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Temporal Bisection

Jennifer R Laude, Carter W Daniels, Jordan C Wade, Thomas R Zentall
There is evidence that impulsive decision-making is associated with errors in timing. However, there has been little attempt to identify the putative mechanism responsible for impulsive animals' timing errors. One means of manipulating impulsivity in non-human animals is providing different levels of access to conspecifics. These preclinical models have revealed that social isolation increases impulsive responding across a wide range of tasks. The goal of the present study was to determine whether social isolation modulates time perception in pigeons by inducing more variability or a bias to underestimate the passage of time in temporal judgments...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
Amos A Schaffer, Michael Bazarsky, Karine Levy, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Uri Gat
BACKGROUND: The ability of regeneration is essential for the homeostasis of all animals as it allows the repair and renewal of tissues and body parts upon normal turnover or injury. The extent of this ability varies greatly in different animals with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a basal cnidarian model animal, displaying remarkable whole-body regeneration competence. RESULTS: In order to study this process in Nematostella we performed an RNA-Seq screen wherein we analyzed and compared the transcriptional response to bisection in the wound-proximal body parts undergoing oral (head) or aboral (tail) regeneration at several time points up to the initial restoration of the basic body shape...
2016: BMC Genomics
Anna L Toscano-Zapién, Daniel Velázquez-López, David N Velázquez-Martínez
There is evidence that timing processes in the suprasecond scale are modulated by attentional mechanisms; in addition, some studies have shown that attentional mechanisms also affect timing in the subsecond scale. Our aim was to study eye movements and pupil diameter during a temporal bisection task in the subsecond range. Subjects were trained to discriminate anchor intervals of 200 or 800 msec, and were then confronted with intermediate durations. Eye movements revealed that subjects used different cognitive strategies during the bisection timing task...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan Buriticá, Zirahuén Vilchez, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos
We attempted to determine the effect of reinforcement delay on time discrimination in an interval bisection task. Three groups of rats were exposed to immediate, delayed reinforcement and longer signals with immediate reinforcement in acquisition and test. Results show differences in the amount of training necessary to reach the acquisition criteria, the Weber fraction and the range or overall stimulus control. The results suggest an increased difficulty to discriminate the difference among durations rather than an increase in estimated time as main effect of delayed reinforcement...
September 2016: Behavioural Processes
G Mioni, S Grondin, M Forgione, V Fracasso, D Mapelli, F Stablum
AIM: Many studies showed that visual stimuli are frequently experienced as shorter than equivalent auditory stimuli. These findings suggest that timing is distributed across many brain areas and that "different clocks" might be involved in temporal processing. The aim of this study is to investigate, with the application of tDCS over V1 and A1, the specific role of primary sensory cortices (either visual or auditory) in temporal processing. METHOD: Forty-eight University students were included in the study...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Başak Akdoğan, Fuat Balcı
There is growing evidence that alterations in reward rates modify timing behavior demonstrating the role of motivational factors in interval timing behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of manipulations of rewards and penalties on temporal bisection performance in humans. Participants were trained to classify experienced time intervals as short or long based on the reference durations. Two groups of participants were tested under three different bias conditions in which either the relative reward magnitude or penalty associated with correct or incorrect categorizations of short and long reference durations was manipulated...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Magdalena Kautzky, Kay Thurley
Spatial orientation and navigation rely on information about landmarks and self-motion cues gained from multi-sensory sources. In this study, we focused on self-motion and examined the capability of rodents to extract and make use of information about own movement, i.e. path integration. Path integration has been investigated in depth in insects and humans. Demonstrations in rodents, however, mostly stem from experiments on heading direction; less is known about distance estimation. We introduce a novel behavioural paradigm that allows for probing temporal and spatial contributions to path integration...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Karen Davranche, Laurence Casini, Pierrick J Arnal, Thomas Rupp, Stéphane Perrey, Samuel Verges
The present study aimed to assess specific cognitive processes (cognitive control and time perception) and hemodynamic correlates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure. Eleven male subjects were transported via helicopter and dropped at 14 272 ft (4 350 meters) of altitude where they stayed for 4 days. Cognitive tasks, involving a conflict task and temporal bisection task, were performed at sea level the week before ascending to high altitude, the day of arrival (D0), the second (D2) and fourth (D4) day at high altitude...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Zhuxi Yao, Liang Zhang, Caihong Jiang, Kan Zhang, Jianhui Wu
As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one's time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction...
2016: PeerJ
Tiziana Vercillo, David Burr, Monica Gori
A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection...
June 2016: Developmental Psychology
Kenta Ishikawa, Matia Okubo
It is known that threatening stimuli increase emotional arousal, resulting in overestimating the subjective experience of passing time. Moreover, facial expressions and gaze direction interact to create socially threatening situations in people with social anxiety. The present study investigated the effect of social anxiety on the perceived duration of observing emotional faces with a direct or an averted gaze. Participants were divided into high, medium and low social anxiety groups based on social anxiety inventory scores...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam E Fox, Katelyn E Prue, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Recent research on interval timing in the behavioral and neurological sciences has employed a concurrent fixed-interval (FI) procedure first reported by Platt and Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 9, 160-170, 1983). Studies employing the task typically assess just 1 dependent variable, the switch/bisection point; however, multiple measures of timing are available in the procedure and it is unclear (a) what is timed (i.e., learned) by subjects and (b) what other measures might tell us about timing in the task and generally...
April 29, 2016: Learning & Behavior
Jiaxiang Zhang, Cristina Nombela, Noham Wolpe, Roger A Barker, James B Rowe
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause impulsivity with premature responses, but there are several potential mechanisms. We proposed a distinction between poor decision-making and the distortion of temporal perception. Both effects may be present and interact, but with different clinical and pharmacological correlates. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed premature responding during time perception in PD. METHODS: In this study, 18 PD patients and 19 age-matched controls completed 2 temporal discrimination tasks (bisection and trisection) and a baseline reaction-time task...
August 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Marilia Pinheiro de Carvalho, Armando Machado, Marco Vasconcelos
Inspired by Spence's seminal work on transposition, we propose a synthetic approach to understanding the temporal control of operant behavior. The approach takes as primitives the temporal generalization gradients obtained in prototypical concurrent and retrospective timing tasks and then combines them to synthetize more complex temporal performances. The approach is instantiated by the learning-to-time (LeT) model. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, we review the basic findings concerning the generalization gradients observed in fixed-interval schedules, the peak procedure, and the temporal generalization procedure and then describe how LeT explains them...
July 2016: Animal Cognition
Solomon T Gizaw, Tetsu Ohashi, Masakazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Hinou, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the significance of posttranslational glycosylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of growing importance for the investigation of the pathogenesis of AD as well as discovery research of the disease-specific serum biomarkers. METHODS: We designed a standard protocol for the glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOFMS to perform rapid and quantitative profiling of the glycan parts of glycoproteins (N-glycans) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) using human AD's post-mortem samples such as brain tissues (dissected cerebral cortices such as frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal domains), serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
McKensie M Worley, David B Boles
We used factor analysis to examine relationships among tasks that have previously shown right hemispheric processing asymmetries. We were interested in whether processing emotion displayed by a face constitutes a distinct perceptual process from processing other facial characteristics. Interest in this topic arose after Boles [ 1991 . Factor analysis and the cerebral hemispheres: Pilot study and parietal functions. Neuropsychologia, 29 ( 1 ), 59 - 91 ] found evidence of a common process underlying face processing and then Boles [ 1992 ...
March 7, 2016: Laterality
Joseph Kamtchum Tatuene, Gilles Allali, Arnaud Saj, Thérèse Bernati, Roman Sztajzel, Pierre Pollak, Isabelle Momjian-Mayor
AIM: The study aims to describe the epidemiology and the neural correlates of peripersonal visuospatial neglect (PVN) in patients admitted to the Geneva Stroke Unit for an acute stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Eligible subjects were tested for PVN using both the Ota's discriminative cancellation task and a line bisection task. Brain lesions were identified on diffusion-weighted imaging. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors of PVN...
2016: European Neurology
Jean-Louis Millot, Lucie Laurent, Laurence Casini
The effect of an olfactory stimulation on the perception of time was investigated through two different experiments based on temporal bisection tasks. In experiment 1, the durations to be classified as either short or long were centered on 400 ms while in Experiment 2 there were centered on 2000 ms. The participants were different in the two experiments (36 subjects in each one). In each experiment, half of the subjects learnt the anchor durations when smelling an unpleasant odor (decanoic acid) and the other half when smelling no odor...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mouna Es-seddiqi, Nicole El Massioui, Nathalie Samson, Bruce L Brown, Valérie Doyère
The amygdalo-nigrostriatal (ANS) network plays an essential role in enhanced attention to significant events. Interval timing requires attention to temporal cues. We assessed rats having a disconnected ANS network, due to contralateral lesions of the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CEm) and dopaminergic afferents to the lateral striatum, as compared to controls (sham and ipsilateral lesions of CEm and dopaminergic afferents to LS) in a temporal bisection task. ANS disconnection induced poorer temporal precision and increased response latencies to a short duration...
March 2016: Learning & Memory
Kentaro Yamamoto, Kayo Miura
The present study examined the effect of coherence of moving visual objects on time perception. Participants observed stimuli composed of four line segments moving behind or in front of occluders. The line segments appeared to move either coherently as a diamond outline or incoherently, depending on the occlusion. Results from the temporal bisection task indicated that the duration of the coherently moving stimulus was perceived longer or shorter compared to the duration of the incoherently moving stimulus depending on the stimulus configurations...
June 2016: Vision Research
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