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Temporal Bisection

James Andrew Griffiths, Faith Ka Shun Chan, Fangfang Zhu, Vickie Wang, David Laurence Higgitt
The aim of this research was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of surface water pollution within a reticular canal system typical of those found in the lower Yangtze River Delta (YRD). For this purpose, surface water quality data was collected from a drainage canal that bisected the southeast district of Ningbo Municipality (Zhejiang) from 2013 to 2015. The sampling transect was designed to represent the change in land-use from the agriculture dominated rural hinterland, to the predominantly urban city-centre...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Laurence Casini, Catherine Pech-Georgel, Johannes C Ziegler
Temporal processing in French children with dyslexia was evaluated in three tasks: a word identification task requiring implicit temporal processing, and two explicit temporal bisection tasks, one in the auditory and one in the visual modality. Normally developing children matched on chronological age and reading level served as a control group. Children with dyslexia exhibited robust deficits in temporal tasks whether they were explicit or implicit and whether they involved the auditory or the visual modality...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Science
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
Mingming Zhang, Lingcong Zhang, Yibing Yu, Tiantian Liu, Wenbo Luo
Numerous studies have proven the effect of emotion on temporal perception, using various emotional stimuli. However, research investigating this issue from the lexico-semantic perspective and gender difference remains scarce. In this study, participants were presented with different types of emotional words designed in classic temporal bisection tasks. In Experiment 1 where the arousal level of emotional words was controlled, no pure effect of valence on temporal perception was found; however, we observed the overestimation of women relative to men...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Wei Fu, Lei Cao, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) is devastating and common after stroke, and is thought to involve functional disturbance of the attention network. Non-invasive theta-burst stimulation (TBS) may help restore the normal function of attention network, therefore facilitating recovery from VSN. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of continuous TBS on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the attention network, and behavioral performances of patients with VSN after stroke...
January 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Andrew K Conner, Chad Glenn, Joshua D Burks, Tressie McCoy, Phillip A Bonney, Ahmed A Chema, Justin L Case, Scott Brunner, Cordell Baker, Michael Sughrue
The success of awake craniotomies relies on the patient's performance of function-specific tasks that are simple, quick, and reproducible. Intraoperative identification of visuospatial function through cortical and subcortical mapping has utilized a variety of intraoperative tests, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. In light of this, we developed a simple software program that aids in preventing neglect by simulating a target-cancellation task on a portable electronic device. In this report, we describe the interactive target cancellation task and have reviewed seven consecutive patients who underwent awake craniotomy for parietal and/or posterior temporal infiltrating brain tumors of the non-dominant hemisphere...
November 17, 2016: Curēus
Sho Araiba, Bruce L Brown
The present study investigated how the value of the long anchor duration influences the bisection point (BP) in the temporal bisection procedure. The ratio similarity rule (Gibbon, 1981, On the form and location of the psychometric bisection function for time. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 24(1), 58-87) hypothesizes that the location of the BP is determined by a ratio comparison between the short and long anchor durations. The Short/no short hypothesis (Machado and Keen, 2003, Temporal discrimination in a long operant chamber...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
Jennifer R Peterson, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Impulsive behavior is a common symptom in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, drug abuse, smoking, obesity and compulsive gambling. Stable levels of impulsive choice have been found in humans and rats and a recent study reported significant test-retest reliability of impulsive choice behavior after 1 and 5 months in rats. Time-based behavioral interventions have been successful in decreasing impulsive choices. These interventions led to improvements in the ability to time and respond more appropriately to adventitious choices...
December 2016: Behavioural Processes
Jennifer R Laude, Carter W Daniels, Jordan C Wade, Thomas R Zentall
There is evidence that impulsive decision-making is associated with errors in timing. However, there has been little attempt to identify the putative mechanism responsible for impulsive animals' timing errors. One means of manipulating impulsivity in non-human animals is providing different levels of access to conspecifics. These preclinical models have revealed that social isolation increases impulsive responding across a wide range of tasks. The goal of the present study was to determine whether social isolation modulates time perception in pigeons by inducing more variability or a bias to underestimate the passage of time in temporal judgments...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
Amos A Schaffer, Michael Bazarsky, Karine Levy, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Uri Gat
BACKGROUND: The ability of regeneration is essential for the homeostasis of all animals as it allows the repair and renewal of tissues and body parts upon normal turnover or injury. The extent of this ability varies greatly in different animals with the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a basal cnidarian model animal, displaying remarkable whole-body regeneration competence. RESULTS: In order to study this process in Nematostella we performed an RNA-Seq screen wherein we analyzed and compared the transcriptional response to bisection in the wound-proximal body parts undergoing oral (head) or aboral (tail) regeneration at several time points up to the initial restoration of the basic body shape...
2016: BMC Genomics
Anna L Toscano-Zapién, Daniel Velázquez-López, David N Velázquez-Martínez
There is evidence that timing processes in the suprasecond scale are modulated by attentional mechanisms; in addition, some studies have shown that attentional mechanisms also affect timing in the subsecond scale. Our aim was to study eye movements and pupil diameter during a temporal bisection task in the subsecond range. Subjects were trained to discriminate anchor intervals of 200 or 800 msec, and were then confronted with intermediate durations. Eye movements revealed that subjects used different cognitive strategies during the bisection timing task...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan Buriticá, Zirahuén Vilchez, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos
We attempted to determine the effect of reinforcement delay on time discrimination in an interval bisection task. Three groups of rats were exposed to immediate, delayed reinforcement and longer signals with immediate reinforcement in acquisition and test. Results show differences in the amount of training necessary to reach the acquisition criteria, the Weber fraction and the range or overall stimulus control. The results suggest an increased difficulty to discriminate the difference among durations rather than an increase in estimated time as main effect of delayed reinforcement...
September 2016: Behavioural Processes
G Mioni, S Grondin, M Forgione, V Fracasso, D Mapelli, F Stablum
AIM: Many studies showed that visual stimuli are frequently experienced as shorter than equivalent auditory stimuli. These findings suggest that timing is distributed across many brain areas and that "different clocks" might be involved in temporal processing. The aim of this study is to investigate, with the application of tDCS over V1 and A1, the specific role of primary sensory cortices (either visual or auditory) in temporal processing. METHOD: Forty-eight University students were included in the study...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Başak Akdoğan, Fuat Balcı
There is growing evidence that alterations in reward rates modify timing behavior demonstrating the role of motivational factors in interval timing behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of manipulations of rewards and penalties on temporal bisection performance in humans. Participants were trained to classify experienced time intervals as short or long based on the reference durations. Two groups of participants were tested under three different bias conditions in which either the relative reward magnitude or penalty associated with correct or incorrect categorizations of short and long reference durations was manipulated...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Magdalena Kautzky, Kay Thurley
Spatial orientation and navigation rely on information about landmarks and self-motion cues gained from multi-sensory sources. In this study, we focused on self-motion and examined the capability of rodents to extract and make use of information about own movement, i.e. path integration. Path integration has been investigated in depth in insects and humans. Demonstrations in rodents, however, mostly stem from experiments on heading direction; less is known about distance estimation. We introduce a novel behavioural paradigm that allows for probing temporal and spatial contributions to path integration...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Karen Davranche, Laurence Casini, Pierrick J Arnal, Thomas Rupp, Stéphane Perrey, Samuel Verges
The present study aimed to assess specific cognitive processes (cognitive control and time perception) and hemodynamic correlates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure. Eleven male subjects were transported via helicopter and dropped at 14 272 ft (4 350 meters) of altitude where they stayed for 4 days. Cognitive tasks, involving a conflict task and temporal bisection task, were performed at sea level the week before ascending to high altitude, the day of arrival (D0), the second (D2) and fourth (D4) day at high altitude...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Zhuxi Yao, Liang Zhang, Caihong Jiang, Kan Zhang, Jianhui Wu
As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one's time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction...
2016: PeerJ
Tiziana Vercillo, David Burr, Monica Gori
A recent study has shown that congenitally blind adults, who have never had visual experience, are impaired on an auditory spatial bisection task (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2014). In this study we investigated how thresholds for auditory spatial bisection and auditory discrimination develop with age in sighted and congenitally blind children (9 to 14 years old). Children performed 2 spatial tasks (minimum audible angle and space bisection) and 1 temporal task (temporal bisection). There was no impairment in the temporal task for blind children but, like adults, they showed severely compromised thresholds for spatial bisection...
June 2016: Developmental Psychology
Kenta Ishikawa, Matia Okubo
It is known that threatening stimuli increase emotional arousal, resulting in overestimating the subjective experience of passing time. Moreover, facial expressions and gaze direction interact to create socially threatening situations in people with social anxiety. The present study investigated the effect of social anxiety on the perceived duration of observing emotional faces with a direct or an averted gaze. Participants were divided into high, medium and low social anxiety groups based on social anxiety inventory scores...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam E Fox, Katelyn E Prue, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Recent research on interval timing in the behavioral and neurological sciences has employed a concurrent fixed-interval (FI) procedure first reported by Platt and Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 9, 160-170, 1983). Studies employing the task typically assess just 1 dependent variable, the switch/bisection point; however, multiple measures of timing are available in the procedure and it is unclear (a) what is timed (i.e., learned) by subjects and (b) what other measures might tell us about timing in the task and generally...
April 29, 2016: Learning & Behavior
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