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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231875/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-does-not-enhance-epithelial-barrier-integrity-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-model-of-the-large-intestine
#1
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Nicole C Roy
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231777/de-novo-transcriptome-study-identifies-candidate-genes-involved-in-resistance-to-austropuccinia-psidii-myrtle-rust-in-syzygium-luehmannnii-riberry
#2
Peri Ann Tobias, David Guest, Carsten Külheim, Robert F Park
Austropuccinia psidii, causal agent of myrtle rust, was discovered in Australia in 2010 and has since become established on a wide range of species within the Myrtaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, endemic to Australia, is an increasingly valuable berry crop. Plants were screened for responses to A. psidii inoculation and specific resistance, in the form of localised necrosis, was determined in 29% of individuals. To understand the molecular basis underlying this response, mRNA was sequenced from leaf samples taken pre-inoculation, and at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation, from four resistant and four susceptible plants...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230812/the-gut-microbiota-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Stefanie Ascher, Christoph Reinhardt
Commensal gut microbiota have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerotic plaque formation depends on the colonization status of the host. In addition to host nutrition and the related microbiota-dependent metabolic changes, activation of innate immune pathways triggers the development of atherosclerosis and supports arterial thrombosis. Gnotobiotic mouse models have uncovered that activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by gut microbial ligands supports von Willebrand factor-integrin mediated platelet deposition to the site of vascular injury...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230065/the-toll-like-receptor-2-6-agonist-fsl-1-lipopeptide-therapeutically-mitigates-acute-radiation-syndrome
#4
Cathryn J Kurkjian, Hao Guo, Nathan D Montgomery, Ning Cheng, Hong Yuan, Joseph R Merrill, Gregory D Sempowski, W June Brickey, Jenny P-Y Ting
Risks of radiation exposure from nuclear incidents and cancer radiotherapy are undeniable realities. These dangers urgently compel the development of agents for ameliorating radiation-induced injuries. Biologic pathways mediated by myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), the common adaptor for toll-like receptor (TLR) and Interleukin-1 receptor signaling, are critical for radioprotection. Treating with agonists prior to radiation enhances survival by activating TLR signaling, whereas radiomitigating TLR-activating therapeutics given after exposure are less defined...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230038/the-lps-inducible-lncrna-mirt2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-inflammation
#5
Meng Du, Lin Yuan, Xin Tan, Dandan Huang, Xiaojing Wang, Zhe Zheng, Xiaoxiang Mao, Xiangrao Li, Liu Yang, Kun Huang, Fengxiao Zhang, Yan Wang, Xi Luo, Dan Huang, Kai Huang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) with a crucial function in innate immune responses. Activation of TLR4 signaling at the plasma membrane by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates proinflammatory signaling pathways dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6. Here we show the LPS-induced long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Mirt2 functions as a checkpoint to prevent aberrant activation of inflammation, and is a potential regulator of macrophage polarization. Mirt2 associates with, and attenuates Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of, TRAF6, thus inhibiting activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways and limiting production of proinflammatory cytokines...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229937/cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-developed-for-grouper-toll-like-receptor-tlr-21s-effectively-activate-mouse-and-human-tlr9s-mediated-immune-responses
#6
Da-Wei Yeh, Chao-Yang Lai, Yi-Ling Liu, Chih-Hao Lu, Ping-Hui Tseng, Chiou-Hwa Yuh, Guann-Yi Yu, Shih-Jen Liu, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Tsung-Hsien Chuang
Synthetic phosphorothiolate-modified CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are potent immune stimuli. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 and TLR21 are their cellular receptors in different species. The structural requirements for CpG-ODN to strongly activate TLR9 have been relatively well studied, but studies on TLR21 are in their infancy. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the interaction between CpG-ODNs and TLR21s from groupers (Epinephelus spp.), which are economically important fish species. We cloned the cDNA of giant grouper (E...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229781/differential-regulation-of-tlr4-induced-il-10-production-in-b-cells-and-macrophages-reveals-a-novel-role-for-rsk1-and-2-in-b-cells
#7
Ruhcha V Sutavani, Iain R Phair, Rebecca Barker, Alison McFarlane, Natalia Shpiro, Stuart Lang, Andrew Woodland, J Simon C Arthur
Increasing evidence has linked dysregulated IL-10 production by IL-10+ve B cells to autoimmunity, highlighting the importance of improving the understanding of the regulation of IL-10 production in these cells. In both B cells and myeloid cells, IL-10 can be produced in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. In macrophages, previous studies have established that mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSKs) regulate IL-10 production via the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein on the IL-10 promoter...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229533/xanthoceraside-attenuates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide1-42-induced-memory-impairments-by-reducing-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-mice
#8
Yue Qi, Xue-Fei Ji, Tian-Yan Chi, Peng Liu, Ge Jin, Qian Xu, Qing Jiao, Li-Hua Wang, Li-Bo Zou
Xanthoceraside, a novel triterpenoid saponin extracted from the husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has neuroprotective effects in vivo and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. However, the exact mechanism of xanthoceraside on anti-amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammatory responses has not been elucidated. Therefore, we used intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) to establish a mouse model to test the effects of xanthoceraside on Aβ-induced cognitive impairments and the TLR2/NF-κB and MAPK pathways...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229443/immune-functions-of-insect-%C3%AE-grps-and-their-potential-application
#9
Xiang-Jun Rao, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yue-Min Pan, Su Liu, Pei-Jin Yang, Li-Ling Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Insects rely completely on the innate immune system to sense the foreign bodies and to mount the immune responses. Germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors play crucial roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Among them, β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs) and gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) belong to the same pattern recognition receptor family, which can recognize β-1,3-glucans. Typical insect βGRPs are comprised of a tandem carbohydrate-binding module in the N-terminal and a glucanase-like domain in the C-terminal...
December 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228714/unique-expression-signatures-of-circular-rnas-in-response-to-dna-tumor-virus-sv40-infection
#10
Jiandong Shi, Ningzhu Hu, Jianfang Li, Zhaoping Zeng, Ling Mo, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Yunzhang Hu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), identified as a class of widely expressed endogenous regulatory RNAs, are involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. However, their role in viral pathogenesis and cellular antiviral response remains unexplored. In this study, a potent DNA tumor virus, simian virus 40 (SV40), was used as a model to investigate the viral influences on cellular circRNA transcriptome. Using RNA-seq, 15,241 putative circRNAs were identified de novo from 5,057 parental genes in monkey kidney-derived Vero cells...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228698/osteopontin-is-involved-in-tlr4-pathway-contributing-to-ovarian-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis
#11
Cong Xu, Hua Li, Miao Yin, Tao Yang, Liguo An, Guiwen Yang
Tumor cell proliferation and metastasis are critical for tumor progression and lead to death of cancer patients. TLR4 is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which promotes tumor growth, metastasis and immune escape. Osteopontin (OPN), a phosphorylated glycoprotein extensively expressed in multiple cell-types, plays important roles in tumorigenesis, metastasis and infiltration, and participates in signal transduction of innate immunity. However, it is unclear whether TLR4 has any relationship with OPN...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227824/reduced-inflammatory-factor-expression-facilitates-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-tlr4-mutant-mice
#12
Guoqing Tang, Jia Yao, Ruowu Shen, Aiyu Ji, Kai Ma, Beibei Cong, Fang Wang, Lingyu Zhu, Xuan Wang, Yingqiao Ding, Bei Zhang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are extremely significant pattern recognition receptors. When nerve injury occurs, a variety of inflammatory factors are generated, leading to an exceedingly complex micro-environment. TLRs recognize damage-associated molecular patterns. To investigate the correlation between TLR4 and recovery after sciatic nerve injury, the model of sciatic nerve injury was conducted using TLR4-mutated mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild mice (C3H/HeN). Our goal was to identify short-stage and long-stage changes after sciatic nerve injury, mainly by checking the expression changes of inflammation factors in the short-stage and the differences in the recovery of the injured sciatic nerve in the long-stage...
December 8, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226948/mir-182-5p-inhibited-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-triggered-by-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-via-targeting-toll-like-receptor-4
#13
Song-Bai Qin, Da-Yan Peng, Yan Shi, Zun-Ping Ke
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit various roles in multiple biological processes and abnormal expression of miR-182-5p has been involved in many diseases. However, the role miR-182-5p in Atherosclerosis (AS) remains poorly understood. In our current investigation, an AS model was established by using oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in RAW264.7 cells. miR-182-5p was markedly decreased in AS model dose-dependently and time-dependently. Additionally, CD36, oil-red staining levels, TC and TG were inhibited by miR-182-5p mimics, meanwhile ROS levels, MDA and cell apoptosis were also restrained with an enhancement of SOD activity...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226710/group-a-streptococcus-encounters-with-host-macrophages
#14
J Andrés Valderrama, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading human bacterial pathogen with diverse clinical manifestations. Macrophages constitute a critical first line of host defense against GAS infection, using numerous surface and intracellular receptors such as Toll-like receptors and inflammasomes for pathogen recognition and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Depending on the intensity of the GAS infection, activation of these signaling cascades may provide a beneficial early alarm for effective immune clearance, or conversely, may cause hyperinflammation and tissue injury during severe invasive infection...
December 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226611/enhancing-the-stability-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-liposomal-spherical-nucleic-acids-through-lipid-tail-dna-modifications
#15
Brian Meckes, Resham J Banga, SonBinh T Nguyen, Chad A Mirkin
Liposomal spherical nucleic acids (LSNAs) are an attractive therapeutic platform for gene regulation and immunomodulation due to their biocompatibility, chemically tunable structures, and ability to enter cells rapidly without the need for ancillary transfection agents. Such structures consist of small (<100 nm) liposomal cores functionalized with a dense, highly oriented nucleic acid shell, both of which are key components in facilitating their biological activity. Here, the properties of LSNAs synthesized using conventional methods, anchoring cholesterol terminated oligonucleotides into a liposomal core, are compared to LSNAs made by directly modifying the surface of a liposomal core containing azide-functionalized lipids with dibenzocyclooctyl-terminated oligonucleotides...
December 11, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225688/repurposing-drugs-in-oncology-redo-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-as-anti-cancer-agents
#16
Ciska Verbaanderd, Hannelore Maes, Marco B Schaaf, Vikas P Sukhatme, Pan Pantziarka, Vidula Sukhatme, Patrizia Agostinis, Gauthier Bouche
Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are well-known 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial agents. Scientific evidence also supports the use of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of cancer. Overall, preclinical studies support CQ and HCQ use in anti-cancer therapy, especially in combination with conventional anti-cancer treatments since they are able to sensitise tumour cells to a variety of drugs, potentiating the therapeutic activity. Thus far, clinical results are mostly in favour of the repurposing of CQ. However, over 30 clinical studies are still evaluating the activity of both CQ and HCQ in different cancer types and in combination with various standard treatments...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224353/curcumin-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-expression
#17
Shanshan Zhang, Jun Zou, Peiyang Li, Xiumei Zheng, Dan Feng
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule -1(VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule- 1(ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223553/lipopolysaccharide-induces-autophagy-by-targeting-the-ampk-mtor-pathway-in-human-nasal-epithelial-cells
#18
Xue-Hai Wang, Zhong-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Lan Cai, Ping Ye, Xin Feng, Ting-Ting Liu, Xue-Zhong Li
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a well-known disease encountered in the department of otorhinolaryngology, yet little is known about its pathogenesis. Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradation process, has been reported to be involved in the process of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we tried to evaluate the function of autophagy in CRS as well as explore the related mechanisms. We first stained light chain 3B (LC3B) with immunohistochemistry in uncinate tissues (UT) from patients with and without CRS and found that its expression was up-regulated in CRS patients...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223146/investigation-of-mast-cell-toll-like-receptor-3-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-and-systemic-mastocytosis-participants-using-the-novel-application-of-automacs-magnetic-separation-and-flow-cytometry
#19
Cassandra Balinas, Thao Nguyen, Samantha Johnston, Peter Smith, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
BACKGROUND: Viral infections and hypersensitivities are commonly reported by Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. Mast Cells (MC) uniquely mediate type 1 hypersensitivities and resolve viral infections via toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare mast cell progenitors (MCPs) in CFS/ME participants with a known MC disorder, Systemic mastocytosis (SM), and secondly, to investigate the role of MC TLR3 in CFS/ME participants following Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) stimulation...
December 10, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#20
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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