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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330217/a-systematic-review-of-network-meta-analyses-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-common-mental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
QUESTION: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatment efficacy across different pharmacological treatments help inform clinical decision-making, but their methodological quality may vary a lot depending also on the quality of the included primary studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological treatment for common mental disorders in order to assess the methodological quality of these NMAs, and to relate study characteristics to the rankings of efficacy and tolerability...
January 12, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326181/what-are-the-sources-of-stress-and-distress-for-general-practitioners-working-in-england-a-qualitative-study
#2
Ruth Riley, Johanna Spiers, Marta Buszewicz, Anna Kathryn Taylor, Gail Thornton, Carolyn Anne Chew-Graham
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports the sources of stress and distress experienced by general practitioners (GP) as part of a wider study exploring the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burnout among this medical population. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V.11 to facilitate data management. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis employing the constant comparative method...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298690/ambient-air-pollution-and-thrombosis
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Robertson, Mark R Miller
Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity...
January 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294766/cumulative-trauma-and-adjustment-in-women-exposed-to-a-campus-shooting-examining-the-role-of-appraisals-and-social-support
#4
Derrecka M Boykin, Qweandria T Dunn, Holly K Orcutt
Experiencing repeated trauma can have increasingly detrimental effects on psychosocial functioning after subsequent stressors. These effects may be intensified for victims of interpersonal traumas given that these events are often associated with heightened risk for adverse outcomes. To better understand this relationship, the present study prospectively examined the effect of pre-shooting trauma exposure (i.e., interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal trauma) on psychological functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression) following a mass campus shooting...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288491/risk-factors-and-peripheral-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#5
L Belbasis, C A Köhler, N Stefanis, B Stubbs, J van Os, E Vieta, M V Seeman, C Arango, A F Carvalho, E Evangelou
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically appraise the meta-analyses of observational studies on risk factors and peripheral biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: We conducted an umbrella review to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies that examined associations between non-genetic risk factors and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. For each eligible meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size estimate, its 95% confidence and prediction intervals and the I2 metric...
December 30, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283603/incivility-and-employee-performance-citizenship-and-counterproductive-behaviors-implications-of-the-social-context
#6
Changguo Mao, Chu-Hsiang Chang, Russell E Johnson, Jianmin Sun
Drawing from the transactional model of stress, we examined how the social context moderates employees' behavioral responses to workplace incivility. On the basis of data from 384 employees nested in 41 groups, we observed a 3-way, cross-level interaction between individually experienced incivility, group incivility differentiation, and group silence predicting supervisor-rated employee performance, citizenship, and counterproductive behaviors. Specifically, employees' own incivility experiences predicted lower performance and citizenship behavior and higher counterproductive behavior in groups where members received highly different incivility treatment and kept silent...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281686/personal-relative-deprivation-associated-with-functional-disorders-via-stress-an-examination-of-fibromyalgia-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#7
Shadi Beshai, Sanju Mishra, Sandeep Mishra, R Nicholas Carleton
BACKGROUND: Personal relative deprivation is a negative social comparison process typified by self-comparison, negative appraisal, and resultant negative emotionality. Personal relative deprivation has been associated with poorer physical and mental health in several domains. It has been hypothesized that the deprivation-health link operates through a stress pathway. Stress has been specifically implicated in the onset and maintenance of functional disorders, including fibromyalgia and functional gastrointestinal disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278022/recurrent-aphthous-ulceration-a-review-of-potential-causes-and-novel-treatments
#8
Sami Kameel Saikaly, Tanya Siham Saikaly, Lara Elizabeth Saikaly
Purpose of Article: This review examines studies published between May 2012 and May 2017 with a specific interest in potential recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) etiologies and treatment modalities/efficacy, including topical treatments, systemic regimens, vitamin repletion, and laser therapy, among others. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using various combinations of: 'aphthous', 'ulcer', and 'treatment'. The titles and abstracts from the initial literature search were appraised to identify articles for full review, and reference sections from each article were searched manually for relevant publications...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277940/psychophysical-well-being-profiles-in-patients-before-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Aleksandra Kroemeke, Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska, Małgorzata Sobczyk-Kruszelnicka
OBJECTIVES: The literature offers very few in-depth reports on the time directly before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Also, researchers have focused on selected aspects of psychophysical well-being and treated the sample as homogeneous. Thus, we chose to investigate distinct multidimensional well-being profiles (including anxiety, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life [HRQOL] domains) among patients just before HSCT, as well as profile predictors (generalized self-efficacy) and outcomes (transplant appraisal) based on the transactional stress model...
December 26, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275862/racial-ethnic-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-mexican-origin-youths-and-their-parents-testing-the-linked-lives-hypothesis
#10
Irene J K Park, Han Du, Lijuan Wang, David R Williams, Margarita Alegría
PURPOSE: Using a life course perspective, the present study tested the concept of "linked lives" applied to the problem of not only how racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with poor mental health for the target of discrimination but also how discrimination may exacerbate the discrimination-distress link for others in the target's social network-in this case, the family. METHODS: The discrimination-distress link was investigated among 269 Mexican-origin adolescents and their parents both cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275208/phenological-application-of-selenium-differentially-improves-growth-oxidative-defense-and-ion-homeostasis-in-maize-under-salinity-stress
#11
Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Ali Akbar, Abida Parveen, Rizwan Rasheed, Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Iqbal
The underlying mechanism of selenium (Se) mediating plant salt tolerance is not well understood and information on how plant growth and development is regulated by phenological Se application (20 and 40 mg/L) under salinity stress is scarce. In present study, we have appraised the impact of phenological Se application on growth, antioxidant defense system and ionic imbalance in maize under salinity. Salinity (12 dS m-1) reduced growth, concentration of chlorophyll and K+ in root and leaf. Contrarily, salinity increased toxic Na+, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 concentration that resulted in oxidative damage...
December 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273444/terminal-addition-in-a-cellular-world
#12
REVIEW
J S Torday, William B Miller
Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental biophysical stresses and epigenetic impacts...
December 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260926/psychometric-evaluation-of-turkish-version-of-the-perceived-stress-scale-with-turkish-college-students
#13
Cahit Kaya, Timothy N Tansey, Macid Melekoglu, Orhan Cakiroglu, Fong Chan
BACKGROUND: The Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (T-PSS-10) measures the extent to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement structure of T-PSS-10. METHOD: Two-hundred and thirty-five Turkish university students (93 men and 142 women) completed the T-PSS-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), and the Inventory of Common Problems (ICP)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246221/the-determinants-and-consequences-of-adult-nursing-staff-turnover-a-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#14
Mary Halter, Olga Boiko, Ferruccio Pelone, Carole Beighton, Ruth Harris, Julia Gale, Stephen Gourlay, Vari Drennan
BACKGROUND: Nurses leaving their jobs and the profession are an issue of international concern, with supply-demand gaps for nurses reported to be widening. There is a large body of existing literature, much of which is already in review form. In order to advance the usefulness of the literature for nurse and human resource managers, we undertook an overview (review of systematic reviews). The aim of the overview was to identify high quality evidence of the determinants and consequences of turnover in adult nursing...
December 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246085/development-of-the-family-stigma-stress-scale-fsss-for-detecting-stigma-stress-in-caregivers-of-people-with-mental-illness
#15
Chih-Cheng Chang, Jian-An Su, Kun-Chia Chang, Chung-Ying Lin, Mirja Koschorke, Nicolas Rüsch, Graham Thornicroft
People with mental illness and their family caregivers often perceive public stigma, which may lead to stigma-related stress (or stigma stress). However, no instruments have been developed to measure this stress for family caregivers of people with mental illness. We modified an instrument that measures the stigma stress of people with mental illness (i.e., the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor) and examined the psychometric properties of the scores of the newly developed instrument: the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS)...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240874/wheat-genetic-resources-in-the-post-genomics-era-promise-and-challenges
#16
Awais Rasheed, Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi, Francis Chuks Ogbonnaya, Zhonghu He, Sanjaya Rajaram
Background: Wheat genetic resources have been used for genetic improvement since 1876, when Stephen Wilson (Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 12: 286) consciously made the first wide hybrid involving wheat and rye in Scotland. Wide crossing continued with sporadic attempts in the first half of 19th century and became a sophisticated scientific discipline during the last few decades with considerable impact in farmers' fields. However, a large diversity of untapped genetic resources could contribute in meeting future wheat production challenges...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#17
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223783/prior-stress-promotes-the-generalization-of-contextual-fear-memories-involvement-of-the-gabaergic-signaling-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex
#18
C L Bender, A Otamendi, G D Calfa, V A Molina
Fear generalization occurs when a response, previously acquired with a threatening stimulus, is transferred to a similar one. However, it could be maladaptive when stimuli that do not represent a real threat are appraised as dangerous, which is a hallmark of several anxiety disorders. Stress exposure is a major risk factor for the occurrence of anxiety disorders and it is well established that it influences different phases of fear memory; nevertheless, its impact on the generalization of contextual fear memories has been less studied...
December 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220681/experience-of-caregiving-and-coping-strategies-in-caregivers-of-adolescents-with-an-eating-disorder-a-comparative-study
#19
Melissa Parks, Dimitra Anastasiadou, Julio César Sánchez, Montserrat Graell, Ana R Sepulveda
Caring for a relative with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with heightened psychological distress, which, according to a stress-coping model, may be influenced by coping and appraisal. However, limited quantitative studies have assessed coping in ED caregivers. This cross-sectional study aims to assess 1) the differences in coping between caregivers of three groups: patients with an ED, patients with a substance use disorder, and healthy teens, and 2) the patient and caregiver variables associated with coping and appraisal of the caregiving experience...
November 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220086/zinc-against-advanced-glycation-end-products
#20
REVIEW
Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh, Vahid Maleki
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are destructive compounds with pathogenic importance in age-related chronic diseases. Zinc has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic potential. This study was aimed to summarize effects of zinc on AGEs formation and AGEs induced damaging agents. Pubmed, Google scholar, Web of Sciences, and Scopus databases were searched. There was no limitation for publication date. English language original articles (in vitro, experimental and human studies) which examined the effect of external zinc on AGEs formation, AGEs- induced apoptosis, or oxidative stress in mammals were included...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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