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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
May 26, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550443/timing-to-antibiotic-therapy-in-septic-oncologic-patients-presenting-without-hypotension
#2
Kathleen Morneau, Gary B Chisholm, Frank Tverdek, Jeffrey Bruno, Katy M Toale
PURPOSE: Sepsis accounts for only 2% of the hospitalizations worldwide but more than 17% of total in-hospital mortality. Inappropriate antimicrobial selection and delays in appropriate therapy have been associated with reduced survival in severe sepsis and septic shock. No studies to date have exclusively targeted septic oncologic patients without hypotension. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review of 100 adult cancer patients presenting to the emergency department with sepsis without hypotension...
May 26, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550027/exceptional-response-to-nivolumab-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-in-neuroendocrine-cervical-carcinoma-with-high-tumor-mutational-burden-management-considerations-from-the-center-for-personalized-cancer-therapy-at-uc-san-diego-moores-cancer-center
#3
Andrew Sharabi, Sangwoo Shawn Kim, Shumei Kato, Philip D Sanders, Sandip Pravin Patel, Parag Sanghvi, Elizabeth Weihe, Razelle Kurzrock
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has rapidly developed into an emerging standard of care for several common disease types. Interestingly, in preclinical and retrospective clinical data, radiation therapy has been demonstrated to synergize with checkpoint inhibitors. Here we report a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with partial bowel obstruction due to a large tumor burden...
May 26, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549767/treatment-of-del17p-and-or-aberrant-tp53-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-in-the-era-of-novel-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Hind Rafei, Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja
More effective therapies are emerging, with better toxicity profiles, and are being incorporated into modern treatment algorithms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia at various stages of the disease, including for patients harboring Del17p and/or aberrant TP53. Ibrutinib, an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has demonstrated impressive response rates in the relapsed/refractory setting, including in the setting of Del17p and/or TP53 mutations. Venetoclax, an inhibitor of BCL-2 known to play an important role in regulating cell death, has been approved recently for treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Del17p who have received at least one prior therapy...
May 19, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549596/emerging-roles-of-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-axis-in-pancreatic-cancer-progression-and-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Richard L Sleightholm, Beth K Neilsen, Jing Li, Maria M Steele, Rakesh K Singh, Michael A Hollingsworth, David Oupicky
Chemokine networks regulate a variety of cellular, physiological, and immune processes. These normal functions can become appropriated by cancer cells to facilitate a more hospitable niche for aberrant cells by enhancing growth, proliferation, and metastasis. This is especially true in pancreatic cancer, where chemokine signaling is a vital component in the development of the supportive tumor microenvironment and the signaling between the cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells. Although expression patterns vary among cancer types, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in nearly every major malignancy and plays a prominent role in pancreatic cancer development and progression...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549238/risk-factors-and-mechanisms-contributing-to-tki-induced-vascular-events-in-patients-with-cml
#6
REVIEW
Peter Valent, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Gregor Hoermann, Wolfgang Füreder, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner, Wolfgang R Sperr, Rudolf Kirchmair, Dominik Wolf
Vascular adverse events (VAE) are an emerging problem in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Relevant VAE comprise peripheral, cerebral, and coronary artery changes in patients receiving nilotinib, venous and arterial occlusive events during ponatinib therapy, and pulmonary hypertension in patients receiving dasatinib. Although each TKI binds to a unique profile of molecular targets in leukemic cells and vascular cells, the exact etiology of drug-induced vasculopathies remains uncertain...
May 12, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549097/cluster-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-high-level-azithromycin-resistance-and-decreased-ceftriaxone-susceptibility-hawaii-2016
#7
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Robert D Kirkcaldy, A Christian Whelen, Olusegun O Soge, John R Papp, Ellen N Kersh, Glenn M Wasserman, Norman P O'Connor, Pamela S O'Brien, Douglas T Sato, Eloisa V Maningas, Gail Y Kunimoto, Juval E Tomas
Background.: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We report on a cluster of N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrating high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549024/the-epidemiology-of-hospital-death-following-pediatric-severe-sepsis-when-why-and-how-children-with-sepsis-die
#8
Scott L Weiss, Fran Balamuth, Josey Hensley, Julie C Fitzgerald, Jenny Bush, Vinay M Nadkarni, Neal J Thomas, Mark Hall, Jennifer Muszynski
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of in-hospital death after pediatric sepsis has not been well characterized. We investigated the timing, cause, mode, and attribution of death in children with severe sepsis, hypothesizing that refractory shock leading to early death is rare in the current era. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Emergency departments and ICUs at two academic children's hospitals. PATIENTS: Seventy-nine patients less than 18 years old treated for severe sepsis/septic shock in 2012-2013 who died prior to hospital discharge...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548995/invasive-fungal-infections-following-liver-transplantation
#9
Rachel Hogen, Kiran Dhanireddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review outlines the microbiology, presentation, prophylactic strategies, resistance patterns, and consequences of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in the proportion of non-albicans Candida causing IFIs. The biomarkers galactomannan and β-D-glucan should not be routinely used in the diagnosis of IFIs in OLT recipients due to their limited accuracy...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548959/identification-of-the-histone-lysine-demethylase-kdm4a-jmjd2a-as-a-novel-epigenetic-target-in-m1-macrophage-polarization-induced-by-oxidized-ldl
#10
Xue Wang, Siqing Wang, Gang Yao, Dehai Yu, Kexin Chen, Qian Tong, Long Ye, Chuan Wu, Yue Sun, Haixia Li, Dirk M Hermann, Thorsten R Döppner, Fengyan Jin, Yun Dai, Jiang Wu
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces macrophage activation, an event essential for atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence supports that epigenetic regulation plays important roles in macrophage activation and function. However, it remains unclear which epigenetic modulator is responsible for oxLDL-induced macrophage activation. Here, we identify for the first time KDM4A (JMJD2A) as an epigenetic modifying enzyme that controls oxLDL-induced pro-inflammatory M1 polarization of macrophages. OxLDL triggered M1 polarization of murine and human macrophages, characterized by expression of iNOS and robust production of inflammatory cytokines (e...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547771/translation-of-wnt-developmental-programs-into-stem-cell-replacement-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Enrique M Toledo, Daniel Gyllborg, Ernest Arenas
Wnt signalling is a highly conserved pathway across species that is critical for normal development and is deregulated in multiple diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. Wnt signalling is critically required for midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development and maintenance. Understanding the molecular processes controlled by Wnt signalling may thus hold the key to understand the physiopathology and to develop novel therapies aimed at preventing the loss of mDA neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546917/challenges-in-the-delivery-of-therapies-to-melanoma-brain-metastases
#12
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Brynna-Wilken Resman, Karen E Parrish, Svetomir N Markovic, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced melanoma. Recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents and biologics has brought hope to patients with this previously untreatable disease. However, patients with symptomatic melanoma brain metastases have often been excluded from pivotal clinical trials. This may be in part attributed to the fact that several of the approved small molecule molecularly-targeted agents are substrates for active efflux at the blood-brain barrier, limiting their effective delivery to brain metastases...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546853/caveolin-1-an-oxidative-stress-related-target-for-cancer-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Shengqi Wang, Neng Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Jin Zhang, Fengxue Zhang, Zhiyu Wang
Aberrant oxidative metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Reactive species overproduction could promote carcinogenesis via inducing genetic mutations and activating oncogenic pathways, and thus, antioxidant therapy was considered as an important strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a constituent protein of caveolae, has been shown to mediate tumorigenesis and progression through oxidative stress modulation recently. Reactive species could modulate the expression, degradation, posttranslational modifications, and membrane trafficking of Cav-1, while Cav-1-targeted treatments could scavenge the reactive species...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546779/emerging-treatment-options-for-the-management-of-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-clinical-utility-of-nivolumab
#14
REVIEW
David A Bond, Lapo Alinari
Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a B-cell malignancy comprised of pathologic Reed Sternberg cells with a surrounding immune-tolerant inflammatory milieu. RS cells evade immune recognition in part through programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) overexpression, which is genetically programmed through copy number alterations, polysomy, and amplification of the 9p24.1 locus encoding PD-L1. By engaging with PD-1+ T-cells, PD-L1 delivers a potent immune suppressive signal promoting immunologic escape of the tumor cell...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#15
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546381/adjunct-therapies-for-refractory-status-asthmaticus-in-children
#17
Kyle J Rehder
Asthma exacerbation is a common reason for children to present to the emergency department. If primary therapies fail to halt the progression of an asthma flare, status asthmaticus often leads to hospital, and potentially ICU, admission. Following the initial administration of inhaled β agonists and systemic corticosteroids, a wide array of adjunct medical therapies may be used to treat status asthmaticus. Unfortunately, the data supporting the use of these adjunct therapies are often unclear, conflicting, or absent...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546377/respiratory-care-considerations-in-the-childhood-cancer-patient
#18
Lama Elbahlawan, K Jason Rains, Dennis C Stokes
This article reviews the common pulmonary complications seen in the pediatric oncology population and our approach to diagnosis, management, and therapy considerations in this specialized population, including patients receiving chemotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infections cause the most significant complications in this population, non-infectious complications, including acute lung injury from chemotherapy or radiation, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, also occur commonly...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546303/intraocular-minocycline-for-the-treatment-of-ocular-pythiosis
#19
Fátima Ros Castellar, Carmen Sobrino Jiménez, Almudena Del Hierro Zarzuelo, Alicia Herrero Ambrosio, Ana Boto de Los Bueis
PURPOSE: A case of ocular pythiosis successfully treated with surgery and intraocular and oral minocycline is reported. SUMMARY: A 30-year-old man who wore corrective contact lenses traveled to Brazil and Colombia where he swam in salt and fresh waters while wearing contact lenses. He sought treatment at an emergency department after 2 weeks of suffering with a painful corneal ulcer, redness, and loss of vision in his right eye that had been treated at other centers with ophthalmic moxifloxacin for 10 days and with fortified topical antibiotics (amikacin and vancomycin) for 2 days...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546082/targeting-gpnmb-with-glembatumumab-vedotin-current-developments-and-future-opportunities-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#20
REVIEW
April A N Rose, Marco Biondini, Rafael Curiel, Peter M Siegel
GPNMB has emerged as an immunomodulator and an important positive mediator of tumor progression and metastasis in numerous solid cancers. Tumor intrinsic GPNMB-mediated effects on cellular signaling, coupled with the ability of GPNMB to influence the primary tumor and metastatic microenvironments in a non-cell autonomous fashion, combine to augment malignant cancer phenotypes. In addition, GPNMB is often overexpressed in a variety of cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this regard, glembatumumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets GPNMB, is currently in clinical trials as a single agent in multiple cancers...
May 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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