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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103700/the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-interventions-for-health-and-social-care-undergraduate-students-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
Michelle O'Driscoll, Stephen Byrne, Aoife Mc Gillicuddy, Sharon Lambert, Laura J Sahm
Health and social care undergraduate students experience stress due to high workloads and pressure to perform. Consequences include depression and burnout. Mindfulness may be a suitable way to reduce stress in health and social care degree courses. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the literature on the effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for health and social care undergraduate students. PubMed, EMBASE, Psych Info, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Academic Search Complete were searched from inception to 21st November 2016...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103414/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-appraisals-of-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Ryan Mitchell, Kate Brennan, David Curran, Donncha Hanna, Kevin F W Dyer
Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) place an emphasis on the role of negative appraisals of traumatic events. It is suggested that the way in which the event is appraised determines the extent to which posttraumatic stress symptoms will be experienced. Therefore, a strong relationship between trauma appraisals and symptoms of PTSD might be expected. However, this relationship is not as firmly established in the child and adolescent literature. A systematic literature review of this relationship returned 467 publications, of which 11 met full eligibility criteria...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#3
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088194/testing-a-cognitive-model-to-predict-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-childbirth
#4
Lydia King, Kirstie McKenzie-McHarg, Antje Horsch
BACKGROUND: One third of women describes their childbirth as traumatic and between 0.8 and 6.9% goes on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The cognitive model of PTSD has been shown to be applicable to a range of trauma samples. However, childbirth is qualitatively different to other trauma types and special consideration needs to be taken when applying it to this population. Previous studies have investigated some cognitive variables in isolation but no study has so far looked at all the key processes described in the cognitive model...
January 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080206/probiotics-d-lactic-acidosis-oxidative-stress-and-strain-specificity
#5
Luis Vitetta, Samantha Coulson, Michael Thomsen, Tony Nguyen, Sean Hall
1. The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075072/use-of-erythrocyte-indicators-of-health-and-condition-in-vertebrate-ecophysiology-a-review-and-appraisal
#6
Christopher P Johnstone, Alan Lill, Richard D Reina
We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068120/daily-associations-between-ptsd-drinking-and-self-appraised-alcohol-related-problems
#7
Sarah M Wilson, Marketa Krenek, Paul A Dennis, Samantha S Yard, Kendall C Browne, Tracy L Simpson
Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, yet limited research has focused on PTSD and daily drinking as they relate to self-appraised alcohol-related problems. In treatment contexts, patients' appraisals of alcohol-related problems have implications for assessment, intervention strategies, and prognosis. This study investigated the moderating effect of within-person (daily symptoms) and between-person (overall severity) differences in PTSD on the association between daily drinking and same-day alcohol-related problems...
January 9, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065687/restless-legs-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-research-roadmap
#8
REVIEW
Daniel J Gottlieb, Virend K Somers, Naresh M Punjabi, John W Winkelman
In this paper, we first critically appraise the epidemiologic literature examining the association of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and then consider whether lessons learned from the study of cardiovascular consequences of other sleep disorders might inform a research agenda to examine the potential mechanisms of cardiovascular morbidity of RLS. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are both mixed as to whether there is a meaningful association of RLS and CVD. On the other hand, numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies have shown a strong association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with CVD risk...
October 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051971/what-are-effective-psychological-interventions-for-veterans-with-sleep-disturbances-a-rapid-evidence-assessment
#9
Andrea J Phelps, Tracey Varker, Olivia Metcalf, Lisa Dell
BACKGROUND: Insomnia and related sleep disturbances commonly occur in veterans, with prevalence rates as high as 90% reported in some studies. Military-specific factors such as sleep disturbances during military training and deployment, as well as a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is known to poorly impact sleep, may contribute to higher insomnia rates in veterans. Although evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of insomnia exist, the unique nature of veterans sleep problems means they may differ in their response to treatment...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042963/a-systematic-review-of-brief-mental-health-and-well-being-interventions-in-organizational-settings
#10
Ivana Ivandic, Aislinne Freeman, Ulrich Birner, Dennis Nowak, Carla Sabariego
Objectives The aim of the systematic review was to provide an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of brief interventions targeting mental health and well-being in organizational settings and compare their effects with corresponding interventions of common (ie, longer) duration. Methods An extensive systematic search was conducted using the Medline and PsycINFO databases for the period of 2000-2016. Randomized-controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies evaluating primary or secondary brief interventions carried out in the workplace settings were included...
January 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041984/exploring-the-possible-mechanisms-of-blunted-cardiac-reactivity-to-acute-psychological-stress
#11
Ryan C Brindle, Anna C Whittaker, Adam Bibbey, Douglas Carroll, Annie T Ginty
Blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress has been linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. However, the origins of blunted reactivity remain unclear. The current study aimed to explore the following possibilities: different appraisals of task stressfulness and/or difficulty, diminished task effort, or reduced physiological capacity to respond. Individuals characterized, via pre-screening, as blunted (n=17) or exaggerated (n=16) heart rate (HR) reactors to acute psychological stress (socially evaluative mental arithmetic) were exposed to a psychological stress, cold pressor and exercise tasks during a follow-up testing session while HR and blood pressure (BP) were measured...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035782/wonoep-appraisal-biomarkers-of-epilepsy-associated-comorbidities
#12
REVIEW
Teresa Ravizza, Filiz Y Onat, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Antoine Depaulis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Andrey Mazarati, Adam L Numis, Raman Sankar, Alon Friedman
Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at the XIII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP) were to present the state-of-the-art recent research findings in the field that highlighting potential biomarkers for comorbidities in epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032303/neural-circuitry-of-emotion-regulation-effects-of-appraisal-attention-and-cortisol-administration
#13
Sean T Ma, James L Abelson, Go Okada, Stephan F Taylor, Israel Liberzon
Psychosocial well-being requires effective regulation of emotional responding in context of threat or stress. Neuroimaging studies have focused on instructed, volitional regulation (e.g., reappraisal or distancing), largely ignoring implicit regulation that does not involve purposeful effort to alter emotional experience. These implicit processes may or may not involve the same neural pathways as explicit regulatory strategies. We examined the neurobiology of implicit emotional regulation processes and the impact of the stress hormone cortisol on these processes...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019726/examining-the-relationships-between-challenge-and-threat-cognitive-appraisals-and-coaching-behaviours-in-football-coaches
#14
Martin Dixon, Martin J Turner, Jamie Gillman
Previous research demonstrates that sports coaching is a stressful activity. This article investigates coaches' challenge and threat cognitive appraisals of stressful situations and their impact on coaching behaviour, using Blascovich and Mendes' (2000) biopsychosocial model as a theoretical framework. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilised to examine the relationships between irrational beliefs (Shortened general attitude and belief scale), challenge and threat appraisals (Appraisal of life events scale), and coaching behaviours (Leadership scale for sports) of 105 professional football academy coaches...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012351/the-association-between-mental-health-problems-and-menstrual-cycle-irregularity-among-adolescent-korean-girls
#15
Mi Yu, Kyungdo Han, Ga Eun Nam
BACKGROUND: Menstrual cycle irregularity is common among adolescents and can induce mental health problems such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We examined the association between mental health problems and menstrual cycle irregularity among adolescent Korean girls. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study was on 808 female adolescents (12-18 years of age) participating in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002691/the-silorane-based-resin-composites-a-review
#16
G A Maghaireh, N A Taha, H Alzraikat
This article aims to review the research done on the silorane-based resin composites (SBRC) regarding polymerization shrinkage and contraction stresses and their ability to improve the shortcomings of the methacrylate-based resin composites (MRBC). Special attention is given to their physical and mechanical properties, bond strength, marginal adaptation, and cusp deflection. The clinical significance of this material is critically appraised with a focus on the ability of SBRC to strengthen the tooth structure as a direct restorative material...
January 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996059/the-effect-of-perceived-stress-on-life-satisfaction-the-mediating-effect-of-self-efficacy
#17
Jieun Lee, EunYoung Kim, Amy Wachholtz
Lazarus and Folkman's theory of cognitive appraisal of coping inspired the present study to test a mediation model examining the effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction. A total of 282 Korean undergraduate students participated in the present study. Perceived Stress Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Self Efficacy Scale were used for this study. A series of hierarchical regressions investigated the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction...
October 2016: Chongsonyonhak Yongu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992484/adaptive-appraisals-of-anxiety-moderate-the-association-between-cortisol-reactivity-and-performance-in-salary-negotiations
#18
Modupe Akinola, Ilona Fridman, Shira Mor, Michael W Morris, Alia J Crum
Prior research suggests that stress can be harmful in high-stakes contexts such as negotiations. However, few studies actually measure stress physiologically during negotiations, nor do studies offer interventions to combat the potential negative effects of heightened physiological responses in negotiation contexts. In the current research, we offer evidence that the negative effects of cortisol increases on negotiation performance can be reduced through a reappraisal of anxiety manipulation. We experimentally induced adaptive appraisals by randomly assigning 97 male and female participants to receive either instructions to appraise their anxiety as beneficial to the negotiation or no specific instructions on how to appraise the situation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991602/perceptions-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-coping-predict-emotional-distress-during-the-acute-phase-after-transplantation
#19
Michael Baliousis, Michael Rennoldson, David L Dawson, Jayne Mills, Roshan das Nair
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test whether a widely used model of adjustment to illness, the self-regulatory model, explains the patterns of distress during acute hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). According to the model, perceptions of HSCT, coping, and coping appraisals are associated with distress.
. DESIGN: Longitudinal, correlational.
. SETTING: The Centre for Clinical Haematology at Nottingham City Hospital and the Department of Haematology at Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, both in the United Kingdom...
January 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987430/effects-of-the-cortisol-stress-response-on-the-psychotherapy-outcome-of-panic-disorder-patients
#20
Susann Wichmann, Clemens Kirschbaum, Thomas Lorenz, Katja Petrowski
BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with panic disorder (PD) fail to show a remission after psychotherapy. Biological correlates of psychotherapy non-response have rarely been described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to research the relationship between the cortisol stress response and the psychotherapy outcome in PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight PD patients (20 females, mean age±SD: 35.71±13.18) seeking psychological treatment for PD and n=32 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants (21 females, aged 34...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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