Reva, S V Pavlov
The 62-channel EEG was recorded while control non-alexithymic (n = 21) and alexithymic (n = 20) participants viewed sequentially presented neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures and subjectively rated them after each presentation. The event-related synchronization (ERS) to these stimuli was assessed in the theta-1 (4-6 Hr) and theta-2 (6-8 Hz) frequency bands. The obtained findings indicate that alexithymia influences perception of only emotional stimuli. In the upper theta over anterior cortical regions alexithymia vs control individuals in response to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli manifested decreased left hemisphere ERS in the early test period of 0-200 ms along with enhanced ERS in response to negative vs positive and neutral stimuli in the right hemisphere at 200-600 ms after stimulus onset...
August 2003: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12648758/disruption-of-early-event-related-theta-synchronization-of-human-eeg-in-alexithymics-viewing-affective-pictures
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
L I Aftanas, A A Varlamov, N V Reva, S V Pavlov
The 62-channel EEG was recorded while control non-alexithymic (n=21) and alexithymic (n=20) participants viewed sequentially presented neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures and subjectively rated them after each presentation. The event-related synchronization (ERS) to these stimuli was assessed in the theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and theta-2 (6-8 Hz) frequency bands. The obtained findings indicate that alexithymia influences perception of only emotional stimuli. Over anterior cortical regions alexithymia vs. control individuals in response to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli manifested decreased left hemisphere ERS in the early test period of 0-200 ms along with enhanced ERS in response to negative vs...
April 3, 2003: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3608667/coping-with-background-anger-in-early-childhood
#18
E M Cummings
Normative patterns, individual styles, and developmental changes in coping with background anger (anger between others) were examined in preschoolers. Live models expressed verbalized anger toward each other while pairs of same-sex friends played in an adjacent room. 85 4- and 5-year-olds participated, playing took place in the presence of mothers, and a 7-episode sequence of background conditions (no emotion, positive, no emotion, anger, no emotion, positive, no emotion) described the experimental situation...
August 1987: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2959695/denosologization-of-biological-psychiatry-or-the-specificity-of-5-ht-disturbances-in-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
H M van Praag, R S Kahn, G M Asnis, S Wetzler, S L Brown, A Bleich, M L Korn
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) disorders have been reported to occur in a variety of psychiatric disorders. The situation has been called chaotic, the disturbances non-specific. We reject this viewpoint. 5-HT disturbances are non-specific only from a nosological/categorical viewpoint; they seem rather specific from a functional/dimensional point of view, correlating as they do with particular psychopathological dimensions, i.e. aggression-, anxiety- and possibly mood-disregulation, across diagnosis. The evolution of 5-HT research in psychiatry illustrates the importance of what we have called the functional approach, implying dissection of a given psychopathological syndrome in its component parts, i...
July 1987: Journal of Affective Disorders
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