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stress appraisal

Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jolanda van Dijke, Inge van Nistelrooij, Pien Bos, Joachim Duyndam
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a contested concept in the field of care ethics. According to its proponents, empathy is a unique way to connect with others, to understand what is at stake for them, and to help guide moral deliberation. According to its critics, empathy is biased, inaccurate or a form of projection that does not truly grasp and respect the otherness of the other, and that may be distorted by prejudices. OBJECTIVES: We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of empathy in care ethics by reviewing both the functions and limitations of empathy in this field...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Alessandro Bosco, Justine Schneider, Donna Maria Coleston-Shields, Lidia Sousa, Martin Orrell
OBJECTIVES: Good interaction with family caregivers helps maintain positive identity in people with dementia. However, research in this area is limited. We aimed to systematically review the dyadic experience of dementia caring. METHOD: We searched on five databases: MedLine, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, and CINAHL. Eligible studies employed qualitative or mixed method design, reported the experience of dyads of dementia with no comorbid organic or psychiatric disorders...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Matheus Roque, Sandro C Esteves
Varicocele, the leading cause of male infertility, can impair sperm quality and fertility via various oxidative stress mechanisms. An imbalance between excessive reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant protection causes alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial sperm DNA, thus rendering a subset of varicocele men less fertile. In particular, sperm DNA fragmentation is usually elevated in men with clinical varicocele in both abnormal and normal semen parameters by the current World Health Organization criteria...
March 14, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange
OBJECTIVES: To (a) characterize a sample of post-9/11 caregivers providing help to service members and veterans (SMV) following traumatic brain injury (TBI), (b) examine the level of support provided, and (c) determine caregiver health and well-being outcomes. SETTING: Military treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers (N = 278) of SMVs who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI (96.0% female; 86.0% spouse/partner; age: M = 38...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Sung Hae Kim, Yoona Choi, Ji-Hye Lee, Da-El Jang, Sanghee Kim
Background: The prevalence of chronic diseases has been rapidly increased due to population aging. As the duration of care needs increase, the caregivers' socioeconomic burdens have also increased. Objective: This review examines the attributes of caregiving experience and quality of life of caregivers in Korea with a focus on the application of nursing theory. Method: We reviewed studies on caregivers' caring for adult patients published till 2016 in 4 bio-medical research portal websites or data bases...
2018: Open Nursing Journal
Ann Krispenz, Oliver Dickhäuser
Background and Objectives: Test anxiety can have undesirable consequences for learning and academic achievement. The control-value theory of achievement emotions assumes that test anxiety is experienced if a student appraises an achievement situation as important (value appraisal), but feels that the situation and its outcome are not fully under his or her control (control appraisal). Accordingly, modification of cognitive appraisals is assumed to reduce test anxiety. One method aiming at the modification of appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yi-Jen Su, Sue-Huei Chen
Based on emotional processing theory, preexisting negative cognitions may contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The present study prospectively examined the association between preexisting PTSD-related cognitions and subsequent acute PTSD symptoms, and the potential mediators of this association. We also compared the effect of preexisting depressive cognitions and preexisting PTSD-related cognitions on PTSD symptoms. In the current study, 810 Taiwanese undergraduates completed a baseline survey (T1), of which 73...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Meinald T Thielsch, Carolin Thielsch
Background: Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience...
2018: PeerJ
Sarah Oerther, Rebecca Lorenz
Telomere biology shows promise as an integrative biomarker of exposures and increased occurrence of chronic disease and early mortality. This integrative review examined the state of the science regarding toxicokinetic risks and maternal factors in humans and in vivo models that are correlated with telomere length during the first 1,000 days of life. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework assisted in guiding this integrative by aiding researchers in identifying, selecting, and critically appraising the literature...
March 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Mashfiqui Rabbi, Meredith Philyaw-Kotov, Jinseok Lee, Anthony Mansour, Laura Dent, Xiaolei Wang, Rebecca Cunningham, Erin Bonar, Inbal Nahum-Shani, Predrag Klasnja, Maureen Walton, Susan Murphy
Despite the recent progress in sensor technologies, many relevant health data can be only captured with manual input (e.g., food intake, stress appraisal, subjective emotion, substance use). A common problem of manual logging is that users often disengage within a short time because of high burden. In this work, we propose SARA, a novel app to engage users with ongoing tracking using timely rewards thereby reinforcing users for data input. SARA is developed for adolescents and emerging adults at risk for substance abuse...
September 2017: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
Carmen W H Chan, Bernard M H Law, Yun-Hong Liu, Alexandra R B Ambrocio, Natasha Au, Melody Jiang, Ka Ming Chow
Eczema is a chronic atopic disease that is highly prevalent among children worldwide. Identification of factors that may contribute to childhood eczema is needed in order to develop strategies in its prevention. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested a potential correlation between the experience of stress by mothers and the risk of eczema development in their child. The present review attempts to provide an overview of the studies that contribute data on this correlation. The literature search was conducted using five databases, resulting in the inclusion of eleven studies in the review...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Richard C Cervantes, Karina A Gattamorta, Jodi Berger-Cardoso
Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Hye-Geum Kim, Eun-Jin Cheon, Dai-Seg Bai, Young Hwan Lee, Bon-Hoon Koo
Objective: Physical or mental imbalance caused by harmful stimuli can induce stress to maintain homeostasis. During chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system is hyperactivated, causing physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. At present, there is no accepted standard for stress evaluation. This review aimed to survey studies providing a rationale for selecting heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychological stress indicator. Methods: Term searches in the Web of Science®, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases yielded 37 publications meeting our criteria...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Zachary L Fragoso, Alyssa K McGonagle
Chronic pain is both prevalent and one of the leading causes of work-related disability. Somatic experiences of pain and pain interference with daily activities at work may lead to psychological distress and strain in workers. In accordance with the appraisal theory of stress, we proposed a model in which pain interference mid-workday predicts negative affect and end-of-workday emotional exhaustion in workers who interact with customers. Further, we proposed that pain interference predicts variance in negative affect and exhaustion beyond somatic experiences of pain, based on our theoretical proposition that pain interference represents a secondary stress appraisal...
February 27, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Gavin P Trotman, Sarah E Williams, Mary L Quinton, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten
BACKGROUND: The theory of challenge and threat states in athletes (TCTSA) proposes psychological antecedents will predict psychological and cardiovascular responses to stress. The present study investigated this theory in two contextually different stress tasks. METHOD: 78 males completed a computerised competition and a public speaking task. Cardiovascular activity was measured with impedance cardiography and a blood pressure monitor. Challenge and threat antecedents, indicators of challenge and threat and emotions were assessed pre- and post-tasks...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Cheryl A Anderson, John P Connolly
An organizing framework for understanding adolescent birth stress in immediate postpartum does not exist. Researchers evaluated adolescent birth stress within 72 hours postpartum via a modification of Slade's conceptual model of risk factors for posttraumatic stress (PTS). Birth stress was defined by negative birth appraisal and subjective distress. Precipitating factors pain management, partner presence, and delivery type, plus maintaining factor infant complications, predicted negative birth appraisal. Predisposing factors depression and prior trauma predicted subjective distress...
February 22, 2018: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Raymond A B van der Wal, Jacqueline Wallage, Martin J L Bucx
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing awareness of the problem of occupational stress and burnout among anesthesiologists. Occupational stress was found to be related to burnout, a process that is supposed to be moderated by personality. This article will discuss the topic of stress and burnout in relationship to anesthesiologists' personality based on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies among anesthesiologists are in concordance with the broader body of literature on this topic...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Stella Mihailova, Laura Jobson
The study investigated several associations between depression and intrusive negative autobiographical memories. A systematic literature search identified 23 eligible studies (N = 2,582), which provided 59 effect sizes. Separate meta-analyses indicated that depression was moderately, positively associated with intrusive memory frequency, memory distress, maladaptive memory appraisals, memory avoidance, and memory rumination. Intrusive memory vividness was not significantly associated with depression. There were insufficient data to examine the relationship between depression and memory vantage perspective...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
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