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Temporal Bisection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500529/bacterial-nucleoid-occlusion-multiple-mechanisms-for-preventing-chromosome-bisection-during-cell-division
#1
Maria A Schumacher
In most bacteria cell division is driven by the prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms the cytokinetic Z ring. Cell survival demands both the spatial and temporal accuracy of this process to ensure that equal progeny are produced with intact genomes. While mechanisms preventing septum formation at the cell poles have been known for decades, the means by which the bacterial nucleoid is spared from bisection during cell division, called nucleoid exclusion (NO), have only recently been deduced. The NO theory was originally posited decades ago based on the key observation that the cell division machinery appeared to be inhibited from forming near the bacterial nucleoid...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481566/stimulus-expectation-prolongs-rather-than-shortens-perceived-duration-evidence-from-self-generated-expectations
#2
Teresa Birngruber, Hannes Schröter, Emanuel Schütt, Rolf Ulrich
Previous studies have suggested that unexpected stimuli are perceived as being longer than expected ones (e.g., the temporal oddball effect). These studies manipulated stimulus expectation mostly via stimulus repetitions and stimulus probabilities. However, these manipulations might affect duration judgments not only through the modulation of stimulus expectation. Therefore, the present study introduces a novel paradigm to isolate the effect of stimulus expectation on perceived duration from repetition and probability effects...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445376/defining-temporal-hairline-landmarks
#3
Purushottam A Nagarkar, Jonathan Cheng
Brow dermoids are benign pediatric neoplasms. Endoscopic resection requires incisions placed within the temporal hairline, which is often difficult to reliably locate in infants. The authors studied adult and pediatric patients to define the location of the hairline in relationship to simple facial landmarks. Adult and pediatric patients who were seen in preoperative consultation for facial surgical procedures were identified and included in the study. Patients with a history of facial trauma, surgery, or congenital anomalies were excluded...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429271/bisection-method-for-accurate-modeling-and-simulation-of-fouling-in-hollow-fiber-membrane-system
#4
Shuang Liang, Yubo Zhao, Jian Zhang, Lianfa Song
Accurate description and modeling of fouling on hollow fibers imposes a serious challenge to more effective fouling mitigation and performance optimization of the membrane system. Although the governing equations for membrane fouling can be constructed based on the known theories from membrane filtration and fluid dynamics, they are unsolvable analytically due to the complex spatially and temporally varying nature of fouling on hollow fibers. The current available numerical solutions for the governing equations are either unreliable or inconvenient to use because of the uses of unfounded assumptions or cumbersome calculation methods...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403107/reference-interval-for-the-disc-macula-distance-to-disc-diameter-ratio-in-a-large-population-of-healthy-japanese-adults-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Ken-Ichi Sato
This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults.A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382579/a-neuroanatomical-model-of-space-based-and-object-centered-processing-in-spatial-neglect
#7
Elena Pedrazzini, Armin Schnider, Radek Ptak
Visual attention can be deployed in space-based or object-centered reference frames. Right-hemisphere damage may lead to distinct deficits of space- or object-based processing, and such dissociations are thought to underlie the heterogeneous nature of spatial neglect. Previous studies have suggested that object-centered processing deficits (such as in copying, reading or line bisection) result from damage to retro-rolandic regions while impaired spatial exploration reflects damage to more anterior regions. However, this evidence is based on small samples and heterogeneous tasks...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365363/audio-visual-temporal-perception-in-children-with-restored-hearing
#8
Monica Gori, Anna Chilosi, Francesca Forli, David Burr
It is not clear how audio-visual temporal perception develops in children with restored hearing. In this study we measured temporal discrimination thresholds with an audio-visual temporal bisection task in 9 deaf children with restored audition, and 22 typically hearing children. In typically hearing children, audition was more precise than vision, with no gain in multisensory conditions (as previously reported in Gori et al. (2012b)). However, deaf children with restored audition showed similar thresholds for audio and visual thresholds and some evidence of gain in audio-visual temporal multisensory conditions...
March 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345949/the-spatial-representation-of-time-can-be-flexibly-oriented-in-the-frontal-or-lateral-planes-from-an-early-age
#9
Pom Charras, Sylvie Droit-Volet, Claire Brechet, Jennifer T Coull
The perception of time is strongly influenced by spatial context. The longer the distance of a stimulus' trajectory, the longer its duration is perceived to be. This effect has primarily been investigated in the lateral (left-right) axis despite the fact that spatial metaphors for time most commonly invoke the frontal (front-back) axis. We therefore explored how spatial distance, depth, and direction influenced perceived duration of stimuli moving in the frontal or lateral axes. Moreover, we compared the developmental trajectories of frontal versus lateral representations of time by testing children (5, 7, or 10 years old) and adults...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284142/reach-scale-variation-surface-water-quality-in-a-reticular-canal-system-in-the-lower-yangtze-river-delta-region-china
#10
James Andrew Griffiths, Faith Ka Shun Chan, Fangfang Zhu, Vickie Wang, David Laurence Higgitt
The aim of this research was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of surface water pollution within a reticular canal system typical of those found in the lower Yangtze River Delta (YRD). For this purpose, surface water quality data was collected from a drainage canal that bisected the southeast district of Ningbo Municipality (Zhejiang) from 2013 to 2015. The sampling transect was designed to represent the change in land-use from the agriculture dominated rural hinterland, to the predominantly urban city-centre...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239921/it-s-about-time-revisiting-temporal-processing-deficits-in-dyslexia
#11
Laurence Casini, Catherine Pech-Georgel, Johannes C Ziegler
Temporal processing in French children with dyslexia was evaluated in three tasks: a word identification task requiring implicit temporal processing, and two explicit temporal bisection tasks, one in the auditory and one in the visual modality. Normally developing children matched on chronological age and reading level served as a control group. Children with dyslexia exhibited robust deficits in temporal tasks whether they were explicit or implicit and whether they involved the auditory or the visual modality...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224761/temporal-order-judgements-as-a-sensitive-measure-of-the-spatial-bias-in-patients-with-visuospatial-neglect
#12
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149285/women-overestimate-temporal-duration-evidence-from-chinese-emotional-words
#13
Mingming Zhang, Lingcong Zhang, Yibing Yu, Tiantian Liu, Wenbo Luo
Numerous studies have proven the effect of emotion on temporal perception, using various emotional stimuli. However, research investigating this issue from the lexico-semantic perspective and gender difference remains scarce. In this study, participants were presented with different types of emotional words designed in classic temporal bisection tasks. In Experiment 1 where the arousal level of emotional words was controlled, no pure effect of valence on temporal perception was found; however, we observed the overestimation of women relative to men...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107807/continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-may-improve-visuospatial-neglect-via-modulating-the-attention-network-a-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Wei Fu, Lei Cao, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) is devastating and common after stroke, and is thought to involve functional disturbance of the attention network. Non-invasive theta-burst stimulation (TBS) may help restore the normal function of attention network, therefore facilitating recovery from VSN. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of continuous TBS on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the attention network, and behavioral performances of patients with VSN after stroke...
January 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003947/the-use-of-the-target-cancellation-task-to-identify-eloquent-visuospatial-regions-in-awake-craniotomies-technical-note
#15
Andrew K Conner, Chad Glenn, Joshua D Burks, Tressie McCoy, Phillip A Bonney, Ahmed A Chema, Justin L Case, Scott Brunner, Cordell Baker, Michael Sughrue
The success of awake craniotomies relies on the patient's performance of function-specific tasks that are simple, quick, and reproducible. Intraoperative identification of visuospatial function through cortical and subcortical mapping has utilized a variety of intraoperative tests, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. In light of this, we developed a simple software program that aids in preventing neglect by simulating a target-cancellation task on a portable electronic device. In this report, we describe the interactive target cancellation task and have reviewed seven consecutive patients who underwent awake craniotomy for parietal and/or posterior temporal infiltrating brain tumors of the non-dominant hemisphere...
November 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993647/the-effect-of-the-long-anchor-duration-on-performance-in-the-temporal-bisection-procedure
#16
Sho Araiba, Bruce L Brown
The present study investigated how the value of the long anchor duration influences the bisection point (BP) in the temporal bisection procedure. The ratio similarity rule (Gibbon, 1981, On the form and location of the psychometric bisection function for time. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 24(1), 58-87) hypothesizes that the location of the BP is determined by a ratio comparison between the short and long anchor durations. The Short/no short hypothesis (Machado and Keen, 2003, Temporal discrimination in a long operant chamber...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826006/the-effects-of-a-time-based-intervention-on-experienced-middle-aged-rats
#17
Jennifer R Peterson, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Impulsive behavior is a common symptom in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, drug abuse, smoking, obesity and compulsive gambling. Stable levels of impulsive choice have been found in humans and rats and a recent study reported significant test-retest reliability of impulsive choice behavior after 1 and 5 months in rats. Time-based behavioral interventions have been successful in decreasing impulsive choices. These interventions led to improvements in the ability to time and respond more appropriately to adventitious choices...
December 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632157/i-can-time-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-effect-of-social-enrichment-on-timing-processes-in-pigeons-columba-livia
#18
Jennifer R Laude, Carter W Daniels, Jordan C Wade, Thomas R Zentall
There is evidence that impulsive decision-making is associated with errors in timing. However, there has been little attempt to identify the putative mechanism responsible for impulsive animals' timing errors. One means of manipulating impulsivity in non-human animals is providing different levels of access to conspecifics. These preclinical models have revealed that social isolation increases impulsive responding across a wide range of tasks. The goal of the present study was to determine whether social isolation modulates time perception in pigeons by inducing more variability or a bias to underestimate the passage of time in temporal judgments...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605362/a-transcriptional-time-course-analysis-of-oral-vs-aboral-whole-body-regeneration-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#19
Amos A Schaffer, Michael Bazarsky, Karine Levy, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Uri Gat
BACKGROUND: The ability of regeneration is essential for the homeostasis of all animals as it allows the repair and renewal of tissues and body parts upon normal turnover or injury. The extent of this ability varies greatly in different animals with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a basal cnidarian model animal, displaying remarkable whole-body regeneration competence. RESULTS: In order to study this process in Nematostella we performed an RNA-Seq screen wherein we analyzed and compared the transcriptional response to bisection in the wound-proximal body parts undergoing oral (head) or aboral (tail) regeneration at several time points up to the initial restoration of the basic body shape...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467762/attentional-mechanisms-during-the-performance-of-a-subsecond-timing-task
#20
Anna L Toscano-Zapién, Daniel Velázquez-López, David N Velázquez-Martínez
There is evidence that timing processes in the suprasecond scale are modulated by attentional mechanisms; in addition, some studies have shown that attentional mechanisms also affect timing in the subsecond scale. Our aim was to study eye movements and pupil diameter during a temporal bisection task in the subsecond range. Subjects were trained to discriminate anchor intervals of 200 or 800 msec, and were then confronted with intermediate durations. Eye movements revealed that subjects used different cognitive strategies during the bisection timing task...
2016: PloS One
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