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toll like receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679762/scavenger-receptor-b-promotes-bacteria-clearance-by-enhancing-phagocytosis-and-attenuates-white-spot-syndrome-virus-proliferation-in-scylla-paramamosian
#1
Tongtong Kong, Yi Gong, Yan Liu, Xiaobo Wen, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Huaiping Zheng, Shengkang Li
Phagocytosis and apoptosis are key cellular innate immune responses against bacteria and virus in invertebrates. Class B scavenger receptors (SRBs), which contain a CD36 domain, are critical pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytosis for bacteria and apoptotic cells. In the present study, we identified a member of SRB subfamily in mud crab Scylla paramamosain, named Sp-SRB. The full-length cDNA of Sp-SRB is 2593 bp with a 1629 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 542 amino acids, and predicted to contain a CD36 domain with two transmembrane regions at the C- and N-terminals...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679565/activation-of-tlr3-and-its-adaptor-ticam-1-increases-mir-21-levels-in-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-human-cells
#2
Yoshimi Fukushima, Masaaki Okamoto, Kana Ishikawa, Takahisa Kouwaki, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizes viral RNAs and trigger the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a PRR, recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in endolysosomes, whereas cytoplasmic dsRNA is sensed by another PRR, MDA5. TLR3 and MDA5 utilize TICAM-1 and MAVS, respectively, to trigger the signal for inducing innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes and microvesicles; an accumulating body of evidence has shown that EVs delivers functional RNA, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to other cells and thus mediate intercellular communications...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679037/the-therapeutic-potential-and-molecular-mechanism-of-isoflavone-extract-against-psoriasis
#3
Hsin-Ju Li, Nan-Lin Wu, Gon-Ann Lee, Chi-Feng Hung
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease. It affects 1-3% of the population worldwide and is associated with increasing medical costs every year. Typical psoriatic skin lesions are reddish, thick, scaly plaques that can occur on multiple skin sites all over the body. Topical application of imiquimod (IMQ), a toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist and potent immune system activator, can induce and exacerbate psoriasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that isoflavone extract has an antioxidant effect which may help decrease inflammation and inflammatory pain...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678610/nrf2-protects-against-acute-lung-injury-and-inflammation-by-modulating-tlr4-and-akt-signaling
#4
Jia Yan, Jingjie Li, Lei Zhang, Yu Sun, Jue Jiang, Yan Huang, Hui Xu, Hong Jiang, Rong Hu
Lung injury, which is associated with systemic inflammatory responses, is a common problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we examined the involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of lung tissues in Nrf2-knockout mice by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay, and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that Nrf2 deficiency upregulated TLR4, enhanced I/R-induced lung injury, apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy, and increased the I/R-induced inactivation of Akt...
April 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678297/corrigendum-to-differentiation-dependent-expression-of-interferon-gamma-and-toll-like-receptor-9-in-3t3-f442a-adipocytes-biochimie-89-5-2007-669-675
#5
Wael Khazen, Jean-Pierre M'Bika, Martine Collinet, Mathieu Tramoni, Charles Chany, Ammar Achour, Claude Forest
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678225/synergistic-effect-of-co-stimulation-of-membrane-and-endosomal-tlrs-on-chicken-innate-immune-responses
#6
Sungwon Kim, Pete Kaiser, Dominika Borowska, Lonneke Vervelde
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR-Ls) are critical activators of immunity and are successfully being developed as vaccine adjuvants in both mammals and birds. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of co-stimulation of membrane and endosomal TLRs on the innate immune responses using chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and studied the effect of age on the induction of innate responses. BMMs from 1 and 4-week-old birds were stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4 (PCSK; TLR2), synthetic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), Di[3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A ammonium salt (KLA; TLR4), Gardiquimod, Resiquimod (R848; TLR7), CpG class B and C (TLR21)...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678206/biliverdin-reductase-a-attenuated-gmh-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-spleen-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-through-enos-no-pathway
#7
Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Devin W McBride, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a common neurologic event with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Spleen has been reported to play a critical role in inflammatory responses by regulating peripheral immune cells which contributes to secondary brain injury. METHODS: The current study investigated the mechanistic role of biliverdin reductase-A (BLVRA) in the splenic response and brain damage in neonates following a collagenase GMH model...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677479/rig-i-and-other-rna-sensors-in-antiviral-immunity
#8
Kwan T Chow, Michael Gale, Yueh-Ming Loo
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) survey intra- and extracellular spaces for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) within microbial products of infection. Recognition and binding to cognate PAMP ligand by specific PRRs initiates signaling cascades that culminate in a coordinated intracellular innate immune response designed to control infection. In particular, our immune system has evolved specialized PRRs to discriminate viral nucleic acid from host. These are critical sensors of viral RNA to trigger innate immunity in the vertebrate host...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677080/corm-401-reduces-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-renal-porcine-model-of-the-donation-after-cardiac-death
#9
Rabindra N Bhattacharjee, Mahms Richard-Mohamed, Qizhi Sun, Aaron Haig, Ghaleb Aboalsamh, Peter Barrett, Richard Mayer, Ibrahim Alhasan, Karen Pineda-Solis, Larry Jiang, Hajed Alharbi, Manujendra Saha, Eric Patterson, Alp Sener, Gediminas Cepinskas, Anthony M Jevnikar, Patrick P W Luke
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation protects organ by reducing inflammation and cell death during transplantation processes in animal model. However, using CO in clinical transplantation is difficult due to its delivery in a controlled manner. A manganese-containing CORM-401 has recently been synthesized which can efficiently deliver 3 molar equivalents of CO. We report the ability of this anti-inflammatory CORM-401 to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury associated with prolonged cold storage of renal allografts obtained from donation after cardiac death in a porcine model of transplantation...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676511/role-of-the-high-mobility-group-box-1-signalling-axes-via-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-immunopathology-of-oral-lichen-planus-a-potential-drug-target
#10
Abdelhakim Salem, Rabeia Almahmoudi, Mari Vehviläinen, Tuula Salo
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an extremely conserved DNA-binding protein that stabilizes nucleosomes and facilitates gene transcription in mammalian cells. When released extracellularly, HMGB1 becomes an alarmin that can mediate systemic diseases. High mobility group box 1 signals via two main receptors: receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). We hypothesized that HMGB1 expression is increased in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) relative to healthy controls...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676074/immune-characterization-of-bone-marrow-derived-models-of-mucosal-and-connective-tissue-mast-cells
#11
Sara Benedé, Evan Cody, Charuta Agashe, M Cecilia Berin
PURPOSE: It is well appreciated that mast cells (MCs) demonstrate tissue-specific imprinting, with different biochemical and functional properties between connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) and mucosal MCs (MMCs). Although in vitro systems have been developed to model these different subsets, there has been limited investigation into the functional characteristics of the 2 major MC subsets. Here, we report the immunologic characterization of 2 MCs subsets developed in vitro from bone marrow progenitors modeling MMCs and CTMCs...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675795/oral-adsorbent-ast-120-ameliorates-gut-environment-and-protects-against-the-progression-of-renal-impairment-in-ckd-rats
#12
Ayumi Yoshifuji, Shu Wakino, Junichiro Irie, Ayumi Matsui, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Hirobumi Tokuyama, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Oral charcoal adsorbent AST-120 (AST) is reported to ameliorate renal dysfunction by the absorption of toxic substance in the gut. Recent study revealed that, in CKD, gut environment is disturbed including the decrease in tight junctions and Lactobacillus (Lact). In this study, we examined whether AST improves the renal dysfunction through gut environment. METHOD: Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered CKD by 5/6th nephrectomy (Nx)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675696/association-of-toll-like-receptor-2-and-9-gene-variants-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-exploration-in-a-northern-indian-population
#13
Mayank Mittal, Sanjay Kumar Biswas, Vandana Singh, Nidhi Arela, Vishwa Mohan Katoch, Ram Das, Virendra Singh Yadav, Bharat Bajaj, Keshar Kunja Mohanty
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of global importance. There is an increasing recognition of the role of Toll like receptors, important pattern recognition receptors of host immune system, in determining the susceptibility or resistance to TB in various populations. In an attempt to examine the importance of Toll like receptors in immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we explored two variants each of TLR2 and TLR9 in a population residing in Uttar Pradesh, India. Genotyping was performed to detect -196 to -174 del polymorphism and G2258A SNP (Arg753Gln, rs5743708) in TLR2 gene and -T1237C (rs5743836) and G2848A (rs352140) SNP in TLR9 gene in patients with pulmonary TB and healthy controls...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675369/boxb-mediate-balb-c-mice-corneal-inflammation-through-a-tlr4-myd88-dependent-signaling-pathway-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-keratitis
#14
Min Liu, Cui Li, Gui-Qiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Cheng-Ye Che, Qiang Xu, Qian Wang, Rui Xu, Ya-Wen Niu
AIM: To investigate whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) Boxb exacerbates BALB/c mice corneal immune responses and inflammatory through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ) keratitis. METHODS: The mice corneas were pretreated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), Boxb before A. fumigatus infection. The abdominal cavity extracted macrophages were pretreated with PBS, Boxb, TLR4 inhibitor (CLI-095), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) separately before A...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674674/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-pellino2-mediates-priming-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#15
Fiachra Humphries, Ronan Bergin, Ruaidhri Jackson, Nezira Delagic, Bingwei Wang, Shuo Yang, Alice V Dubois, Rebecca J Ingram, Paul N Moynagh
The NLRP3 inflammasome has an important function in inflammation by promoting the processing of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature bioactive forms, and by inducing cell death via pyroptosis. Here we show a critical function of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino2 in facilitating activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Pellino2-deficient mice and myeloid cells have impaired activation of NLRP3 in response to toll-like receptor priming, NLRP3 stimuli and bacterial challenge. These functions of Pellino2 in the NLRP3 pathway are dependent on Pellino2 FHA and RING-like domains, with Pellino2 promoting the ubiquitination of NLRP3 during the priming phase of activation...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674236/sub-lethal-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-and-poly-i-c-treatment-synergistically-induced-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#16
Wuxiyar Otkur, Weiwei Liu, Jinda Wang, Xingfan Jia, Dianchao Huang, Fang Wang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts multiple effects on skin cells, inducing apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptor 3, a member of pattern recognition receptors, is reported to initiate inflammation by recognizing double-strand RNA (dsRNA) released from UVB-irradiated cells. It has not been studied, however, whether apoptosis induction in UVB irradiation is attributed to TLR3 activation. Here, we report on the pro-apoptotic role of TLR3 in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA that activates TLR3, was used in combination with sub-lethal UVB (4...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673975/tlr-2-il-10-and-il-17-mediated-immunity-in-experimental-chemotherapy-murine-model-of-systemic-candidiasis-cyclophosphamides-impact-and-roles
#17
Parvin Dehghan, Sepideh Tolouie, Behzad Baradaran, Sanam Nami, Hamid Morovati
The majority of immune components such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, interleukin (IL)-17, neutrophils, and IL-10 play pivotal roles in immunity to Candida albicans (C. albicans) through identifying and launching inflammatory and regulatory responses. Chemotherapy is one of the most potent risk factors for systemic candidiasis through inducing immunosuppression (mostly cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression) and there is a sensible lack of study around the immunity to C. albicans in such a situation. In this study, following the establishment of infection and immunosuppression in Balb/c mice model, the mRNA/protein levels of TLR-2, IL-10, IL-17, and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) in serum/kidney were measured using Real-time PCR and ELISA respectively...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673738/tbk1-a-key-regulator-and-potential-treatment-target-for-interferon-positive-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Iris L A Bodewes, Erika Huijser, Cornelia G van Helden-Meeuwsen, Liselotte Tas, Ruth Huizinga, Virgil A S H Dalm, P Martin van Hagen, Noortje Groot, Sylvia Kamphuis, Paul L A van Daele, Marjan A Versnel
OBJECTIVE: Upregulation of type I interferons (IFN-I) is a hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases like primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Expression of IFN-I is induced by three different receptor families: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs) and DNA-sensing receptors (DSRs). TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) is an important signaling hub downstream of RLRs and DSRs. TBK1 activates IRF3 and IRF7, leading to IFN-I production and subsequent induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673059/the-tlr4-ire1%C3%AE-pathway-activation-contributes-to-palmitate-elicited-lipotoxicity-in-hepatocytes
#20
Chen Shen, Wang Ma, Lei Ding, Songtao Li, Xiaobing Dou, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a pathological role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be clearly elucidated. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 plays a fundamental role in activating the innate immune system. Intriguingly, hepatocytes express TLR4 and machinery for TLR4 signalling pathway. That liver-specific TLR4 knockout mice are protective against diet-induced NAFLD suggests that hepatocyte TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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