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Imaging inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232021/investigation-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-discriminating-tumors-from-inflammatory-lesions-after-treatment-for-bladder-cancer
#1
Fang Wang, Di Jin, Xiao-Lan Hua, Zi-Zhou Zhao, Lian-Ming Wu, Wei-Bo Chen, Guang-Yu Wu, Xiao-Xi Chen, Hai-Ge Chen
BACKGROUND: The bladder wall may thicken resulting from chronic inflammation after initial treatment (transurethral resection [TUR] or neoadjuvant chemotherapy), which may mimic the feature of recurrent or residual bladder tumors (RBT). Therefore, it is critical to discriminate RBT from benign lesions after initial treatment. PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) could discriminate RBT from post-therapy bladder inflammatory lesions. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231968/value-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-evaluating-muscle-inflammation-insights-from-a-new-mouse-model-of-myositis
#2
Gwladys Bourdenet, Benjamin Dubourg, Lionel Nicol, Paul Mulder, Jérémie Martinet, Yves Allenbach, Christian Boitard, Olivier Boyer
Inflammatory myopathies or myositides represent a group of severe skeletal muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness, elevation of serum creatine kinase levels and muscle inflammatory cell infiltrates. Despite the contribution of a growing number of myositis-specific autoantibodies and the existence of characteristic dermatological features in dermatomyositis, the definitive diagnosis of myositis requires pathological examination of a muscle biopsy [1, 2]. To limit false negatives, this biopsy should be performed in an area of active disease [2]...
December 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231883/silver-nanoparticles-in-the-lung-toxic-effects-and-focal-accumulation-of-silver-in-remote-organs
#3
Martin Wiemann, Antje Vennemann, Franziska Blaske, Michael Sperling, Uwe Karst
The distribution of silver (Ag) into remote organs secondary to the application of Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NP) to the lung is still incompletely understood and was investigated in the rat with imaging methods. Dose-finding experiments were carried out with 50 nm- or 200 nm-sized polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP)-coated Ag-NP using alveolar macrophages in vitro and female rats, which received Ag-NP via intratracheal instillation. In the main study, we administered 37.5-300 µg per rat lung of the more toxic Ag50-PVP and assessed the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for inflammatory cells, total protein and fibronectin after three and 21 days...
December 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231290/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-clinical-performance-of-somatostatin-receptor-positron-emission-tomography-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#4
Carmen Pizarro, Folke Kluenker, Darius Dabir, Daniel Thomas, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Christian Grohé, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch
AIMS: Cardiac affection constitutes a major limiting condition in systemic sarcoidosis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the persistence rate of cardiac sarcoid involvement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Moreover, we examined the additional insights into myocardial damage's characteristics gained by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a pilot study, we had previously identified cardiac involvement-diagnosed by CMR imaging-to be present in 29 of 188 patients (15...
December 12, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229678/epitope-mapping-of-serca2a-identifies-an-antigenic-determinant-that-induces-mainly-atrial-myocarditis-in-a-j-mice
#5
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z Afzal, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, You Zhou, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Shyam S Nandi, Paras K Mishra, Raymond A Sobel, Jennifer L Strande, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA)2a, a critical regulator of calcium homeostasis, is known to be decreased in heart failure. Patients with myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy develop autoantibodies to SERCA2a suggesting that they may have pathogenetic significance. In this report, we describe epitope mapping analysis of SERCA2a in A/J mice that leads us to make five observations: 1) SERCA2a contains multiple T cell epitopes that induce varying degrees of myocarditis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229338/delayed-occurrence-of-diabetes-insipidus-following-transsphenoidal-surgery-with-radiological-evaluation-of-the-pituitary-stalk-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Yasuhiro Aida, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Daisuke Kita, Osamu Tachibana, Fumiaki Ueda, Mitsutoshi Nakada
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a major complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). DI usually occurs within a couple of days after TSS. Delayed occurrence of postoperative DI is rarely observed and its developing mechanisms remain unknown. Methods Six patients were identified as having postoperative delayed DI, which was defined as DI that first occurred two or more weeks after TSS. They consisted of one male and five females, and their mean age was 38.3 (range: 10-76) years...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228529/efficacy-of-bronchial-washing-and-brushing-cytology-in-the-diagnosis-of-non-neoplastic-lung-diseases
#7
Rahil Giti, Massood Hosseinzadeh
Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is often the initial technique for diagnosis of lung and bronchial tumors. Many studies have shown the high accuracy rate of bronchial washing and brushing cytology in the evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. The aim of this study is to emphasize the value of the bronchial cytologic findings for diagnosis of non-neoplastic bronchopulmonary lesions. In a cross-sectional study, we retrieved all cases with bronchial washing and brushing cytology from 21 Mach 2014 to 21 December 2015...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228057/n-acetylcysteine-nac-ameliorates-epstein-barr-virus-latent-membrane-protein-1-induced-chronic-inflammation
#8
Xiao Gao, Eirini-Maria Lampraki, Sarwah Al-Khalidi, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Rhea Desai, Joanna Beatrice Wilson
Chronic inflammation results when the immune system responds to trauma, injury or infection and the response is not resolved. It can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction and in some cases predispose to cancer. Some viruses (including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)) can induce inflammation, which may persist even after the infection has been controlled or cleared. The damage caused by inflammation, can itself act to perpetuate the inflammatory response. The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of EBV is a pro-inflammatory factor and in the skin of transgenic mice causes a phenotype of hyperplasia with chronic inflammation of increasing severity, which can progress to pre-malignant and malignant lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225602/sphingosine-1-phosphate-promotes-the-persistence-of-activated-cd4-t-cells-in-inflamed-sites
#9
Shafqat Ahrar Jaigirdar, Robert A Benson, Aziza Elmesmari, Mariola Stefania Kurowska-Stolarska, Iain B McInnes, Paul Garside, Megan K L MacLeod
Inflammation can be protective or pathogenic depending on context and timeframe. Acute inflammation, including the accumulation of CD4 T cells, accompanies protective immune responses to pathogens, but the presence of activated CD4 T cells at sites of inflammation is associated with chronic inflammatory disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding the migration of CD4 T cells into inflamed sites, the signals that lead to their persistence are poorly characterized. Using a murine ear model of acute inflammation and intravital two-photon imaging, we have dissected the signals that mediate CD4 T cell persistence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224742/the-importance-of-synovial-inflammation-in-osteoarthritis-current-evidence-from-imaging-assessments-and-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Xia Wang, David J Hunter, Xingzhong Jin, Changhai Ding
Synovial abnormalities have been observed at multiple stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the OA pathological process. Many assessment systems using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound have been established to detect synovial inflammation in OA. These have been used to inform the current investigation of OA disease phenotypes and progression and can be utilised in the future for clinical trials developing potential treatments. This narrative review aims to illustrate the importance of synovial tissue in OA and provide an overview of imaging assessments and possible therapies targeting synovial abnormalities...
December 7, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#11
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222961/liver-zonation-in-children-with-nafld-associations-with-dietary-fructose-and-uric-acid-concentrations
#12
Valerio Nobili, Antonella Mosca, Rita De Vito, Massimiliano Raponi, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: As dietary components are delivered directly to the periportal zone of the liver lobule, there is the potential for greater injury in this zone (zone 1) compared to the perivenous zone (zone 3). We investigated the associations between dietary fructose consumption and uric acid concentrations and differential zonal injury in periportal and perivenous zones. METHODS: 271 children's histological images were scored in five periportal and five perivenous...
December 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221601/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-individuals-at-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Laura Hunt, Gisela Eugénio, Andrew J Grainger
Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. There can be delays in both due to diagnostic uncertainties. Imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can detect inflammation earlier than clinical examination alone in early RA patients. Furthermore, the predictive role of MRI for the future development of RA has recently been explored in 'at-risk' individuals. This review details the use of MRI in early and undifferentiated arthritis and summarises the studies to date in individuals at risk of RA...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218616/noninvasive-assessment-of-hepatic-sinusoidal-obstructive-syndrome-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-imaging-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-rat-models
#14
So Hyun Park, Seung Soo Lee, Ji-Youn Sung, Kiyong Na, Hyoung Jung Kim, So Yeon Kim, Beom Jin Park, Jae Ho Byun
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rat models. METHODS: Rat SOS models of various severities were created by monocrotaline gavage (n = 40) or by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) (n = 16). Liver shear-wave velocity (SWV) was measured using ARFI elastography. Liver samples were analysed for the SOS score, steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218105/systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-myocardial-fibrosis-diastolic-dysfunction-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Lu Fang, Andris H Ellims, Anna L Beale, Andrew J Taylor, Andrew Murphy, Anthony M Dart
BACKGROUND: Regional or diffuse fibrosis is an early feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is related to poor prognosis. Previous studies have documented low-grade inflammation in HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between circulating inflammatory markers and myocardial fibrosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and the degree of cardiac hypertrophy in HCM patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty HCM patients were recruited while 20 healthy subjects served as the control group...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217759/opposing-roles-of-dendritic-cell-subsets-in-experimental-gn
#16
Sebastian Brähler, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Saravanan Raju, Maximilian Nitschke, Hani Suleiman, Brian T Saunders, Michael W Johnson, Alexander M C Böhner, Susanne F Viehmann, Derek J Theisen, Nicole M Kretzer, Carlos G Briseño, Konstantin Zaitsev, Olga Ornatsky, Qing Chang, Javier A Carrero, Jeffrey B Kopp, Maxim N Artyomov, Christian Kurts, Kenneth M Murphy, Jeffrey H Miner, Andrey S Shaw
Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to form a dendritic network across barrier surfaces and throughout organs, including the kidney, to perform an important sentinel function. However, previous studies of DC function used markers, such as CD11c or CX3CR1, that are not unique to DCs. Here, we evaluated the role of DCs in renal inflammation using a CD11c reporter mouse line and two mouse lines with DC-specific reporters, Zbtb46-GFP and Snx22-GFP. Multiphoton microscopy of kidney sections confirmed that most of the dendritically shaped CD11c+ cells forming a network throughout the renal interstitium expressed macrophage-specific markers...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216869/horizontal-ridge-reconstruction-of-the-anterior-maxilla-using-customized-allogeneic-bone-blocks-with-a-minimally-invasive-technique-a-case-series
#17
Laurent Venet, Michel Perriat, Francesco Guido Mangano, Thomas Fortin
BACKGROUND: Different surgical procedures have been proposed to achieve horizontal ridge reconstruction of the anterior maxilla; all these procedures, however, require bone replacement materials to be adapted to the bone defect at the time of implantation, resulting in complex and time-consuming procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe how to use a 3D printed hardcopy model of the maxilla to prepare customized milled bone blocks, to be adapted on the bone defect areas using a minimally invasive subperiosteal tunneling technique...
December 8, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216188/monitoring-wound-healing-in-a-3d-wound-model-by-hyperspectral-imaging-and-efficient-clustering
#18
Mirwaes Wahabzada, Manuela Besser, Milad Khosravani, Matheus Thomas Kuska, Kristian Kersting, Anne-Katrin Mahlein, Ewa Stürmer
Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process with different distinct and overlapping phases from homeostasis, inflammation and proliferation to remodelling. Monitoring the healing response of injured tissue is of high importance for basic research and clinical practice. In traditional application, biological markers characterize normal and abnormal wound healing. Understanding functional relationships of these biological processes is essential for developing new treatment strategies. However, most of the present techniques (in vitro or in vivo) include invasive microscopic or analytical tissue sampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215680/effects-of-zoledronic-acid-in-experimental-periapical-lesions-in-rats-an-imaging-and-histological-analysis
#19
Talita Ribeiro Tenório de França, Flávia Maria de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Andrea Dos Anjos Pontual, Jurema Freire Lisboa de Castro, Paulo Rogério Ferreti Bonan, Danyel Elias da Cruz Perez
The aim of this study was to assess the imaging and histological features of experimental periapical lesions, including the adjacent alveolar bone, in rats under zoledronic acid treatment. The study used 40 male Wistar rats distributed into 8 groups of 5 animals each: G1: induction of periapical lesion (PL) and weekly intraperitoneal administration (WIPA) of saline solution (0.9% NaCl) for 4 weeks; G2: PL induction and WIPA of zoledronic acid (0.15 mg/kg/week) for 4 weeks; G3: PL induction and WIPA of saline solution for 8 weeks; G4: PL induction and WIPA of zoledronic acid for 8 weeks; G5:WIPA of saline solution for 4 weeks and subsequent PL induction; G6: WIPA of zoledronic acid for 4 weeks and subsequent PL induction; G7: WIPA of saline solution for 8 weeks and subsequent PL induction; G8: WIPA of zoledronic acid for 8 weeks and subsequent PL induction...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212975/-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-complicated-with-drug-induced-vasculitis-during-administration-of-pegfilgrastim
#20
Yuta Ito, Kentaro Noda, Keisuke Aiba, Shingo Yano, Tsunehiro Fujii
A 59-year-old female with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) regimen. In addition, we administered pegfilgrastim for treating chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. She complained of fever and neck and chest pain a few days after pegfilgrastim administration during the third and fourth courses of R-CHOP. Radiological imaging revealed an inflammation of large vessels, which led to the diagnosis of drug-associated vasculitis...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
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